Plenary4 b trail


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Plenary4 b trail

  1. 1.<br />Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe: instruments and their effectiveness (EATWELL)<br />Professor W Bruce Traill<br />Head of Department of Food Economics and Marketing<br />The University of Reading<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />1. Brief outline of Eatwell<br />2. Nutrition policies in Europe<br />3. Evidence on evaluation approaches and policy effectiveness (limited)<br /><br />
  3. 3.<br />1. Background to Eatwell<br />An obesity ‘epidemic’ <br />Implications for health (€70b per year European health care costs)<br />Diet quality also matters (healthcare costs perhaps as great as obesity?)<br />Concern about the sustainability of health care systems<br />Economic productivity also suffers<br />Governments have recognised the scale of the problem and are anxious to reverse current trends<br />A desire that policy be ‘evidence-based’<br />
  4. 4. Objectives of Eatwell<br />Benchmark policy interventions and their evaluations in the EU<br />Undertake new evaluations using modern econometric techniques applied to secondary data on diets <br /> Assess lessons the public sector can learn from the private sector with respect to healthy eating promotion<br /><br />
  5. 5. Objectives (continued)<br />Assess public, private and stakeholder acceptance of alternative interventions<br />Recommend evaluation strategies<br />Develop proposals for effective and acceptable policy interventions<br /><br />
  6. 6.<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />. <br />
  8. 8. 2. Nutrition Policies in Europe<br /><br />
  9. 9. Benchmarking nutrition policies in Europe, their evaluation and identification of successes and failures<br />Policy interventions: any government action which can affect people’s healthy eating behaviour by <br />(a) supporting more informed choice; <br />(b) changing the market environment<br />Healthy eating: the adherence to the nutrition recommendations of WHO and eating to maintain healthy weight <br /><br />
  10. 10.<br />Method<br />Classification of policy types <br />Mapping of interventions (exhaustive in terms of policy types) through:<br />information services of governmental websites<br />general search in databases, journals, World Wide Web<br />direct consultation with policy makers and local public servants <br />previous reviews<br />
  11. 11.<br />Distribution of detected interventions by type of policy action.<br />
  12. 12. 3. Evaluation methods and policy effectiveness<br />Review of existing evaluations of detected policies through:<br />official evaluation documents <br />Where necessary supplemented by evidence from other countries and academic literature<br /><br />
  13. 13. Good Evaluation principles<br />the choice of an outcome variable should be consistent with the policy objective;<br />sampling and measurement strategy should guarantee representativeness of the data; <br />appropriate consideration should be given to confounding factors and specification of the counterfactual; <br />self-selection and other biases should be purged; and <br />Evaluation should go beyond average outcomes and capture disparities in population sub-groups.<br /><br />
  14. 14. Information measures<br /><br />
  15. 15.<br />
  16. 16. Conclusions<br />The evidence base needs further development! Evaluation of policies is uncommon and unsophisticated. <br />Information measures are necessary for informed choice, but have limited impact on diets (at least in the short run)<br />Changing the market environment has generally been avoided. It is probably more effective but may be considered ‘interventionist’<br /><br />
  17. 17. Thank you!<br />17<br />