Project lessons from The Great Escape
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Project lessons from The Great Escape

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A presentation made by Mark Kozak-Holland

A presentation made by Mark Kozak-Holland
On 13th November in Bristol
On 20th November in Leeds
On 21st November in Basingstoke

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    Project lessons from The Great Escape Project lessons from The Great Escape Presentation Transcript

    • Project Lessons from the Great Escape (Stalag Luft III) New publication from the lessons-from-history series Dedicated to Sagan’s 50 and others Presentation at APM South Wales and West of England branch November 13th, 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland BSc (Hons), PMP, IPMA-D, Cert.APM “Lessons From the Past that Assist the Projects of Today to Shape the World of Tomorrow” www.lessons-from-history.com http://www.thegreatescapememorialproject.com/ Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Incredible story of mass escape of Allied PoWs from Stalag Luft III in March 1944. Today we can learn from this project.  How it was originated and developed?  How complex problems were solved?  How it was managed and implemented?  Its outcome based on events in March 1944?  Please prepare questions for the end. This presentation is the property of Mark Kozak-Holland 2 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Table of contents 1. Background 2. Problems 3. APM BOK 4. Solutions 5. Timeline to Escape 6. Post Mortem 3 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The defeated PM - what excuse is it today?  Intimidating scope  No resources  Time constraints  Uncoordinated team  Too many problems  Unclear objectives  Hostile groups trying to close project  No executive sponsor 4 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Imagine life as Allied Airman shot down during World War II, in a Prisoner of War (PoW) camp.  Bailing out – Hostile population  Captured by Luftwaffe – Interrogation – Monitored by Gestapo  Behind barbed wire – No outside news  Scrutinized 24 hours a day – Continuous surveillance – No privacy – Communications censored  Length in captivity – 1940-1944 5 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Consider the living conditions as a PoW  Climate – -25C to +25C  Daily calorie intake – Rec. 3,000, actual 1,500 - 1,900 • Breakfast – 2 slices of bread, jam, ersatz coffee • Lunch - Watery soup • Dinner – 2 slices of bread  Daily regime – Roll call twice, morning and night – Boredom  Hygene – Cold water only – Fleas lice, scabies, and bed bugs 6 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Living conditions as a PoW were grueling to harsh  No extra clothing  Living space – 600 PoWs, 60 acres. – 1 heater/hut – 1 coal lump/person  Cooler – 5-15 days, harassment and beatings  Diseases – 40% - Upper Respiratory – 20% - War wounds (fractures) – 10% - Gastrointestinal – 10% - Skin – 10% - Diphtheria – 10% - Other 7 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • So what were the options for individual POWs, some imprisoned for 4 years.  Wait war out – Atrocious conditions – Hope right side wins – Hope Gestapo don’t call – Psychological stress  Try and escape – Wage war – Give men hope Lessons for today – weigh up the options. 8 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • There were short and long term benefits in organizing an escape. Lessons for today – clearly state short and long term organizational benefits  Camp population: – 25% escapers (5% dedicated), 75% support  Short term: – Occupy men, give goal, restore confidence in leaders  Long term: – Psychological battle, tie down enemy resources – Expand war, demoralize enemy 9 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Table of contents 1. Background 2. Problems 3. APM BOK 4. Solutions 5. Timeline to Escape 6. Post Mortem 10 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • There were almost insurmountable problems and constraints that needed to be prioritized and overcome. Lessons for today – clearly state organizational challenges Snooping “ferrets” No where to hide Few raw materials No equipment or tools Erratic food/ fuel supply        No documents, passes  Project Lessons from the Great Escape Foreign language  11 Civilian clothing strictly forbidden Limited currency www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The first problem preventing escape was location and unknown outside world. Lessons for today – assess geographic constraints  Distance to Sweden, Switzerland, Spain  Hermetically sealed from communities  Pine forest, sandy soil 12 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The second problem preventing escape were prowling enemy guards. Lessons for today – assess organizational constraints  Guards or “Goons” – Changed frequently, old or wounded – 12 guards wandering the compound  Ferrets – Intelligence escape specialists – Enter any time, search no warning – English-speaking Lessons for today – assess constraints 13 Project Lessons from the Great Escape – Tunneling allowed to continue www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The third problem preventing escape were physical barriers around camp. Lessons for today – assess the physical constraints  Search towers, flood lights  Trip wire, shoot zone  Double barbed-wire fences  Huts stilts  Seismographs - 33 feet 14 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The fourth problem preventing escape was going incognito in the outside world.  Language and culture  Going unnoticed disguises Lessons for today – assess the cultural constraints  No public sympathy, “terror flyers”  No currency  Kugel Erlass (bullet decree) immediate execution 15 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The fifth problem preventing escape was survival in harsh environment and climate, summer was escape season.  November to March snow  Access to water, food, and shelter Lessons for today – assess the survival constraints 16 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The sixth problem preventing escape was access to transportation to get to a neutral country and safety. Lessons for today – assess implementation constraints Transport Security checks Move ment Problems Risk Foot 10-15 Only on roads Night Finding shelter Low Train 100s Moderate Day Disguise scrutinized; currency Med Bike 20-60 Few, on roads Day Finding bike to steal Med Motor vehicle 17 Distance /day miles 100s Few, on roads Day Fuel; once reported stolen High Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Table of contents 1. Background 2. Problems 3. APM BOK 4. Solutions 5. Timeline to Escape 6. Post Mortem 18 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Lessons for today “Planning the Strategy” With tight security escape was thought impossible.  In April 1943 PoWs were moved to the new North Compound. An intact “Escape Committee” moved in (Stakeholder Management) Lessons from previous escapes    Escapes: 1. Well planned and organized 2. Well executed 3. Change managed  Beat many complex problems 19 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • When the escape committee started to plan their escape they were instigating a project of a monumental scale.  Equivalent to Project Management Plan  Feasibility – Idea, approach, proposal, ROI – Checkpoint 1- assess risk, resources  Planning and Design – High level plan – Preparation for escape  Production – Preparation of Tunnel – Engineering – Construction and testing – Checkpoint 2 - Assess risk  Implementation and Startup – Implement escape – Checkpoint 3 - Assess risk – Collect metrics and determine success – Consider rerun (reuse) 20 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • At Checkpoint 1 the escape committee was faced with the conundrum of Return on Investment and project scope. Lessons for today “Value Management” Approach to escape # of Description Example Resources required Risk of Discovery escapees Unplanned opportunistic 1-2 Take advantage of presented situation Hide in back of a truck Low Low Planned, used once only 1-3 Escape route exposed Cutting through wire Med Low Planned, reused several 1 - 10 Escape route preserved, mass escape over period Tunnel Med High Planned, used once only Up to 250 Escape route exposed Tunnel High High 21 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The escape committee assessed project risks (qualitative and quantitative) and modified project plans to accommodate it. Lessons for today “Project Risk Management” and “Health and Safety”  Hiding project – From nosy ferrets on danger list  Discovery of tunnel – Multiple tunnels built in parallel  Good enough POW disguise – Plausible role  Escape through tunnel – Without detection  Getting away from camp Geneva Convention – Not in uniform shot  Traveling distances – Forged passes & money.  Survival in open 22 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The escape committee realized that mistakes were intolerable. One slip up would give the game away.  Concealing tunnel entrance  Tunnel construction, secretly & safely Lessons for today “Project Quality Management”, determine where quality is critical  Forged documents scrutinized  Clothing - meld wearer 23 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Once out the POWs depended with their lives on disguises and documents.  Forged documents scrutinized  Clothing - meld wearer 24 Project Lessons from the Great Escape Lessons for today “Project Quality Management”, determine where quality is critical in project www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Lessons for today “Executing the Strategy” Utilize hard-won experience acquired by POWs Lessons for today “Scope Management”- Philosophy reduce scope were possible  Scope carefully considered and its constraints  Scope of tunnels – Number was determined by the number of concrete foundations available and the risk of discovery – Depth and length determined by distance from camp to woods and available tunnel shoring materials  Scope of intelligence and security required – Six guards were wandering around in the compound – Number of escapers that could get through tunnel in given night 25 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The escape committee evaluated the activities, their sequencing, resources, duration and schedule.  Lessons for today “Scheduling” Primary Activities 1. Tunnel (engineering & sand dispersal) 2. Preparing escapers  Time construct tunnel, constraints: – Manpower available – Impact of seasons, climate  26 Project Lessons from the Great Escape Time to prepare escapers: – Profiles – language, responses – Identities, documents – Disguises, clothes www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The escape committee created project teams to overcome the various problems based on available skill sets. Lessons for today – pick your project team with care, “Resource Management” Escape Committee X Organisation Big X Intelligence gathering Equipment & tool making Tunnel engineering Document production Map making Clothing production Internal security Compass factory Dispersals Dispersal diversions Cultural training Supplies Professions, Trades and Skill Sets in the Camp Miners, Forgers, Tailors, Carpenters, Physicists and Geologists, Engineers, Surveillance Experts, Electricians, Tinsmiths 27 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The escape committee evaluated available resources (Cost Estimating – Labor, Cost Budgeting, Cost Control)  Food and parcels Lessons for today “Budgeting and Cost Management” – Not seen in Germany – Relatives sent 1 parcel/man/week or month. – International Red Cross: • Clothes, shave/wash kits, food. – Captured officers paid 28 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The escape committee communicated the plan to other PoWs to get buy-in and active participation in the project.  Compliance, adoption, communication plans  Adoption plan sell camp – Contribute & support  Incredible level of trust existed – Impeccable security Lessons for today “Communication” 29 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The escape committee procured resources like tools and raw materials essential to the project.  Liberating wire for tunnel lights Lessons for today “Procurement”  Visit of high ranking General  Food and tobacco part of procurement 30 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Table of contents 1. Background 2. Problems 3. APM BOK 4. Solutions 5. Timeline to Escape 6. Post Mortem 31 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Solution to the unknown (problem 1) required Intelligence gathering Lessons for today – assess all options  Befriend guards German speakers  Rope in first time  Blackmail many times – Some cooperative, railway timetables, maps, & official papers  Bushell monitors progress  Kommendant provides camera & film 32 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Solution to location (problem 1) required map making capability based on intelligence gathered  Team forged maps – Rice paper, sewn into uniforms. – Mimeograph 33 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Solution to prowling Guards, Goons and Ferrets (problem 2) required sophisticated internal security Lessons for today – leverage organizational intelligence where possible  "Duty Pilot" system  Security system "stooging"  “Stool pigeons” 2 witness  Inter-camp semaphore 34 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Solution to physical barriers (problem 3) required equipment and tool making capability.  Manufacturing – Spades, blades, knives, hacksaws 35 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Solution to physical barriers (problem 3) required tunnel preparation and engineering.  Tunnel size width 2’  Required huge number of physical resources. – 4,000 bedboards; 1,370 beading battens; 1,699 blankets; 161 pillow cases; 635 palliasses; 34 chairs; 52 20-man tables; 90 double tier bunks; 1,219 knives; 478 spoons; 30 shovels; – 1,000 ft electric wire; 600 ft rope; 192 bed covers; 3,424 towels; 1,212 bed bolsters; 10 single tables; 76 benches; 246 water cans; 582 forks; 69 lamps.  Tunneling crude tools.  Sand dispersal 'Penguins’. 36 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Solution to going incognito (problem 4) required a document production unit known as "Dean and Dawson" (travel agents).  Official stamps, papers changed often  Forged papers (over 400) : – Passports (studio), permission on Wehrmacht property, military leave pass – foreign workers returning home, – general identity card, visa, currency, – pass and temporary pass.  Weeks to reproduce: – Hand stenciled. – Official stamps rubber heels. 37 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Solution to going incognito (problem 4) required the production of clothing  Civilian clothing forbidden  Military uniforms cobbled together  Escapees carried aircrew badges secretly  Conversion of uniforms 38 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Solution to survival (problem 5) required survival rations  "Foodacco" collective bargaining and bartering  Food hoarded for escape  Baked iron rations  Canisters 39 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Solution to access to transportation (problem 6) required profiling PoWS.  Train travel to Suitcase brigade 1. Germanspeakers 2. Experienced escapers 3. Greatest contributors  Foot travel for “Hard-arsers" or Blanket brigade – Hide day “footslog by night”. – Rudimentary false papers & identities. Business travelers or foreign workers 40 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Table of contents 1. Background 2. Problems 3. APM BOK 4. Solutions 5. Timeline to Escape 6. Post Mortem 41 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • July 1943 – construction on new camp starts  Robs US airmen chance to escape.  'Dick' abandoned. – Ideal for clothing, contraband, workshop.  Bushell put entire effort into "Tom."  Skills transfer to US airmen. 42 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • August 1943 - As tunnel reached perimeter fence trees were cleared  Microphones detecters pick up activity.  Guards believed tunnel near completion.  Traces of tunnel sand spotted in gardens.  Five hour search of Hut 123 found nothing. 43 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • September 1943 - Tom discovered at 85 m, only 16m short of completion. Guards surprised at its scale  Intelligence alerted Bushell - 2,000 bed boards plundered before count, and hidden down Dick.  Dick - clothing, contraband, manufacturer workshop. 44 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • October – December 1943 - Tunnelling stopped. activities switch away  Equipment and tool making capability.  Compass Factory.  POWs moved around in job reshuffle. 45 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • January 1944 - nervous about discovery of the project Bushell restarted Harry. However, project showstopper was SAND  Surplus sand into 'Dick'. Solution in theatre.  Tunnel (336 foot) with miner’s rail, electric lights, air ventilation 46 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Feb, 1944 – Ferret take 19 top suspects and 6 key men to Stalag VIIIC at Belaria • Bushell taken off list • Deputies took over • Project tracking and managing change to accommodate risk 47 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • March 1944 - Ideal conditions required for a night escape but debate whether to go       48 Four conditions Bushell wanted: – No moon – A wind to disguise noises – Good weather – No ferrets around Next moonless nights March 23/24/25. 25th Saturday - poor train tables, No trains Sunday. Arguments to postpone to April and better weather. Harry would not survive wet month of April. Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • March 23, 1944 - Day before, Bushell re-emphasizes objectives with "Wings" Day and determines to go ahead with escape.  “The weather’s going to be bloody awful, and will probably get worse. 90% of the hardarsers will run into deep snow in the mountains…[but it]…Doesn’t matter. It will give the Nazis an almighty shock. 200 looney escape artists roaring around the countryside.” – Conversation between Roger Bushell, and Wings Day prior to the escape. 49 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • March 24, 1944 – Day of escape  POW congregate in Hut 104  9:45 Problems in breakout  Frozen trap door  Clever improvisation to continue 50 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • In the Implementation and startup things started to go badly wrong  10:30 First out from suitcase brigade  00:00 1 hour air raid  01:30 Tunnel cave in 51 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • The passage of escapers greatly slowed  03:00 Blanket brigade begins  03:30 Word sent back, 100 could escape  Expected throughput 60/hour, actual 12/hour.  04:55 - 76 escapers were out 52 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Breakout and escapers get away  Escaper at exit mixed up signals emerged under guard  Men in tunnel returned to Hut 104  Burned false papers ate rations 53 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Best chance was for suitcase brigade  Station 1 mile from camp  Many escapers could not find station, missed trains.  At dawn many POWs still on the platform, ignoring each other.  Bushell awaited the 3:30am service to Breslau and arrived 5:00am. 54 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Who got where? 76 of 250 got out. Many escapers could not find station, missed trains. 3 got to neutral country, "home run"  Norwegians (2) reach Sweden  Dutchman reaches Gibraltar via France /Spain (3.5 months).  ~50 men caught within few miles  15 men escape to free territory but got caught 55 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Table of contents 1. Background 2. Problems 3. APM BOK 4. Solutions 5. Timeline to Escape 6. Post Mortem 56 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Was the project a success?  Pros – Massive disruption, million men looking – Hitler outraged, diversion to war  Cons – Too few got out and away – 50 captured and executed 57 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Lessons learned – the positives from the project  Limited material resources – Everything saved  Decentralized organization – 600 men were engaged  High performance team – Committed to cause Lessons for today – nothing is impossible  Ad hoc group used diverse talents  Extraordinarily difficult task – Adverse circumstances  Problems solved – Continuous innovation 58 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Lessons learned downside - Airmen - Australia, Canada, France, Greece, Holland, Norway, Poland, South Africa, &UK  No rerun – Poor ROI, massive investment  Attention to implementation – Priority to greatest contributors – March best month? – Many escapers drew attention?  No withdrawal plan – Tunnel too short – No stopping – Emotions unchecked, desire to get out  Effective Project Management? 59 Lessons for today – pay attention to all phases of project Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Lessons learned – Too much focus on the tunnel and its construction  Project Objectives – Clear at outset, unclear in hindsight – Game or sport  WWII 30 of 10,000 RAF airmen reached safety.  17% of PoWs died in German camps.  Escapes more dangerous but continued. 60 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Questions Presentation available on-line Mark available to work with you and your organization (PMs and Executives), speak or run workshops. http://www.lessons-from-history.com/ Sign up for lessons-from-history newsletter (subscribe/unsubscribe). Twitter @LessonsfromHist You tube – ProjectLessons http://ca.linked.com/in/markkozakholland Skype name - mark.kozak.holland Email: mark.kozak-holl@sympatico.ca 64 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Lessons-from-History is a series of publications for today’s business world, established in 2001.  Our authors are from the business world but, with a deep passion for history.  The authors are highly experienced and working project managers, consultants, business analysts.  This combination of business and history provides a deeper understanding of challenges faced by today's business. John J. Byrne 65 Paul R. Bruno Michael Dobson Lessons From History Overview Ian Hughes Mark KozakHolland Glen LeClair Bob Lerner www.lessons-from-history.com Joe Luttrell Jerry Manas Ranjit Sidhu © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Get signed copies, SPECIAL DISCOUNT of 30% (business receipt, checks, credit cards).  Value proposition - 100’s of best practices, implemented save 1000’s of dollars  “This book and others by Mark Kozak-Holland are a tremendous resource for educators-the stark reality of failed projects and Mark’s detailed research, historical accuracy, and the link to the BOK, helps us to analyze and understand we are not alone in managing our complex projects today. The incredible resourcefulness and bravery of these men gives us hope on our own troubled projects.  Linda F. Desmond, PMP, Project Management Trainer/Consultant President of Mass Bay Chapter, PMI 66 Project Lessons from the Great Escape £10 Also available at http://www.mmpubs.com/books-LFH.html Or call 1-866-721-1540 www.lessons-from-history.com Please contact Mark: mark.kozak-holl@sympatico.ca www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland
    • Credits and Sources  http://www.historyinfilm.com/escape/real1.htm  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/greatescape/  http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1778.html  http://www.b24.net/pow/stalag3.htm  http://www.afhi.org/museum/stalag/escape.html  http://www.elsham.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/gt_esc/  http://www.au.af.mil/au/goe/eaglebios/84bios/stok84.htm  http://www.inyourpocket.com/poland/poznan/en/feature?id=4326  http://www.pegasus-one.org/pow/pSL_3  http://www.simonsays.com/content/book.cfm?sid=33&pid=508729  The Great Escape, by Paul Brickhill  The Longest Tunnel, by Alan Burgess 67 Project Lessons from the Great Escape www.lessons-from-history.com © 2013 Mark Kozak-Holland