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A spirulina development plan for diabal

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A spirulina development plan for diabal in Senegal …

A spirulina development plan for diabal in Senegal
Translation by Christelle ABAUTRET : abautret18@hotmail.com


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  • 1. PLAN FOR THE CREATION OF AN ACTIVITY FOR THE EXPANSION, THE PRODUCTION AND THE PROMOTION OF SPIRULINA A pool of spirulina in BakelA child in a state of malnutrition 1
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS1. ORGANIZATION UPON THE REQUEST ...................................................................................32. THE ORGANIZATION OVERVIEW.............................................................................................33. FRAMEWORK OF THE PLAN-THE LOCAL CONTEXT ............................................................34. THE MALNUTRITION .................................................................................................................45. THE SPIRULINA .........................................................................................................................56. THE FOOD TRADITIONS IN SENEGAL ..................................................................................107. THE ISSUES TO BE SOLVED..................................................................................................118. FINALITY...................................................................................................................................119. THE PURPOSES.......................................................................................................................1110. THE KEY ACTIONS ................................................................................................................1111. THE TARGETS .......................................................................................................................1112. STATE OF MALNUTRITION AND REQUIREMENTS IN SPIRULINA- THE SITUATION INDIABAL VILLAGE.........................................................................................................................1113. PROPOSITION........................................................................................................................1614. ACTIONS.................................................................................................................................1615. RESOURCES ..........................................................................................................................1616. TIMETABLE ............................................................................................................................1717. THE UNCONFIRMED PARTNERSHIP OF THE PLAN ..........................................................1718. COMMUNICATION PLAN.......................................................................................................1819. FINANCIAL PLAN FORECAST FOR THE FIRST YEAR OF RUNNING ...............................1920. ASSESSMENT ........................................................................................................................2021. PERMANENCE OF THE ACTION ..........................................................................................2022. THE OUTCOMES....................................................................................................................2023. APPENDIX ..............................................................................................................................21 2
  • 3. 1. Organization upon the requestAssociation pour le Developpement de Diabal- Sénégal (Organization for the expansion ofDiabal- Senegal)Mr M’BOUM MBAYE BABA1 Rue Jean Allemagne93110 Rosny Sous Bois - FranceTel : 0033668398639http://assodiabal.free.frE-mail : assodiabal@free.fr2. The organization overview The Organization for the expansion of Diabal (Association pour le Développement deDiabal) has been created to improve the way of living in relation with the Diabal populationsneeds. This organization set up many plans in relation with suppling the village with drinkingwater, the education of the young children, the health and the fight against starvation andmalnutrition, such as the creation of a farming cooperative and the development of the marketgardening in order to introduce fruits and vegetables in the diet, to prevent from some nutritionaldeficiencies and to provide food and nutritional supply. Diabal is a small village located alongside the Senegal river of around 1000 inhabitants. Itis managed by a villages leader who is responsible to the county of NDiawar and the area ofBakel. The main activities consist in the survival on a daily basis : a basic farming system « daba »style, a fishing system that is experiencing some difficulties because of the impoverishment in fishand the livestock farming. Its essentially during the rainy season called « hivernage » that the « Diery » farming styleis possible, in contrast with the « walo » farming one used when the level of the river is fallingdown. The workload is fairly shared out between men and women. Both of them take part in thesame stages of the production, processing and sales for the cereals and market gardeningproducts.3. Framework of the plan-The local context Diabal is a poor village that does not receive significant public grants. The population hasto organize on its own and people help each other to survive. By consequence, the need toimplement a farming cooperative in cooperation with the local residents was clearly defined. Thiswould help men and women to save on time, to devote themselves to others tasks, to save onenergy and money and buy farming equipment. The farming and market garden products thatneed to be developped are as follows. : cereals (peanuts, corn, mil, rice), vegetables (tomatoes,lettuce), fruits (passion fruits, bananas, mangos, guavas, coconuts), textile (cotton crop), livestockfarming (sheeps, cows, chickens, goats), milk. The running surface of the farm will reach 100 ha,divided as follows : ½ dedicated to the cereal crop, ¼ to the fruits and vegetables, ¼ to the thefarming. As the water supply and the health centre plans are overhttp://www.codev.gouv.sn/?Approvisionnement-en-eau-potable,59 , the economic developmentplans such as the creation of a farm, a henhouse and the production of spirulina are very relevant.Neverthless, we can notice a growing issue for the population to eat reasonably well, that meanswith all the nutriments required to grow up well and to be in a good health condition. Because weassist in a growing number of people in a state of malnutrition, we think that the development of aplan for the production of spirulina is relevant. Indeed, the Diabal area enjoys a strong sunshineperiod coupled with high temperatures and few rains (except during the rainy season); thoseconditions are good arguments to develop a plan for the spirulina production. 3
  • 4. 4. The malnutrition4.1 Definition : The malnutrition is a pathologic state due to a deficiency or an excess of one or morenutriments (vitamins, minerals and aminos acids).4.2the causes of malnutrition : An unusual dietary intake can come from a food taken in an inappropriate quantityaccording to the need ( insufficient or excessive calorie intakes) or in a poor quality (fat excess).Psychological and pathological reasons are the others explanations.4.3 The consequences of malnutrition : The malnutrition may cause rickets, growing backwardness, a deficiency in the cognitivefunctions, the weakenning of the immune system.The lack of iron and anaemia is responsible for the growing backwardness, the long-termdeficiency in the intellectual development, the decrease in the diseases resistences and theimpairment of the reproduction functions. The deficiency in vitamins A can cause the blindnessand the death. The deficiency in iodine is the main cause for the mental backwardness and theappearance of goitres. The impact is even more disatrous as the child is young because the organs, the bonetissue, the brain are developping during the two first years of the life.In the developping countries, the malnutrition causes obesity, diabete, high blood pressure...4.4 The malnutrition in the world : The malnutrition affects 2 billons people worldwide, according to the internationalorganizations for the fight against starvations sources. According to MSF, in 2009, one child died by malnutrition each 6 seconds, that means 5millions during the year. (see fig 4 and 5 in the appendix 22.1 + map). The malnutrition affectsessentially the population living near the Pacific Ocean and in Asia. ¼ of the people suffering frommalnutrition are coming from the Subsaharian Africa, in particular in the eastern, the southern andthe central parts of Africa. Each year, almost 30 millions children living in developing countries are born with growingtroubles due to a lack of food during their mothers pregnancy. In addition, the fight against malnutrition is one of the 8 targets of the millenium for theDevelopment (http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/facts_figures/mdgs_fr.shtml). The target is toreduce by half the number of people in a state of malnutrition between 1990 and 2015.2 The malnutrition is the death cause for almost 1/3 of the 8 millions children aged 5 yearsold or less. According to UNICEF, the malnutrition coupled with others diseases such as measles,paludism, diarrhoea, pneumonia) kills 13 millions children per year, that means 36000 per day and230 millions children are affected by malnutrition. 4.6 The malnutrition in Senegal:7 The malnutrition, and more specifically the rickets, reaches in Subsaharian Africa the rateof 43%, which is the most important one. If we notice an important drop in Senegal, the situationremains critical ; the malnutrition affects 25% of the population, the mortality rate for the children is66% per 1000 (Unicef, WHO) and the the rate of the children in a state of overweight is 14% (13%of the boys and 14% of the girls).Neverthless, if we did not notice any situation of starvation in the latest years, the locustsinvasions destroyed the cereals crops, the fish became rare because of the intensive fishing intothe territorial waters, which caused a growing increase in the states of malnutrition. 4
  • 5. To fight against this situation, it is important to highlight the wonderful job made by thefoundation « Education-Santé »(Education-Health) led by Mrs Viviane Wade.According to her, an industrial production would be necessary to fight against malnutrition in aneffective manner. Our plan is a part of a complementary process.Sources :0 http://www.feedingminds.org/info/background_fr.htm -http://youthink.banquemondiale.org/sujets/sante/quest-ce-que-la-malnutrition§1http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malnutrition2 http://www.msf.fr/?page=medical&section=4&cat=9&id=4&title=malnutrition§3 http://www.antenna.ch/malnutrition§§.html4 http://www.selfrance.org/index.php?id=315 http://collectifsdfalsace.20minutes-blogs.fr/archive/2007/12/17/france-la-malnutrition§-consequence-de-la-precarite.html Colloque « Nutrition et précarité » à Brest le 6 décembre 2007.6 http://www.rewmi.com/EXCLUSIF-MME-VIVIANE-WADE-PREMIERE-DAME-DU-SENEGAL-Par-le-travail-sortir-la-femme-de-la-pauvrete_a21359.html7 http://www.prb.org/FrenchContent/Articles/2008/StuntingSSAfrica.aspx(Lutte contre la malnutrition infantile en Afrique Subsaharienne)8 http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Progress_for_Children-No.9_EN_081710.pdf Page 529 http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS10_Full.pdf Fighting against malnutrition requires important means, taking into consideration thespecificities of each countries (culture, cooking traditions) but unfortunately the cultivable lands,the fish resources are not sufficient and the meat is not affordable to the affected people. So, it isinteresting to look into complementary food products that improves effectively the health and thecalorie intake in proteins and amino acids and that are cheap to produce. The spirulina is one ofthese complementary food products necessary to reduce the malnutrition worlwide.5. The spirulina 5.1 Definition of spirulina the spirulina (Cyanobactérie Arthrospira Platensis) is an alga found in the sixties in Chadcalled spirulina platensis and in Mexico called spirulina maxima. It already existed more than 3billions years ago and was born into the lakes and the ponds. The spirulina is known to be thericher nutritive element of the land. It is also an excellent beta carotene source, 10 to 15 timesmore than the quantity found into the carrots and a powerful antioxident that contributes to thediabete treatment, the nervous breakdown and the cancer. The spirulina gives an unbeatable proportion according to the surface, the water and theproteins : we need a surface of 1sqm and 2500 L of water to get 1kg of proteins when 200sqmand 100000 L of water is necessary to get 1kg of proteins of animal origin. Because everybodycan not eat meat in a sufficient quantity and the siprulina is the most nutritious food, it is usefuland relevant to consider the spirulina development as a solution to take part into the fight againstmalnutrition, especially in Africa. This will enable to fill in the deficiencies due to an unvaried andincomplete diet. For example, 2g per day administered during 6 to 8 weeks is enough for a child tobe recovering from a state of malnutrition. 5
  • 6. 5.2 The benefits of the spirulina the spirulina is useful to strenghten the immune system, to develop the muscular strenght,to eliminate the toxins, to stimulate the concentration, to reduce the stress, the tiredness and theanaemia. The involved population are the children, the pregnant women, the elderly people, thesportspeople and the ones experiencing a chronic disease. A spoonful of spirulina per day is enough to keep a child without food deficiency. The spirulina Platensis Spirulina is known, according to many studies, for its undeniableefficiency on the proteino-énergetic malnutritionand the deficiency in Vitamin A.http://www.institut-paul-ricard.org/Institut/Images/colloque_spirulina_tulear.pdf5.3 The composition of the spirulina5.4 The nutritional intakes of the spirulina Vitamins : A, E, D, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, B12, K, PP. Minerals and trace elements: calcium, phosphorus, magnésium, iron, zinc, cuivre,manganèse, chromium, sodium, potassium, selenium. The essential amino acids : all of them, such as : cystine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine,methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophane et valine. The essential fattty acids - omega 3 and 6 : linoleic acid, linoleic gamma, in particular theacid part called di homo linoleic gamma.The nutritional benefits of the spirulina : * Calorie content : 370 kcal / 1569 kJ * Glucids : 13 g * Proteins: 67 g * Lipids: 1,9 g * Fibers : 0,9 g The spirulina contains up to 70% of proteins compared to soya (35 %), meat (22 %), eggs(16 %); corn (9 %) : , minerals salts, trace elements and various vitamins. It contains 125 timesmore proteins than corn, 100 times more than beef meat and 250 times more than rice and itgives 45 times more iron than the spinach. The lipid rate in the spirulina is about 5 to 6% and 10g of spirulina contains 100mg ofcalcium, 160mg of potassium, 460mg of manganese, 28% of selenium,1mg of folic acid and 15mgof highly assimilated iron.5.5 The conditions for the production of spirulina5.5.1 The plot of landThe plot of land to welcome the spirulina farm must be flat, arranged far from the trees, the roadsbut closed to a water and power spring. 6
  • 7. 5.5.2 the weather The ideal weather to develop the spirulina is an air temperature between 20 and 35° C.Below 20° and above 35° the spirulina stops its development. However, the creation of a C C,greenhouse can keep the heat and protect the pools from the rains and the insects.The pools willbe exposed in the shade.5.5.3 The water The water that fills the pools can come from the rains or a river. The requirements are asfollows :. To get 1kg of proteins: 2498 litres of brackish water are necessary.. Optimum temperature : 25 to 38 ° C. pH: 8,5 - 11. Strong luminosity. CO2, N, S, K, P, Ca, Fe, Mg,.... Saltiness of the water 10g/litre5.5.4 The pools The pools of spirulina, in wood or in plastic made, will be exposed in the shade, arrangedfar from the trees, the roads and the contaminated environment. They have to reach 30 to 40 cmfrom the bottom and have curved angles. In addition, the bottom has to be flat with a thin slope tomake the emptying easier. The surface of the pool must be rigid, for example, made with cinder blocks or withbricks...). The pool will be covered by the branches of palm trees to protect it from the heat or inplastic made to protect it from the rain, the dust, the cold, the water evaporation and the insects (amosquito net can be added).5.5.5 The equipment required to produce spirulina :. PE fim for greenhouse-0.2mm thick ( for an extensive pool). Containers , « Tupperware » style ( to test the dampness and store the biomass). Bowls ( preferably white) and one with straight edges. Plastic bucket ( preferably a measuring and white one). Plastic broom. Measuring jar, in plastic made, of1 litre. Self adhesive labels. Filter papers, « Mellita N° coffee filters » sty le 4. Plastic funnel. Plastic spade with straight edges. Secchi. Salt packets for 8 litres of water in the pool. Water analysis kit « Merck » ( nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, calcium, hardness). Electronic scales 100 g (to 0,1 g) and 3 kg. Little plastic bowls for the weighing. Syringes, droppers. Sink bottom in plastic made for the press. Absorbent paper. Thermometer (0 - 100° ), densimeter (1000 - 1050 g/l) C. PHmeter awith a a spare electrode. pH 7 and 10 standard in capsules. Digital hydrometer. Spare batteries. Trickle 7
  • 8. . Compressor and pumps for fish tank. Empty-cellar pump. Plastic cans for the labo culture + a 40 watts bedside lamp. Flexible pipe of 4mm for air + T shape + valves. Flexible pipe of 10mm for pump. Watering pipe with disposable hosepipe nozzle. Programmer and multiplugs adaptor. Pocket size meter rule. Magnifying glass (x25) or microscope (x100). Artemias eggs and mini fish tank to test the toxicity. Filtering fabric of 30 µ in polyester. Fabric of 315 µ in polyester. Plastic grig for filtering containers. Extruder. Electric dryer or equipment to build a solar dryer (mosquito net, black plastic film, electric fan). Thermoscellables bags to pack up the spirulina. Repairing kit for plastic cover. Stalper and staples. Basic tools such as saw, screwdriver, hammer, scissors, nails, screws. Torch. Spirulina original cell 100% in spiral or wavy. Handbook about traditional farming ( floppy disk+book). Bicarbonate. Cooking salt. Urea. Soluble nitrate. Soluble phosphate. Magnésium sulfate. Potassium sulfate. Soluble calcium salt or lime. Trace-elements. Ferfol or Fetrilon (fchelate iron) or citric acid or lemon juice. Concentrated hydrochloric acid. Caustic soda or caustic potash or sodium carbonate. Drinking or filtered waterAnd the basic material .... Living spirulina flask. A covered pool of 4sqm with 2 polyethylene foils of 0.2mm, 4 semi-circular frames, 3 bars of 4m,planks or bricks for the building of low walls. An electrical mini pump, fish tank style, 220V, 5to 7W ( turbulence and harvest). 1 000 litres of a part of a pool (water, fertilizers, inorganic mineral salts according to the formula). Some basic measuring devices: a Secchi disk, pH foil, a thermometer. An equimpent for the harvest. An extruder and removable turntables dryer. A small air compressor, fish tank style (around. 5W)5.5.6 The management and the organization of the farm The management of a farm requires a good organization. It is necessary to keep up to datea data statement about the quantity and the quality of the cultures. Recruiting enough people tofollow the development of the spirulina culture is also essential; An instruction manual edited bythe organization « Antenna Techologies » is distributed and for their use. In addition, thisorganization will supply a software for the management of the quality control statements.. 8
  • 9. 5.5.7 How to produce spirulina? The Jourdan manual worker is a very useful support. The steps of a spirulina productionare the sowing, the harvest, the filtering, the pressing, the extrusion, the drying).5.5.7.1 The sowing Principle : In a pool, we make a sample of spirulina increase step by step. The sowingprocess should take a few weeks. Then, when the biomass is enough developped, we collect byfiltrating with a cloth wringed by pressure. Then, the product is dryed and packaged in differentways. The productivity can reach 4 to 5 g per day and by sqm and the reproduction rate canincrease by 20% per day. The sowing of a pool of 50sqm can take from 5 to 6 weeks from a sample of anaverage 3 L. When we get a crop of an average 18cm of thickness in the permanent pool, with anappropriate concentration (Secchi less than 3), we can start the harvest every day or every 2days. The pools are filled up to 18 or 20cm of drinkable water into which we add inputs in order tomaintain a suitable pH ( a basic one but less than 11) and to feed the crop. For that purpose, weusually use sodium bicarbonate and urea (or nitrates).The pool should be regulary waved by a paddle wheel, a brush, a landing net at least 4times per day.5.5.7.2 The harvest The harvest should preferably be done in the morning and the products should be takendirectly. When we get a crop of 18 cm of thickness in the permanent pool with a suitableconcentration (Secchi less than 3), we can start the harvest every day or every 2 days. Theharvest includes 5 steps : The filtering, the extration, the pressing, the extrusion and the drying.5.5.7.2.1 The filtering The filtering consists in using a fitering pocket of cloth in nylon or polyester of 40 micronsthat contains the crop. The sieve will hold back impurities while the bag will hold back the spirulinathat we will wring out by pressure.5.5.7.2.2 The pressing Once the pressing is done, the spirulina pocket is squashed to get the consistency of a« fromage frais ». Without preserving process, the spirulina should be quickly eaten. The pressscrew is a perfect tool to carry out this pressing process. Once squashed, the spirulina pastecontains 25% of dry materials.5.5.7.2.3 The extrusion the extrusion consists in forming with a «gun», «spaghettis» of spirulina divided up, forexample, on a plastic grid to make the drying easier.Note : the «gun» can be, for example, the tool which is used to decorate the cakes.5.5.7.2.4 The drying the plastic grids are arranged into a wire and ventilated store, sheltered from the direct lightand the insects.5.5.7.2.5 The packaging and the preservation Then the dryed « spaghettis » are grounded and crushed ( with a coffee mil or with thehand), packaged into little bags and stored into metallic boxes. Under these conditions, thepreservation lenght is an average of one year. 9
  • 10. 5.5.8 The recommendations required in relation with hygiene- Equipment must be in plastic- Gloves, masks and must be worn-The air must be filtered-The tools, the spirulina and the bags must be sterilized. Such precautions may appear out ofreach of the family and the traditional farmers but they must at least do their best to work ascleanly as they can. The hygiene level to respect is similar to the one required for the cooking andthe family or community dishes in the area.Some recommendations fo common sense to follow:-To check if spirulina does not remain into the nooks of the work tools after the cleaning (forexample, on the edges of filtrating frames or into the extruders.-To use white coloured ustensils (preferably)-To prevent the remains of spirulina from putting on contact with the fresh biomass-To prevent the ustensils from putting on contact with the ground or the cement that are germstraps- Do never touch dry spirulina with the fingers without wearing gloves to avoid the contaminationby staphylococcus aureus- To remove the rodents with the help of ultrasonic sound materials- To cover the containers that contains biomass to prevent it from getting soiled6. The food traditions in Senegal6.1 Introduction We can find everything in Senegal (meat, fish, fruits, vegetables ans statches) but notalways affordable for everyone and in a sufficient quantity.Th poorest families only take one mealper day in the afternoon or in the evening, The meal consists in one main course. The starter and the desseert dont exist and thebreakfast means a cup of coffee or tea with bread for the adults and baby cereals, «mil» based forthe children. The meat and the fish are grilled and the vegetables are stewed. Those same meals are taken whatever the social class.6.2 The food ceremonial There is few food ceremonial but the population does not use any individual plate.Everybody eats in the same dish with the right hand and takes the part of the dish put in front ofthem.6.3 The food in the Senegalese dietThe starches : the most common starches are the rice and the mil. The wheat is importedThe oil :Peanut oil is usedThe milk powder is importedThe Kub / Maggi : it is a seasonning product used to prepare saucesThe fruits :mangos, passion fuits, citrus fruits, bananas, guavas, the baobab fruitsThe vegetables : carrots, cabbage, potatoes, bitter aubergine (diakhate), manioc, tomatoes, garlic,onion, turnip, hot pepper, sorgho, gomboThe drinks : the mint tea, the bissap (the hibiscus flower), the coffee, fruits juices, the Bouy (drinkbased on the baobab fruit)The fishes : thiof (brown grouper), yété (nails). Very few shellfishThe meats : mutton, lamb, beef, chiken and goat are the most common6.4 Some examples of the meals prepared by the senegalese populationThié boudienne : grouper or dorade, yété (nails), vegetables (cabbage, carrots, pumpkins,aubergines, manioc), hot pepper, garlic, pepper, other spices, tomato puree, riceChicken «Yassa» : chicken, lime, garlic, onion, hot pepper, salt, pepper, peanut oil,mustard, rice 10
  • 11. Yassa with fish : same ingredients than the yassa with chicken but with fish instead of chickenMafé : onion, tomato puree, peanut batter, garlic, carrots, turnip, manioc, sweet potatos, meatstock, lamb, salt, pepper, others spices, riceMboum : couscous based on mil6.5 Introduction of the spirulina in the food traditionFresh or powder spirulina will be served in small quantity and should be added into the sauces,mixed up the spices...7. The issues to be solved How to reduce the recurrent states of malnutrition in the population? How to persuade thepopulation to develop the spirulina production as an activity that brings employments and profits?How to provide a state of food autonomy and nutritional security?8. Finality. The participation to the fight against malnutrition9. The purposes. To provide a food autonomy. To provide a nutritional security. To fight against malnutrition10. The key actions. To inform and increase the population awareness of the benefits and the nutritive quality of thespirulina. To train a team interested in the production of spirulina. To develop an activity of production of spirulina. To promote the actions and the results with regards to the production and the use of spirulina. To develop an activity that generates incomes for the population11. The targets. The children. The elderly. The pregnant women. The sick people12. State of malnutrition and requirements in spirulina- The situation in Diabal village12.1 Introduction The main factors of the states of malnutrition are the high price of the meat, the scarcity ofthe fish and a poor purchasing power...The most serious cases affect the children.12.2 The currently use of spirulina The population currently use spirulina but unfortunately, not enough to fill the needs of allof them and, in particular, the children, the pregnant women and the elderlys needs. The current consumption is 75, 375g per day, that means 2261.25g per month andinvolves 186 people (9% of the Diabal population) such as 123 adults (21 elderly persons and 102pregnant women) and 63 children (15 from 0 to 2 years old, 37from 3 to 5 years old and 11 from 6to 12 years old). 11
  • 12. The dosage currently administered is as follows: the children 15 children aged 0 to 2 years old : ¼ of one tablet (0,125 g per day and per child) 37 children aged 3 to 5 years old : ½ of one tablet ( 0,250 g per day and per child) 11 children aged 6 to 12 years old : ½ comprimé, soit 0,250 gramme par jour et par enfant Total consumption: (15 x 0,125)+(37 x 0,250)+(11 x 0,250) = 13,875 g per day for 63children the adults 21 elderly people : 1 comprimé, soit 0,500 gramme par jour et par adulte 102 pregnant women : 1 comprimé, soit 0,500 gramme par jour et par adulte Total consumption : (21 x 0,500)+(102 x 0,500) = 61,5 g per day for 123 adults Daily consumption of spirulina Daily consumption for children + Daily consumption for adults 13,875 + 61,5 = 75,375 The monthly consumption in theory is : 2261,25 g per month The currently monthly expenses dedicated to the purchase of spirulina reaches 90to 100 euros. The spirulina is bought at the chemists and sold in tablets or in bags. This expensecan not really be re-evaluated in a long term period.12.3 The ideal consumption of spirulina It is necessary to administer at least 2g of spirulina per day to a child during 6 to 8weeks to recover from a state of malnutrition. By consequence, the health center shouldconsiderably increase its expenses to cure the children in an affective manner.12.4 The ideal consumption, production and pool surface − A pool of 50 sqm minimum is necessary to produce per sqm an average of 6 g perday to get 9000 g per month. − A pool of 40 sqm is necessary to produce an average of 8 g per day and per sqm toget 9600 g per month − A pool of 60 sqm is necessary to produce an average of 6 g per day and per sqm toget 10800 g per month or 8 g per day to get 14400 g per monthThose hypothesis are the requirements to get the ideal dosage of 2 g per day and per child and toget 1 g per day and per adult (1X123). That means 249 g per day or 7470 g per month. Theaverage production of spirulina per sqm is 5 to 10 g. the following dosage is also suitable : 1 g per day for a child or an adult. (1X63)+(1X123)to get 186 g per day or 5580 g per month. This dosage could be administered in the first monthswhen the production will still be insufficient to avoid a too big taking difference compared to thecurrent administered dosage (from 0.125 to 0.250 g per day and per child). 12
  • 13. 12.5 Dosage and consumption simulation (in g)Local requirements assessment Dosage simulation Number DOS1 DOS2 DOS3 DOS4 DOS5 DOS6Number of children 0 to 2 years old 15 0,13 0,5 1 2 2 1Number of children 3 to 5 years old 37 0,25 0,5 1 2 2 1Number of children 6 to 12years old 11 0,25 0,5 1 2 2 1Number of children 63Number of pregnant women 102 0,5 0,5 1 1 0,5 0,5Number of elderly 21 0,5 0,5 1 1 0,5 0,5Number of adults 123Total number of beneficiaries 186Daily consumption Children 13,875 31,5 63 126 126 63Daily consumption Adults 61,5 61,5 123 123 61,5 61,5Total daily consumption 75,375 93 186 249 188 124,5Monthly consumption Children 416,25 945 1890 3780 3780 1890Monthly consumption Adults 1845 1845 3690 3690 1845 1845Total monthly consumption 2261,3 2790 5580 7470 5625 3735Note :.The Dosage1 corresponds to 4 times the one currently administered to the children and 2 timesthe one administered to the adults. This dosage brings a signficant improvement without a suddenchange into the childrens body due to a too high dosage compared to the one currentlyadministered..The Dosage4 corresponds to the dosage of 2 g per day and per child that makes it possible tosave a child in a state of malnutrition..The surface of the pool required to produce enough spirulina per month to fill the needs thatcorresponds to the dosage 3 is 25 sqm. A production of 8 g per day and by sqm will give 6000 gper month (25X8X30 days).. The surface of the pool required to produce enough spirulina per month to fill the needs thatcorresponds to Dosage 4 is 40 sqm. 8 g per day and per sqm will give 9600 g per month(40X8X30 days)The most appropriated surface that should enable to reach a financial balance is a pool of 60sqm, with an average production of 6 to 8 g per day and per sqm. 13
  • 14. 12.6 Hypothesis of financial return Purchase costs types of charges position 60 50 25 40 permanent costs Salary 200 200 200 200 TOT permanent costs 200 200 200 200 variable costs inputs 50 40 20 30 variable costs maintenance 25 20 10 15 variable costs tools equipment 30 25 variable costs packaging 35 25 15 20 TOT variable costs 140 110 45 65 TOTAL 340 310 245 265 Simplified chart of the cost price of spirulina according to the surface VC: Variable costs PC: Permanent Costs 60, 50, 40, 25 : pool surface in sqm Charts in relation with the turnover and the profit of the sale of spirulina . Example : a pool of 50 sqm for an avergage production of 8 g per day and per sqmgives 9000 g for 1 month.The production is sold in full. . The local consumption corresponds to the sale to the villagers according to the applieddosage mentioned in the chart of the dosage simulation (see 12.5, line Total monthlyconsumption.DOS=Dosage) . The external potential consumption corresponds to the sale of spirulina to people whocurrently live outside the village. . The price for sale is for 1g and in euro. 50 6 DOS1 DOS2 DOS3 DOS4 DOS5 DOS6 9000 local consumption 2261,25 2790 5580 7470 5625 3735 Sale price 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,025 0,035 0,03 local sales 67,838 83,7 167 186,8 196,9 112,1 External potential consumption 6738,75 6210 3420 1530 3375 5265 Sale price 0,05 0,05 0,06 0,1 0,05 0,05 local sales 336,94 310,5 205 153 168,8 263,3 Total sales 404,78 394,2 373 339,8 365,6 375,3 Cost price 310 310 310 310 310 310 gross profit 94,775 84,2 62,6 29,75 55,63 65,3 14
  • 15. 50 8 DOS1 DOS2 DOS3 DOS4 DOS5 DOS6 12000 Local consumption 2261,25 2790 5580 7470 5625 3735 Sale price 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,02 0,03 0,03 local sales 67,838 83,7 167 149,4 168,8 112,1 External potential consumption 9738,75 9210 6420 4530 6375 8265 Sale price 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 External sales 486,94 460,5 321 226,5 318,8 413,3 Total sales 554,78 544,2 488 375,9 487,5 525,3 Cost price 310 310 310 310 310 310 gross profit 244,78 234,2 178 65,9 177,5 215,3 60 6 DOS1 POS2 POS3 POS4 POS5 POS6 10800 local consumption 2261,25 2790 5580 7470 5625 3735 sale price per g 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,03 local sales 67,838 83,7 167 224,1 168,8 112,1 external potential consumption 8538,75 8010 5220 3330 5175 7065 sale price 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 external sales 426,94 400,5 261 166,5 258,8 353,3 Total sales 494,78 484,2 428 390,6 427,5 465,3 Cost price 340 340 340 340 340 340 Gross profit 154,78 144,2 88,4 50,6 87,5 125,3 60 8 DOS1 DOS2 DOS3 DOS4 DOS5 DOS6 14400 local consumption 2261,25 2790 5580 7470 5625 3735 sale price 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,02 0,03 0,03 local sales 67,838 83,7 167 149,4 168,8 112,1 external potential consumption 12138,75 11610 8820 6930 8775 10665 sale price 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05 external sales 606,94 580,5 441 346,5 438,8 533,3 Total sales 674,78 664,2 608 495,9 607,5 645,3 Cost price 340 340 340 340 340 340 Gross profit 334,78 324,2 268 155,9 267,5 305,3 Comments : .The surface of 60 sqm is the ideal one because it enable to sell the production at areasonable price, for the local consumption as much as the external one. . The average production per sqm at 8g is relevant. . According to the hypothesis of a free distribution of spirulina to the villagers, a surface of50 or 60 sqm with an average production of 8g per sqm and per day sold 5 euro cents per g onDOS3 is relevant.. . Nevertheless, we need to take into account the others results because according to theneed, the number of people in a state of malnutrition, the administered dosage will be differentand the quantity sold outside will be more important. 15
  • 16. . Note : the salary (2400 euros), the inputs, the tools are financed the first year of running.So, a saving of an average of 3780 euros is done. This sum might be dedicated to replace thelittle tools, to enlarge the pools, to save the salary of the two employees for the year to come. Byconsequence, a larger part for the profit..12.7 The health centres role It is important to notice that the health centre plays a key rôle in the mediation, theinformation and the awareness of the parents and the childrens teachers in the fight againstmalnutrition and in the pomotion and the development of spirulina. Actually, the health centreprovides spirulina and advise the parents.Note : the figures of the number of beneficiaries, the current consumption of spirulina and theexpenditures have been supplied by a head of the villages health centre.13. Proposition. To build a farm of spirulina13.1 Envisaged functioningThe farm will be managed by 2 half-time salaried persons. The management will be completed byvoluntary persons.14. Actions. To inform and increase the population awareness of the benefits of the spirulina. To train a team interested in the culture of spirulina. To build a farm of spirulina. To create activities for the development of the plan15. Resources15.1 The people involved in the plan15.1.1 In France. President of the Organization: Mr Baba MBOOM MBAYE. Representative of this plan for Mauritania: Mr Seringe SY. Nutritionnist : Mr Jérôme CARADEC. Producer of spirulina: Mr Mathieu BELLES. Leader of Promotion: Mr Bruno GARCIA. Coordination assistants: Mrs Marie LECERF and Corinne LEVEQUE. Communication : Mr Yann BEZZI. Translation: Ms Christelle ABAUTRET15.1.2 In Senegal and others. The village officers.The staff of the health centre (doctors, nurses, midwives).Research professor inMicrobiology at the University of Ngaoundéré in Cameroon: MrMohammadou BOUBA ADJI15.2 Material ressources. Vehicles: cars, van. Land. Equipment necessary to build a spirulina farm (see p8, 5-5-5) 16
  • 17. 16. TimetableFrom April to July. Analysis of the spirulina (in tablet or in powder) coming from various parts of the world (ex :China, Latin America..). Administrative approvalsFrom September to December 2011. Fund raising and confirmation of the partners The funds will be called upon public and private organizations, chosen by their long termcommittment and their humanitarian views.From January to June 2012. Information and awareness campaign to the Diabal population Considering the issues, the funds we will get and the enlisted responsibilities, it is importantto plan a period for the promotion of this plan among public and private partners based in Senegaland abroad.it will be led, in priority, by the officers of the village, the staff of the Health Centre andthe educational staff, before involving the population by the organization of meetings. Moreover, an experimentation period will be devoted to convince, by the practice, of thebenefits of the spirulina.. Training for the leaders of the farm The training should be done by a leader of a spirulina farm located in Bakel (20 km far fromDiabal). He was trained at the CFPPA (vocational training centre for agricultural occupations) ofHyères (France) and led a plan for the development of the spirulina since 2007. By consequence,he gained the skills to pass the information. The staff of the Health centre will also be trained tothe nurses and the administration of spirulina to their patients, to the pregnant women and thechildren..The building of an experimental farm When the training is over and the first funds raised, we will start the building of anexperimental farm of spirulina.September 2012 If the experimental farm gives satisfaction in its first months of running, a bigger one will bebuilt (surface, number of employees, marketing). A management at a larger scale should enableto lower the cost price.From January 2013 .... Promotion of the plan Considering the issues, the funds we will get and the enlisted responsibilities, it is importantto plan a period for the promotion of this plan among public and private partners based in Senegaland abroad.17. The unconfirmed partnership of the plan17.1 In France. Antenna Technologie (donation of strain, technical support). TECHNAP (consulting, training and educational kit). Spirulina France (donation of strain). Laboratoire Bioreds (nutritional analysis). Spirulina Without Border (consulting). Engineers Without Border (technical support). Health Without Border (consulting, support). CFPPA (Vocational training centre for agricultural promotion) in Hyères (training). Aéro Bretagne Solidarité (support) 17
  • 18. 17.2 In Senegal. The government in charge of health. The Pasteur Institute in Dakar (nutritional and bacteriologic analysis of the spirulina). Foundation « Education – Health » (consulting, training, donation of stain). Région de Tambacounda (communication, institutional support). CEFP (Experimental centre for exchange and training practices) in Bakel (training, management). UPHORBAK (Organization of the horticulturists in Bakel) (Training). City of Diabal – Senegal. Commune of Gabou contryside18. Communication planFlyers, web pages..will be the main communication channels of this plan 18
  • 19. 19. Financial plan forecast for the first year of running Expenditures ProductsPlane tickets for 3 personnes for 2 weeks 1800 In FranceHealth costs (vaccination ...) 150 IFREMER Brest 100Insurances 100 City of Brest 300Visas 100 Aéro Bretagne Solidarité 100Administrative costs 100 Conseil Général du Finistère 600Participation in the costs of food 50 Conseil Régional de Bretagne 1000Tarpaulin for pool 1000 Organization for the 2800 development of DiabalTarpaulin for greenhouse and mosquitos 500 Foundations 4500netsTumble dryer 500 In SénégalWater and spirulina tests 450Pressing shed 450 FSP Initiatives de 7000 CodéveloppementPaddle wheel + motor 500 County of Tambacounda 150Extrudeur 100 Community of Gabou contryside 150Microscope 150 City of Diabal 150Building of 2 pools of 30 sqm = 60 sqm 6000 Foundation Education - Health 500Inputs 1500 Health Without Border 250Others (scale, PHMetre, thermometre, 400bags for the packaging, cloth in polyester,test tubes, syringes, droppers ...)Computer 250Training done in Senegal 1000Salary for 2 employees working in part time 2400(200 x 12 months)for the first year TOTAL 17 500 € TOTAL 17 500 € 19
  • 20. Note : the budget for the 2nd year of running (salaries, inputs, cleaning, maintenance, equipment,tools) is valued at around 4620 euros ; This sum is met by the sale of spirulina and the farmingincomes.20. AssessmentTarget 1 : To inform and increase the population awarenessQuantitative assessment standard : number of meetings, number of participantsQualitative assessment standard : populations support for the planQuantitative assessment tool: reportsQualitative assessment tool: questionnaire, report meetings, number of participantsTarget 2 : To train a team to produce spirulinaQuantitative assessment standard: number of trained peopleQualitative assessment standard : trainings quality, involvement of the trained peopleQuantitative assessment tool : attendance sheetQualitative assessment tool : training control commentsTarget 3 : To develop an activity of spirulina productionQuantitative assessment standard: number of interventions, number of involved peopleQualitative assessment standard: quality of the spirulinaQuantitative assessment tool: comments, counts sheetQualitative assessment tool : quality controlTarget 4 : To promote this action and the results of the planQuantitative assessment standard: number od interventions, number of involved peopleQualitative assessment standard : satisfaction levelQuantitative assessment tool: intervention controlQualitative assessment tool : feedback quality, exchangesObjectif 5 : To develop an activity that generate incomesQuantitative assessment standard: quantity of sold spirulinaQualitative assessment standard: quality of sold spirulina, profitsQuantitative assessment tool : stock report, balance sheetQualitative assessment tool : quality control, clients satisfaction, results account21. Permanence of the actionThe villagers should produce spirulina independently22. the outcomes22.1 In a short term :(1 year)- To provide a sufficient production to get the villages food autonomy- To strenghten the training of the farms leaders- To develop a farm of spirulina culture at a larger scale.22.2 In a mid term (2 years and more) − To create a training centre dedicated to the spirulina culture and more broadly, to the farm jobs. This should receive the support of a large number of people an promote this plan at a larger scale (See Fig.1, 2 et 3 in the appendix 20.1 + Maps. 20
  • 21. 23. Appendix23.1 Maps Diabal Fig.1 (General map) Fig. 2 (Administrative maps) 21
  • 22. Fig.3 (Administrative map)(Fig.4 Population affected by malnutrition worldwide)Fig.5 (Population in a state of malnutrition worldwide) 22
  • 23. Fig. 6 (Overview of the Diabals surrounding)Fig. 7 (Overview of Diabal village)Fig. 8 (Overview of Diabal village and Diabal with outline of the cultivable land) 23
  • 24. 23.2 VideosProduction de spirulina dans lAude par Mathieu BELLEShttp://www.publicsenat.fr/vod/tous-au-vert/l-emission-eco-citoyenne-/66984Spirulina au Béninhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tyCtplSUI-QCulture familiale de spirulinahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Do3qvrCy3WI&feature=relatedLa spirulina au Burkina Fasohttp://www.dailymotion.com/video/xrmxy_la-spirulina-au-burkinafaso_businessLa spirulina avec Arte Mai 2005http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x6e0w_la-spirulina-arte-mai-2005_newsAntenna.ch et la spirulinahttp://www.dailymotion.com/video/x5hm2v_antenna-spirulina_tagLa spirulina : exemple de développement durable 1http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xdvj3x_la-spirulina-exemple-de-developpeme_travelCulture paysanne de spirulinahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UcIZjJ9GfFk&feature=relatedRayons x, spirulinahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t2FfK7BfwkkLa spirulina - notre avenir et lagriculture durablehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k5_tait02SQLa spirulina du Docteur Marcus Rorherhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D0MYuEV5VBM 24
  • 25. 23.3 Témoignage « Je me dope à la spirulina » http://ggbi.courseàpied.netTémoignage d’un coureur à pied recueilli sur Internet : Durant la course, Rudy me faisait part de l’importance capitale des protéines dans notrerégime alimentaire. Importantes, car elles servent à une bonne régénération musculaire d’aprèscourse et bien sur aussi au développement de ces mêmes muscles. Pour un apport suffisant et pour éviter toute carence, ma solution c’est environ 10 grammesde spirulina quotidiennement. Ce sujet reviens de temps en temps sur le forum et comme il est abordé souvent sur lecoté comprimé qui es un des conditionnement possible de cet aliment, certains donneurs deleçons trouvent souvent la réponse choc au choix, « c’est le début du dopage » ou encore « si tuas besoin de ce genre de complément alimentaire, c’est que tu ne te nourris pas correctement ». Même genre d’arguments d’ailleurs que l’on trouve aussi lorsque l’on parle de gel ou barresénergétique que l’on peu consommer pendant une compétition. Là où je pense que ces gens se trompent, c’est dans l’approche même du produit. Il ne fautpas voir la spirulina comme un médicament, ni comme un complément alimentaire, mais commeun aliment tout simplement. La spirulina est une algue qui a deux particularités très intéressantes, contrairement a laplupart des algues, elle n’est pas toxique et d’autre part, elle contient entre autre 60 à 70% deprotéines là ou la viande n’en contient qu’entre 20 et 30%. Elle a en plus d’autres atouts commeune présence importante de fer et de vitamines diverses. Elle est donc une alliée importante pour les végétaliens, mais aussi pour les coureurs quenous sommes. Autre argument choc, pour produire un kilo de protéine issue de la spirulina, il faut 200 foismoins de surface de culture et 40 fois moins d’eau que pour la même quantité de protéineanimale. Là où 100 000 litres d’eau et 200 mètres carrés de terre sont nécessaires pour obtenirce kilo de protéine, seul un mètre carrés et 2 500 litres d’eau suffiront pour son équivalent enalgue. Alors, je suis toujours dans une logique de dopage ? Suis-je vraiment un déséquilibrédiététique qui règle ses problèmes a coup de compléments alimentaire ? Bien sur, il y a un hic, car tout ne peu pas être parfait. Cette algue ne peu se consommercrue que près des lieux de production, car dans cet état elle ne se conserve que très peu detemps. Alors à moins d’habiter au bord de la mer et proche d’une production, il faut la consommersèche. Son second défaut est son goût. Beaucoup de gens ne trouvent pas cet aliment trèsappétissant. Personnellement je trouve surtout qu’elle n’a pas de goût. C’est surtout sa couleur,verte qui peu suggérer un mauvais goût. C’est pour cela que certains préfèrent la consommersous forme de gélules. Par contre sous ce conditionnement, elle coûte très cher (environ 250euros le kilo contre 130 séchée sous forme de paillettes). Pour ma part, je l’achète directement à un producteur (voir son sitehttp://www.spirulinadeprovence.com) sous forme de paillettes que je verse sur une tartine de miel. 25
  • 26. Chaque matin, c’est environ 5 à 10 grammes que j’ingurgite ainsi. Sa couleur est tenace, ilm’arrive parfois d’en manger dans du fromage blanc. C’est la couleur verte qui subsiste, oublié leblanc. C’est tellement tenace que lorsque je me lave les dents après en avoir mangé et aprèsmon verre de jus d’orange et mon thé, c’est toujours le vert qui reste lorsque je me rince labouche. C’est son défaut, mais cela reste l’idéal pour avoir des quantités suffisantes de protéinessans abuser de la viande. C’est d’une certaine manière écologique, car nous sommes de plus enplus nombreux sur terre et il n’est pas possible de produire suffisamment de viande pour tous. D’ailleurs, au-delà de nos propres besoins, cette algue est aussi une solution pour les paysen voie de développement qui regorgent d’habitant en sous alimentation. Non seulement cettealgue peu être produite en Afrique par exemple, mais elle ne coûte pas très cher à produire. 26
  • 27. 23.4 Websites Why the spirulinahttp://www.bioticas.com/_mdb/produnits/46fr_Usage%20&%20Utilisation%20de%20la%20Spirulina.pdf -Usage particulier de la spirulinahttp://www.nhslife.com/media/upload/file/La-spirulina.pdf - Bonnes raisons de prendre de la spirulinahttp://www.jle.com/e-docs/00/04/1B/27/vers_alt/VersionPDF.pdf - Le Técuitlatl, concentré de spirulinassource de protéines chez les Aztèqueshttp://consommacteurs.blogs.com/smp/spirulina_stories/ - Spirulina pour tous Compositionhttp://vertleburkina.unblog.fr/files/2008/02/image11.gif - Composition de la spirulinahttp://www.spirulinat.com/composition_spirulina2.html Manual worker of culturehttp://www.antenna.ch/documents/manuelJourdan2061.pdf - Manuel de culture artisanale pour laproduction de spirulinahttp://pagesperso-orange.fr/petites-nouvelles/Manuel.pdf - Manuel de culture artisanale de spirulinahttp://spirulina.online.fr/cd-cfppa/ - Manuel de culture artisanale de spirulinahttp://www.spirulinasource.com/cultivez.htmlhttp://www.spirulinasource.com/cultivez/cultivez1a.htmlhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/2683889/Cultivez-Votre-Spirulinahttp://solidarite.stjoavignon.com/livreplanchon.htm - La Spirulina pour Tous - Culture familialehttp://credesa.online.fr/tablgener.htm - Livret Guide de productionhttp://www.algosophette.com/page9.htm - Les cultures de spirulinahttp://www.antenna.ch/documents/module_apprentissage.pdf - Module dapprentissage pour laproduction de spirulinahttp://www.antenna.ch/documents/module_apprentissage_image.pdf - Module dapprentissagehttp://www.spirulinasansfrontiere.com/fr/mes-news/comment-se-cultive-la-spirulinahttp://www.spirulinasansfrontiere.com/fr/articles-et-videos/construire-sa-serre-de-spirulinahttp://www.enssmal.dz/doclaquaculture/Culture%20de%20la%20spirulina.pdf - La spirulinahttp://www.technap-spirulina.org/content/view/5/ - Comment produire la spirulina 27
  • 28. http://www.technap-spirulina.org/content/view/9/ - Cultiver la spirulina Develop a project of spirulina - Methodology, Resourceshttp://www.technap-spirulina.org/content/view/6/ - Mener à bien un projet de spirulinahttp://www.technap-spirulina.org/datas/Partenaires%20et%20%E9tapes%20d%27un%20projet%20spirulina.ppt - Partenaireset Etapes dun projet spirulinahttp://www.spirulinaburkina.org/datas/Spirulina_humanitaire.doc - Spirulina humanitaire en PVD (Paysen Voie de Développement)http://flore99.free.fr/spiru.html - La spirulina pour un monde sans faminehttp://spiru.canalblog.com/ - La spirulina en voyage Planshttp://spirulinafrance.free.fr/lespetitesnouvel.html - Les projets de spirulina dans le mondehttp://repta.net/odpi/telechargements/fichiers/fiche_senegal_1_ferme_agro_ecolo.pdf - Projet de spirulinaau Sénégalhttp://www.lyceesolidarite.org/mambo/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=23&Itemid=62 -Spirulina pour un village au Sénégalhttp://www.cfsi.asso.fr/upload/VF-actes161109.pdf - Spirulina à Bakel (à 30 km de Diabal)http://www.antenna.ch/projets-terrain/spirulina-programmes/ - Antenna Technologies et les projets despirulinahttp://www.codegaz.org/telechargement/pondichery.ppt - Développement de la spirulina à Pondicheryen Indehttp://www.sergegouteyron-rotary.org/pdf/actions/4-Lutter%20contre%20la%20faim.pdf - Spirulina auSahelhttp://www.codegaz.org/images/codegaz/spirulina-2010.pdf - Codegaz et la spirulinahttp://www.la-guilde.org/IMG/pdf/Evaluation_Antenna_Technologies.pdf - Projet de production et dedistribution de spirulinahttp://www.assorennes.org/banadubenin/spirulina.html - Asso BANA du Bénin et le projet spirulinahttp://www.spirulinasolidaire.org/ - Spirulina au Burkina Fasohttp://www.abcburkina.net/fr/le-burkina-faso/de-a-a-z/402-spirulina?showall=1 - Spirulina au BurkinaFasohttp://vertleburkina.unblog.fr/la-spirulina-outil-de-sante/ - La spirulina, outil de santéhttp://ddata.over-blog.com/xxxyyy/2/62/98/02/Projet-Spirulina.pdf - Projet Spirulina au Cambodge 28
  • 29. http://www.tousdanslememepanier.com/Pages/Dossier%20recherche%20de%20dons%201.html - Laspirulina pour un monde sans faminehttp://www.pyepimanla.com/juillet-aout-2010/afrique-asie/spirulina.html - Des gâteaux verts très nutritifspourraient sauver des vieshttp://www.spirulinaburkina.org/ - Les fermes de spirulina du Burkina Fasohttp://www.africaspi.org - Projet humanitaire et multiculturel pour une spirulina naturelle et équitablehttp://www.rotary1730.org/admin-club-nouvelles/old/clubs-file/hyereslespalmiers/200668_nouvelles_bulletin_1532.pdf - Le ROTARY et la spirulinahttp://www.rotary1730.org/admin-club-nouvelles/clubs-file/hyereslespalmiers/200636_nouvelles_bulletin_1282.pdf Malnutritionhttp://www.antenna.ch/documents/malnutrition.pdf - La malnutrition : un massacre silencieuxhttp://www.antenna.ch/documents/pourquoi_spirulina.pdf - La malnutrition : pourquoi la spirulina ?http://www.technap-spirulina.org/content/view/4/ - Combattre la malnutritionhttp://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/malnutrition_and_famine - Malnutrition en Afriquehttp://www2c.ac-lille.fr/pneruda-wattrelos/idd0405bis/planetesoli/problemes/malnutrition.htm - Malnutritiondans le mondehttp://www.droitsenfant.com/sante.htm - La santé, la malnutritionhttp://www.algosophette.com/association/spirulina-redactionnel-2.html - La malnutritionhttp://www.sidanet.info/webapps/komplete/index.php?KTURL=mod_article.html&page=1154 - Malnutritionet Sidahttp://www.aes.sn/html/aes_page.php?xx_rubrique=Mission%20et%20Vision&xx_texte_id=1020&xx_lang=FR&xx_mdr=&xx_trait= - La spirulina pour lutter contre la malnutritionhttp://www.soleil-levant.org/presse/article.php3?id_article=143 - La spirulina, une aide contre lamalnutritionhttp://malnutritionzero.online.fr/ - Malnutrition Zérohttp://www.feedingminds.org/info/background_fr.htmhttp://youthink.banquemondiale.org/sujets/sante/quest-ce-que-la-malnutritionhttp://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malnutritionhttp://www.msf.fr/?page=medical&section=4&cat=9&id=4&title=malnutrition 29
  • 30. http://www.antenna.ch/malnutrition.htmlhttp://www.selfrance.org/index.php?id=31http://collectifsdfalsace.20minutes-blogs.fr/archive/2007/12/17/france-la-malnutrition-consequence-de-la-precarite.html - Estimations rendues publiques lors dun colloque « Nutrition et précarité » à Brestle 6 décembre 2007.http://www.prb.org/FrenchContent/Articles/2008/StuntingSSAfrica.aspx (Lutte contre la malnutritioninfantile en Afrique Subsaharienne)Organisations internationales oeuvrant pour la lutte contre la malnutritionOrganisation des Nations Unies pour lalimentation et lagriculture - FAOhttp://www.fao.org/index_fr.htmFight against malnutrition from a treatment : a therapeutic food based on shea butter mixed upwith powder milk, vitamins and trace elementshttp://www.who.int/child_adolescent_health/topics/prevention_care/child/nutrition/malnutrition§§/fr/index.html Studieshttp://www.spirulinat.com/etudes.html - La spirulina : études scientifiques sur lhommehttp://www.algosophette.com/association/spirulina-redactionnel-7.html - Recherches scientifiques etspirulinahttp://spirulina.hautetfort.com/list/documents/2012818299.pdf - La spirulina - Bilan et perspectives :thèse de doctorat en pharmaciehttp://www.antenna.ch/documents/Biblio%20Spi%20generale%202007.pdf - Spirulina : Bibliographiegénéralehttp://www.antenna.ch/documents/BibliographieSPI_2006.pdf - Spirulina : Bibliographie scientifiqueftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0424e/i0424e00.pdf - FAO : Culture, production et usage de laspirulinahttp://www.spirulinat.com/images/Les%20etudes%20sur%20la%20Phycocyanine.pdf - Etudes sur laphycocianinehttp://www.spirulinat.com/doc/Spi_benefices.pdf - Connaissances des bénéfices de la spirulina sur lasantéhttp://www.spirulinat.com/doc/Spi_publication.pdf - Etudes scientifiques portant sur la spirulinahttp://spirulinagadez.free.fr/pdfs/Tchat_Sorto.pdf - Utilisation et consommation de la spirulina auTchadhttp://agriculture.gouv.fr/la-spirulina-peut-elle-etre-un - La spirulina peut-elle être un atout pour la santéet le développement en Afrique ?http://agriculture.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Spirulina_synthese_et_compilation_DGPAAT_2008.pdf - La spirulinapeut-elle être un atout pour la santé et le développement en Afrique ?, Synthèse 30
  • 31. Colloquiumshttp://www.tambacounda.info/sante/colloque-panafricain-sur-la-spirulina-au-togo-rencontre-avec-samba-ka-de-luphorbak-a-bakel.htmlhttp://www.grandslacs.net/doc/2703.pdf - Séminaire de formation sur la culture et la vulgarisation dela spirulina Expertshttp://petites-nouvelles.pagesperso-orange.fr/http://www.rongead.org/CV-Expert-NTIC.htmlhttp://www.rongead.org/IMG/pdf/CV_GONNET_fr_online070510.pdf Distributorshttp://www.biosweetbio.fr/la-spirulina-pxl-28.htmlhttp://www.algosud.com/pdf/brochure-fr.pdfhttp://www.gse-vertrieb.de/pdf/fr/spirulina.pdfhttp://sophienature.com/spirulina.pdfhttp://www.spirulinasansfrontiere.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/Brochure-SSF-francais.pdfhttp://www.flamantvert.com/flamant_vert_nutrition.htmlhttp://www.nakura.frhttp://spirulina.org.uk/french/index.htmhttp://www.spirulinaalaferme.com/http://www.spirulina-vera.com/blog/fr/info/about-us-qui-sommes-noushttp://www.spirulinadurenouveau.com/culture.htmhttp://spirulina.org.uk/french/spirulina.htm 31
  • 32. OthersMadame Viviane WADE pour le développement de la spirulinahttp://fr.allafrica.com/stories/200803030773.htmlhttp://www.rewmi.com/EXCLUSIF-MME-VIVIANE-WADE-PREMIERE-DAME-DU-SENEGAL-Par-le-travail-sortir-la-femme-de-la-pauvrete_a21359.htmlUne AMAP (Association pour le Maintien dune Agriculture Paysanne) autour dune ferme àspirulinahttp://www.transversel.org/spip.php?article249Marché des compléments alimentaires à Dakarhttp://www.moringanews.org/documents/marchedakar.docLes plantes pour guérirhttp://www.metafro.be/preludehttp://madesahel.enda.sn/html/PlantesList.htmlQualités thérapeutiqueshttp://quiperdgagnespirulina.blogspot.com/Organisations internationales oeuvrant pour la lutte contre la malnutritionOrganisation des Nations Unies pour lalimentation et lagriculture - FAOhttp://www.fao.org/index_fr.htmUnicefhttp://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Progress_for_Children-No.9_EN_081710.pdf Page 52Dautres solutions de lutter contre la malnutrition ...Une autre initiative, privée, pour régler le problème de la malnutrition avec 600 millionshttp://www.rue89.com/2010/10/23/avec-600-millions-on-regle-la-malnutrition-des-enfants-172098http://www.lefigaro.fr/sciences/2010/10/15/01008-20101015ARTFIG00591-des-sachets-miracles-contre-la-malnutrition.phpLutte contre la malnutrition à partir dun traitement : un aliment thérapeutique à base de beurre decacahouète mélangé à du lait en poudre écrémé, des vitamines et des oligoélémentshttp://www.who.int/child_adolescent_health/topics/prevention_care/child/nutrition/malnutrition/fr/index.htmlProjets en Afriquehttp://www.cocagne.ch/SudProjet.htmhttp://www.sossahel.orgProduits de santé naturelshttp://www.passeportsante.net/fr/Solutions/PlantesSupplements/Année européenne du volontariat et du bénévolathttp://www.animafac.net/en-2011-l-europe-met-l-engagement-associatif-a-l-honneur/ 32
  • 33. INDEX pools .............................................7, 9, 16, 19 D preservation ..................................................9drying............................................................9 pressing ........................................................9 production 1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, E 25, 27, 28, 30expansion .................................................1, 3 proteins.................................................5, 6, 7 F Sfarm ....................................3, 6, 8, 16, 17, 20 sowing ..........................................................9 H spirulina ... 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30,harvest......................................................8, 9 31, 32health..........................3, 5, 12, 16, 18, 30, 32 starvations sources ......................................4 M Tmalnutrition .... 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 11, 12, 13, 16, 22, train.................................................11, 16, 20 29, 30, 32management.....................................8, 16, 17 V N vitamins ..............................................4, 6, 30nutritional security.......................................11 W P water.....................................3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9packaging .........................................9, 14, 19 33

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