SSUSH 11 12 web_version

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Big Business, Rail Roads, Great Plains, & Labor Unions

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  • 01/25/12 United States Steel Corporation, 1901 Andrew Carnegie Merged two or more companies involved in different production phases of the same good or service Combined companies that owned ore deposits, iron mines, steel mills, railroads, and shipping lines Today = USX 10 % of all US manufactured steel
  • 01/25/12 Standard Oil John D. Rockefeller Merged two or more companies producing the same good or service “ oil refining” Later broken up as a “trust”
  • United States Steel Corporation, 1901 Andrew Carnegie Merged two or more companies involved in different production phases of the same good or service Combined companies that owned ore deposits, iron mines, steel mills, railroads, and shipping lines Today = USX 10 % of all US manufactured steel
  • Cash register, stock ticker, typewriter, refrigerator car, electric railway 1876 Alexander Graham Bell – telephone
  • SSUSH 11 12 web_version

    1. 1. C- Describe the growth of the western population and its impact on Native Americans with reference to Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee. SSUSH12 The student will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.
    2. 2. Migration West <ul><li>Exodusters – African Americans migrating to Kansas after Reconstruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Homestead Act of 1862 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>160 acres – live on it 5 years, put up 12 x 14 structure – pay a $10 filing fee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half a million families settled building sod homes </li></ul></ul>Objective 7
    3. 3. Buffalo <ul><li>Buffalo hunted by whites for sport, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by railroads to clear track (Buffalo Bill), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by eastern hunters for skins used for leather industrial belts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by military to ruin Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Being decimated destroyed Indians who used them for everything </li></ul>
    4. 4. Buffalo Soldiers <ul><li>1866 Congress est. Black Cavalry </li></ul><ul><li>Watched forts, mapped areas, worked with telegraph lines, protected railroad crews, fought Indians, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>$13/mo </li></ul>
    5. 5. Cattle <ul><li>Railroads made shipping cattle easy </li></ul><ul><li>Long Drive – cowboys herd cattle to RR terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Dodge City, Abilene, and Cheyenne big stops </li></ul><ul><li>Ranchers on path put up barbed wire – invented by Joseph Glidden - </li></ul>
    6. 6. 1860-1890
    7. 7. Sand Creek 1864 <ul><li>Col. Chivington massacred nearly 400 Indians who had been promised safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>was court-martialed </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Little Big Horn <ul><li>General Custer and 7 th Cavalry invade Sioux Tribe. </li></ul><ul><li>Sioux number 7,000; Cavalry 700 </li></ul><ul><li>The Sioux are led by Sitting Bull , they kill all of Custer’s men. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Battle of Wounded Knee <ul><li>Last battle between Whites and Indians – begun accidentally -Whites won </li></ul><ul><li>As a result Native Americans were moved to new Reservations. </li></ul>
    10. 10. End of Trail <ul><li>White missionaries would force Indians to convert to Christianity; outlawing both the Sun Dance and Ghost Dance </li></ul><ul><li>Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dissolved legal entities of all tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>set up land for Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>citizenship for Native Americans after 25 years </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Carlisle Indian School in 1879 – trying to teach Indians to live like Whites ( Assimilation ) </li></ul>
    12. 12. How the West was settled - review <ul><li>Land – especially for poor and black people </li></ul><ul><li>Indians subdued </li></ul><ul><li>Hunt buffalo </li></ul><ul><li>Gold discovered in Black Hills </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle ranching made easier </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad made everything easier </li></ul><ul><li>Homestead Act </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers grow wheat </li></ul>
    13. 13. B- Describe the impact of the railroads in the development of the West; include the transcontinental railroad, and the use of Chinese labor. SSUSH11 The student will describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction.
    14. 14. Second Industrial Revolution <ul><li>Mid-19 th century in US and Germany </li></ul><ul><li>New inventions </li></ul><ul><li>Changed economy and society into urban-industrial form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. national transportation and communication networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. electric power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. use of scientific research in industrial processes </li></ul></ul>Objective 2
    15. 15. Iron Horse <ul><li>Railroad production was increased after the Civil War– (35,000 miles in 1865 to 192, 556 miles in 1900) </li></ul><ul><li>Congress gave land to RR companies for construction of railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Towns along the Railroad lines grew at record pace </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Westinghouse air brake, </li></ul><ul><li>Pullman Palace Cars, </li></ul><ul><li>telegraphs, etc. improved </li></ul><ul><li>travel </li></ul><ul><li>United nation, created jobs, stimulated mining and agriculture, settled Plains, made millionaire class </li></ul><ul><li>Time zones in 1883 to clarify schedules </li></ul>
    17. 18. Transcontinental RR <ul><li>1862 Congress got Union Pacific RR started in Omaha & went west – corrupt – used Irish immigrants and (eventually) Civil War Veterans </li></ul><ul><li>Central Pacific RR began in California and headed east –used Chinese workers – slower work </li></ul><ul><li>Lines met in 1869 at </li></ul><ul><li>Promontory Pt., UT </li></ul><ul><li>golden spike - </li></ul>
    18. 19. Other rail lines <ul><li>Northern Pacific – Lake Superior to Puget Sound – 1883 </li></ul><ul><li>Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe – SW 1884 </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Pacific – NO to SF – 1884 </li></ul><ul><li>Great Northern – Duluth to Seattle </li></ul>
    19. 20. Mail-order catalogs <ul><li>Montgomery Ward – traveling salesman </li></ul><ul><li>– began to use catalogs in 1870s </li></ul><ul><li>Sears, Roebuck and Company – 1890s – 786 pages </li></ul><ul><li>Groceries, drugs, tools, bells, furniture, iceboxes, stoves, household utensils, musical instruments, farm implements, boot and shoes, clothes, books and sporting goods </li></ul><ul><li>By 1900, 6 m distributed – second most read book </li></ul>
    20. 21. A- Explain the impact of the railroads on other industries, such as steel, and on the organization of big business. SSUSH11 The student will describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction.
    21. 22. C- Identify John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and monopolies SSUSH11 The student will describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction.
    22. 23. Cornelius Vanderbilt <ul><li>Railroad Tycoon </li></ul><ul><li>Extended the RR system by buying several small lines and making direct routes between major cities. </li></ul>Objectives 1 & 3
    23. 24. Corruption <ul><li>Stock watering – RR companies over inflated value of stock to sell at large profits </li></ul><ul><li>trusts –A grouping of several companies under a single board of directors. </li></ul>
    24. 25. Govt reaction to corruption <ul><li>Grange – organization/ political party formed by farmers to fight corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Wabash case – Supreme Court said states could not regulate interstate commerce – limited what states could do to stop Railroad corruption </li></ul>
    25. 26. Interstate Commerce Act1887 <ul><li>RR had to publish rates openly and had to give 14 days notice before changing rates </li></ul><ul><li>(Couldn’t discriminate against shippers) </li></ul><ul><li>(Couldn’t charge more for a short haul than a long haul) </li></ul><ul><li>First time Congress regulated a business for the help of the people </li></ul>
    26. 27. Sherman Anti-Trust Act <ul><li>1890 </li></ul><ul><li>Forbade combinations in restraint of trade (this meant monopolies ) </li></ul><ul><li>No distinction between good and bad trusts </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective because it couldn’t be enforced </li></ul>
    27. 28. Industrial giants: Rockefeller <ul><li>John D. Rockefeller – horizontal and vertical integration to create Standard Oil – forced competitors out of business – w/in 10 yrs, controlled 90-95% of oil refined in US </li></ul><ul><li>Interlocking directorates – Rockefeller put his own men on the board of directors for rival companies </li></ul><ul><li>Gave away > $500 million in his life </li></ul>
    28. 29. Vertical Integration <ul><li>Two or more companies involved in different production phases of the same good or service. </li></ul><ul><li>(Vertical integration is also known as a vertical merger ) </li></ul>Acme French Fry Co.
    29. 30. Horizontal Integration <ul><li>Two or more companies produce the same good or service. </li></ul><ul><li>(Horizontal integration is also known as a horizontal merger ) </li></ul>
    30. 31. Industrial giants: Carnegie <ul><li>Andrew Carnegie – vertical integration – own all steps in process – Carnegie Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Bessemer process made steel-making cheaper and more effective </li></ul><ul><li>By 1900, Carnegie producing ¼ of nation’s Bessemer steel and getting $25 m/yr </li></ul><ul><li>(“The man who dies rich dies disgraced” – donated $60m on libraries and $60m on higher education) </li></ul>
    31. 32. Industrial giants: Morgan <ul><li>J. Pierpont Morgan , who made a fortune with Edison Electric Illuminating Co. -bought Carnegie’s business for ~$500 million </li></ul><ul><li>By 1890s also controlled 1/6 of US railway system </li></ul><ul><li>Morgan began US Steel Corporation in 1901 – became first billion-dollar corporation </li></ul>
    32. 33. Transcontinental Railroad - review <ul><li>Central Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese workers </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Union Pacific </li></ul><ul><li><<<<<<<<<<<<<<< </li></ul><ul><li>Irish workers & Civil War Vets </li></ul>
    33. 34. Tycoons: review <ul><li>Vanderbilt – railroad </li></ul><ul><li>Rockefeller – Standard Oil –trusts </li></ul><ul><li>Carnegie – Carnegie Steel </li></ul><ul><li>J.P. Morgan – U.S. Steel Corporation </li></ul>
    34. 35. Laws: review <ul><li>Wabash case – states can’t stop railroad </li></ul><ul><li>Interstate Commerce Act – first regulation of business for the people </li></ul><ul><li>Sherman Anti-Trust Act – no trusts – didn’t work </li></ul>
    35. 36. D- Describe the inventions of Thomas Edison; include the electric light bulb, motion pictures, and the phonograph, and their impact on American life SSUSH11 The student will describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction.
    36. 37. Inventions <ul><li>Thomas Edison – light bulb, phonograph, storage battery, mimeograph, motion picture, etc. </li></ul>Objective 4
    37. 38. A – Describe Ellis Island, the change in immigrants’ origins to southern and eastern Europe and the impact of this change on Urban America. SSUSH12 The student will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.
    38. 39. New Immigration <ul><li>Before 1880s: British Isles and Western Europe– literate – use to representative govt </li></ul><ul><li>New : Baltic and Slavic people of SE Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Came for more room, jobs, food, freedom, opportunity – fled famine, cholera, racial, religious or political persecution </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to retain culture, customs, and traditions </li></ul>Objective 5
    39. 40. New immigration, cont <ul><li>New immigrants were Catholic or Jewish </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and language obviously different </li></ul><ul><li>Easily discriminated against </li></ul>
    40. 41. Ellis Island <ul><li>1892 Ellis Island opened NEAR Statue of Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>1907 busiest year with > 1m new arrivals </li></ul><ul><li>Easily exploited upon arrival </li></ul>
    41. 42. Reaction to New Immigration <ul><li>Often helped by political bosses who gave jobs and shelter in return for votes </li></ul><ul><li>“ Social Gospel”—people insisting that churches help </li></ul>
    42. 43. Nativism <ul><li>“ native” Americans blamed immigrants for corruption in urban government </li></ul><ul><li>Trade unions blamed them for low wages and bringing in doctrines like socialism and communism </li></ul><ul><li>American Protective Association (APA) – worked against immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed law in 1882 restricting paupers, criminals, convicts and Chinese – tried to pass literacy tests – not successful until 1917 </li></ul>
    43. 44. Chinese immigrants <ul><li>1880, 75,000 in CA = 1/9 of pop </li></ul><ul><li>Resented b/c accepted lower wages </li></ul><ul><li>1882 Cong authorized 10-year suspension of Chinese immigration – aka Chinese Exclusion Act – renewed until 1934 </li></ul>
    44. 45. B- Identify the American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers. SSUSH12 The student will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.
    45. 46. Labor conditions <ul><li>Real wages dropping - ave 59 hr week </li></ul><ul><li>Child labor widespread – 1880 1/6 children working full time </li></ul><ul><li>Southern cotton mills, ¼ under 15 – some began at 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Few states had laws requiring children be 12, but not enforced </li></ul>Objective 6
    46. 47. Railroad Strike of 1877 <ul><li>Wage cuts started walk out which led to mob who damaged rr property </li></ul><ul><li>Spread across US </li></ul><ul><li>Violence and property damage </li></ul><ul><li>Local militia often joined strikers </li></ul><ul><li>Federal troops called in and strike dissolved </li></ul>
    47. 48. Unions <ul><li>Hard to make improvements in work b/c immigrant labor readily available to replace strikers </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations could also get courts to order strikers to stop, bring in troops – used lockouts , force workers to sign “ ironclad oaths ” or “ yellow dog contracts” banning them from joining unions </li></ul><ul><li>Workers could be blacklisted </li></ul><ul><li>Gospel of Wealth – owners had worked to get to top and workers could do that if they tried </li></ul>
    48. 49. Unions <ul><li>National Labor Union – 1866 – had 600,000 members 6 years – achievements: helped get Congress to pay 8hr workday and repeal Contract Labor Act which let owners “buy” immigrant workers by paying passage here </li></ul>
    49. 50. Unions, con’t <ul><li>Knights of Labor – 1869 – barred liquor dealers, gamblers, lawyers, bankers and stockbrokers only – worked for econ and social reform – led by Terence V. Powderly – got almost a million members </li></ul>
    50. 51. Haymarket Square <ul><li>80,000 in Chicago alone – there were also some anarchists </li></ul><ul><li>May 4, 1886 Chicago police go to a meeting called to protest brutalities by authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamite bomb thrown in and several people killed or wounded </li></ul><ul><li>5 anarchists sentenced to death for conspiracy – could prove only preached doctrines </li></ul><ul><li>Hurt Knights of Labor b/c forever assoc with anarchists </li></ul>
    51. 52. Haymarket Square Riot
    52. 53. American Federation of Labor <ul><li>1886 Samuel Gompers began it as a craft union </li></ul><ul><li>Several independent nat’l unions under AFL umbrella </li></ul><ul><li>Better wages, hours, working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled workers – only 3% of all workers – but had more than 23,000 strikes w/ over 6m workers costing $450 m </li></ul>
    53. 54. Homestead Strike <ul><li>Amalgamated Assoc of Iron and Steel Workers – </li></ul><ul><li>Homestead Works in Pittsburgh had good relationship with Carnegie until 1892 – Carnegie’s president, Henry Clay Frick cut workers and tried to ruin union </li></ul><ul><li>Frick brought lockout enforced by Pinkerton detectives – July 6, 1892 battle – Pinkertons lost </li></ul><ul><li>Strike broken and sympathy for strikers gone </li></ul>
    54. 55. D- Describe the 1894 Pullman Strike as an example of industrial unrest. SSUSH12 The student will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.
    55. 56. Pullman Strike 1894 <ul><li>Pullman, Illinois – made rail cars – town owned by George Pullman – rents and prices high </li></ul><ul><li>1893 depression and layoffs – cut wages but not prices – representatives came to talk with him, and he fired them </li></ul>
    56. 57. <ul><li>Strike on May 1, 1894 joined by American Railway Union led by Eugene V. Debs </li></ul>
    57. 58. <ul><li>Owners connected mail cars to Pullman cars to cause federal offense – Cleveland sent troops </li></ul><ul><li>Debs put in jail and strike ended </li></ul>
    58. 59. Socialism <ul><li>Debs left jail a Socialist – began Social Democratic Party – 1900 got 96,000 votes for president, 1904 >400,000, 1912 >900,000 =6% popular vote </li></ul><ul><li>Party seemed to be here to stay until WWI caused suspicion and party died out </li></ul>
    59. 60. Wobblies <ul><li>Industrial Workers of the World </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled and unskilled workers </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: ultimate destruction of state to be replaced by one big union </li></ul><ul><li>Reached out to migrant workers and ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Few successes and WWI ended it </li></ul>
    60. 61. Wobblies
    61. 62. Unions - review <ul><li>National Labor Union – 8 hour work day – can’t “buy” immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Knights of Labor – economic and social reform – Haymarket Square riot ruined them </li></ul><ul><li>AFL – American Federation of Labor – Gompers – skilled workers – umbrella union </li></ul><ul><li>Wobblies – skilled and unskilled – replace govt with unions </li></ul>
    62. 63. Riots: review <ul><li>Railroad Strike of 1877 – violent </li></ul><ul><li>Haymarket Square – anarchists throw dynamite – ruined Knights of Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Homestead – Carnegie Steel – battle between strikers and Pinkertons </li></ul><ul><li>Pullman Strike – town owned by Pullman – Eugene Debs – troops sent in </li></ul>

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