Career & Talent Management in Unilever Bangladesh Ltd.

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Career & Talent Management in Unilever Bangladesh Ltd.

  1. 1. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 1 | P a g e 2012 1.Introduction Talent management is a process that emerged in the 1990s and continues to be adopted, as more companies come to realize that their employees’ talents and skills drive their business success. Companies that have put into practice talent management have done so to solve an employee retention problem. The issue with many companies today is that their organizations put tremendous effort into attracting employees to their company, but spend little time into retaining and developing talent. A talent management system must be worked into the business strategy and implemented in daily processes throughout the company as a whole. It can’t be left solely to the human resources department to attack and retain employees, but rather must be practiced at all levels of the organizations. The business strategy must include responsibilities for line managers to develop the skills of their immediate subordinates. Divisions within the company should be openly sharing information with other departments in order for employees to gain knowledge of the overall organizational objectives. Companies that focus on developing their talent integrate plans and processes to track and manage their employees’ talent, including the following:  Sourcing, attracting and recruiting qualified candidates with competitive backgrounds  Managing and defining competitive salaries  Training and development opportunities  Performance management process  Retention programs  Promotion and transitioning Talent management is also known as Human Capital Management (HCM) Companies that engage in talent management (Human Capital Management) are strategic and deliberate in how the source, attack, select, train, develop, retain, promote, and move employees through the organization. Since the initial hiring process is so expensive to a company, it is important to place the individual in a position where his skills are being extensively utilized. The term “talent management” means different things to different organization. To some it is about the management of high-worth individuals or “the talented” whilst to others it is about how talent is managed generally – i.e. on the assumption that all people have talent which
  2. 2. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 2 | P a g e 2012 should be identified and liberated. From a talent management standpoint, employee evaluations concern two major areas of measurement: performance and potential. Current employee performance within a specific job has always been a standard evaluation measurement tool of the profitability of an employee. However, talent management also seeks to focus on an employee’s potential, meaning an employee’s future performance, if given the proper development and given responsibility. The major aspects of talent management practiced within an organization must consistently include:  performance management  leadership development  workforce planning/identify talent gaps  recruiting This term “talent management” is usually associated with competency-based human resource management practices. Talent management decisions are often driven by a set of organizational core competencies as well as position-specific competencies. The competency set may include knowledge, skills, experience, and personal traits. 2.Traditional Performance Evaluation Tools To guide the personnel of the organization, to both assist in career management and talent management, it is needed to know who need the guidance to make sure the both employees and the organization’s growth. If organization needs to know that, first they have to evaluate their workforce properly. And a successful evaluation system can lead the management to do so. Now we will thoroughly discuss the commonly used effectively performance evaluation tools to know where to apply which tools to get the specific result. 2.1. Management by Objectives (MBO) Management by Objectives (MBO) is one of the most popular performance appraisal methods among organizations.MBO requires you to establish the objectives of the job. The questions asked in performance appraisal are whether these objectives are achieved by employees and to what position. This method is suitable for assessing the performance of managers.MBO is a method of performance appraisal in which managers or employers set a
  3. 3. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 3 | P a g e 2012 list of objectives and make assessments on their performance on a regular basis, and finally make rewards based on the results achieved. 2.2.Graphic Rating Scale Graphic rating scales require an evaluator to indicate on a scale the degree to which an employee demonstrates a particular trait, behavior, or performance result. A graphic rate scale list traits such as quantity and reliability and a range of performance values from unsatisfactory to outstanding for each trait. Subordinates are rated by circling and checking the score the best describes his or her performance for each trait. Then the total of assigned value is calculated. This method actually asses the position of employees between the minimum and maximum of rating scale. It is suitable for task oriented job. 2.3.Competency-based Appraisal Forms It focuses on the extent to which the employee exhibits the competencies essential for the job. With respect to duties, the employee is expected to develop and exhibit competencies. 2.4. Peer Review Peers, who understand the objectives and goals of the position can observe performance of the employee, suggest him possible improvements in order to attain goals and sent feedback to management about the current situation. 2.5. Appraisal Interview Appraisal interview is an interview in which the supervisor and subordinate review the appraisal and make plans to remedy deficiencies and reinforce strengths. 2.6. Alterative Ranking Method It is ranking employees from best to worst on a particular trait, choosing highest, then lowest, until all are ranked. Since it is usually easier to distinguish between the worst and best employees, an alternation ranking method is most popular. First, all subordinated to be rated are listed, and names of any not well enough to be ranked are crossed. Then, on a form the employee who is the highest on the characteristics being measured and the one who is the lowest is marked. This process continues until all employees have been ranked.
  4. 4. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 4 | P a g e 2012 2.7. Paired Comparison Method Ranking employees by making a chart of all possible pairs of the employees for each trait (quantity of work, quality of work and so on), compare every subordinates with every other subordinates and indicating which is the better employee of the pair. 2.8. Critical Incident Method Keeping a record of uncommonly good or undesirable examples of an employee’s work related behavior and reviewing it with the employee at predominant times. It requires the supervisor to keep a log on employee’s performance. The assessor will submit an essay on the poor or outstanding performance of the employee. The problem is that he or she may come to arbitrary conclusions. Supervisor keeps the log of positive and negative examples of subordinate’s work related behavior. Every six months or so supervisor and subordinates meet to discuss the latter’s performance, using the incidents as example. 2.9. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales This formatted performance appraisal is based on making rates on behaviors or sets of indicators to determine the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of working performance. This is suitable for either professional or technical jobs. This method identifies behaviors that show high performance. But it requires the preparation of detailed performance levels ranging from1 for very poor to 5 for very good or from 1 for extremely poor to 7 for extremely good. How good is "good" and how poor is "poor" is something that every assessor must understand well. If not the results may not reflect actual performance. 2.10. 360 Degree Appraisal 360 degree performance appraisal is a method in which employees will give confidential and anonymous assessments on their colleagues. There are some firms that using this appraisal method. Several parties are required to assess the same employee. These include the employee himself or herself, working colleagues as internal customers, the superior, outside parties such as customers and suppliers. There is many other performance evaluation tools available like- confidential report, easy method, electronic performance monitoring method, checklists, forced choice method, performance test etc. These all tools are widely applied in different industries along the world
  5. 5. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 5 | P a g e 2012 to correctly measure the performance of the employees and give contribution to find out what is the correct way to motivate those employees and facilitate the organization. 3. Career Management The career management process begins with setting goals/objectives. A relatively specific goal/objective must be formulated. This task may be quite difficult when the individual lacks knowledge of career opportunities and/or is not fully aware of their talents and abilities. However, the entire career management process is based on the establishment of defined goals/objectives whether specific or general in nature. Utilizing career assessments may be a critical step in identifying opportunities and career paths that most resonate with someone. Career assessments can range from quick and informal to more in-depth. Regardless of the ones you use, you will need to evaluate them. Most assessments found today for free (although good) do not offer an in-depth evaluation. The time horizon for the achievement of the selected goals or objectives - short term, medium term or long term - will have a major influence on their formulation. 1. Short term goals (one or two years) are usually specific and limited in scope. Short term goals are easier to formulate. Make sure they are achievable and relate to your longer term career goals. 2. Intermediate goals (3 to 20 years) tend to be less specific and more open ended than short term goals. Both intermediate and long term goals are more difficult to formulate than short term goals because there are so many unknowns about the future. 3. Long term goals (Over 20 years), of course, are the most fluid of all. Lack of life experience and knowledge about potential opportunities and pitfalls make the formulation of long term goals/objectives very difficult. Long range goals/objectives, however, may be easily modified as additional information is received without a great loss of career efforts because of experience/knowledge transfer from one career to another. 4. Making career choices and decisions – the traditional focus of careers interventions. The changed nature of work means that individuals may now have to revisit this process more frequently now and in the future, more than in the past.
  6. 6. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 6 | P a g e 2012 5. Managing the organizational career – concerns the career management tasks of individuals within the workplace, such as decision-making, life-stage transitions, dealing with stress etc. 6. Managing 'boundary less' careers – refers to skills needed by workers whose employment is beyond the boundaries of a single organization, a work style common among, for example, artists and designers. 7. Taking control of one's personal development – as employers take less responsibility, employees need to take control of their own development in order to maintain and enhance their employability. Advantages of Career Management: Career Management may be art or it may be a science; whichever, it delivers huge benefits. Research shows  Having career goals mean people outperform those who do not have goals or who only have a weak commitment to their goals.  Those with goals are more optimistic, they are more resilient.  Those with goals are more focused; they work harder at job search, are engaged and are more successful at finding new roles.  People who engage in career management generate more job interviews and more offers.  They obtain higher salary offers and are more realistic about their job expectations.  They are more effective in job interviews. 4. Talent Management This new age economy, with its attendant paradigm shifts in relation to the human capital, in terms of its acquisition, utilization, development and retention, has placed a heavy demand on today’s HR professionals. Today HR is expected to identify potential talent and also comprehend, conceptualize and implement relevant strategies to contribute effectively to achieve organizational objectives. Hence a serious concern of every HR manager in order to
  7. 7. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 7 | P a g e 2012 survive this “War for Talent” is to fight against a limited and diminishing pool of qualified available candidates to replace valuable employees when they leave, dramatically underscoring the difficulty to attack, motivate and retain the best employees in an organization. Talent management refers to the process of developing and integrating new workers, developing and retaining current workers, and attracting highly skilled workers to work for a company. The process of attracting and retaining profitable employees, as it is incredibly more competitive between firms and of strategic importance, has come to be known as “the war for talent.” Despite intense competition being the key to market development and success, organizations have failed to identify some of the major reasons which highlight why “good performers” leave. In his study, Branham clearly states that one major reason why people leave their organization is because of the organizations failure to bring about a correlation between pay and performance. Human Resource experts in the industry believe matching the right blend of talent with the right job profile can lead to superior performance. 4.1. TALENT in Present Context: Talent = Competence * Commitment * Contribution C = Competence  Able to do the work means the knowledge, skills, and values that individuals require for today’s and tomorrow’s jobs. C = Commitment  Means the level of employee engagement. It is when employees work on time, work hard and do what is expected from them. C = Contribution  The part played by a person or thing in bringing about a result or helping something to advance.
  8. 8. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 8 | P a g e 2012 How to effectively management? Talent management implies recognizing a person’s inherent skills, traits, personality and offering him a matching job. Every person has a unique talent that suits a particular job profile and any other position will cause discomfort. Talent management is beneficial to both the organization and the employees.  Build a winning environment that people want to belong to  Establish a talent management mindset, which embeds ownership and accountability for optimizing talent and potential  Create tangible means to identify, select and develop people and outstanding talent  Fully engage talent, use it and manage it intelligently So, how does an organization effectively manage talent? 1. Recognize Talent: Notice what do employees do in their free time and find out their interests. Try to discover their strengths and interests. Also, encourage them to discover their latent talents. For example: If an employee in the operations department convincingly explains why he thinks he is right even when he is wrong, consider moving him to sales.
  9. 9. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 9 | P a g e 2012 Figure: Ways of Manage Talent 2. Attracting Talent: Good companies crate a strong brand identity with their customers and then deliver on that promise. Great employment brands do the same, with quantifiable and qualitative results. As, a result the right people choose to join the organization. 3. Selecting Talent: Management should implement proven talent selection systems and tools to create profiles of the right people based on the competencies of high performers. It’s not a matter of finding the “best and the brightest” it’s about creating the right fit – both for today and tomorrow. 4. Retaining Talent: In the current climate of change, it’s critical to hold on to the key people. These are the people who will lead the organization to future success, and you can’t afford to lose them. The cost of replacing a valued employee is enormous. Organizations need to promote diversity and design strategies to retain people, reward high performance and provide opportunities for development. 5. Managing Succession: Effective organizations anticipate the leadership and talent requirement to succeed in future. Leaders understand that it’s critical to strengthen
  10. 10. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 10 | P a g e 2012 their talent pool through succession planning, professional development, job rotation and workforce planning. They need to identify potential talent and groom it. 6. Change Organization Culture: Ask yourself, “Why would a talent person choose to work here?” If the organization wishes to substantially strengthen its talent pool, it should be prepared to change things as fundamental as business strategy, the organization structure, the culture and even the caliber of the leaders in the organization. A rightly managed talent turns out to be a gold mine. It’s inexhaustible and priceless. It will keep supplying wealth and value to the organization. In turn, management needs to realize it’s worth, extract it, polish it and utilize it. Don’t hoard talent- spend it lavishly, like a millionaire flashing his luxuries, because at the end of day Talent is Wealth. Ways to keep hold on talent:  Build a path that enables employees to utilize their full potential  Invest in building the physiological contract - Individual growth - Compelling future - Pay - Positive Workplace  Appreciate the contribution of all employee’s 4.2. Eight Steps of Talent Management process: Organizations are made up of people; people create value through proven business processes, innovation, customer service, sales, and doing many other activities. As an organization strives to meet its business goals, it must make sure that it has a continuous and integrated process for recruiting, training, managing, supporting, and compensating these people. The following charts show the complete process: 4.2.1. Workforce Planning: Integrated with the business plan, this process establishes workforce plans, hiring plans, compensation budgets, and hiring target for the year.
  11. 11. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 11 | P a g e 2012 Figure: Talent Management process 4.2.2. Recruiting: Through an integrated process of recruiting, assessment, evaluation, and hiring the business brings people into the organization. 4.2.3. Onboarding: The organization must train and enable employees to become productive and integrated into the company more quickly. 4.2.4. Performance Management: By focusing the business plan, the organization establishes process to measure and manage employees. This is a complex process. 4.2.5. Training and Performance Support: Of course this is a critically important function. Here learning and development programs are provided to all levels of the organization. 4.2.6. Succession Planning: Succession Planning ensures a company identifies and develops talents in order to achieve its business strategy. Developing internal talent can be a competitive advantage, thus leaders need to focus on all aspects of succession planning to ensure success. Succession planning is vital to an organization because it enables managers and individuals to identify right candidates for a position. This function also must be aligned with the business
  12. 12. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 12 | P a g e 2012 plan to understand and meet requirements for key positions 3-5 years out. While this is often a process reserved for managers and executives, it is more commonly applied across the organization. 4.2.7. Compensations and Benefits: Clearly this is an integral part of people management. Here organizations try to tie the compensation plan directly to performance management so that compensation, incentives, and benefits align with business goals and business execution. 4.2.8. Critical Skills Gap Analysis: This is a process we identify as an important, often overlooked function in many industries and organizations. While often done on a project basis, it can be business critical. For example: Today industries like the Federal government, Telecommunications and Energy are facing large populations which are retiring. How do you identify the roles, individuals, and competencies which are leaving? What should you do to fill these gaps? We call these “Critical Talent Management” and many organizations are going through this now. Advantages of Talent Management:  Having the skills and knowledge available for emergency situations.  Strengthening the organization’s capabilities by developing the skills and knowledge the organizations needs now or in future.  Having back-up staffs with the knowledge and skills that will enable organization to meet its objectives. Talent Management helps in Increasing: - Competitive Advantage - Employee Satisfaction - Worker Productivity - Learning effectiveness - Service Level Talent Management helps in decreasing: - Employee turnover - Time to ramp new hires
  13. 13. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 13 | P a g e 2012 So far, we have discussed about the evaluation process, career management, and talent management briefly. Now we are going to discuss how these days’ organizations using these processes to retain its employees and contribute to the employees’ development. For these purpose, we have selected Unilever Bangladesh and showed how this organization implements career management and talent management program. 5. Brief of “Unilever” Unilever is an Anglo-Dutch company, with a history of colonial exploitation, on which it has gradually built its capital. Today it owns most of the world's consumer product brands in food, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. Unilever employs more than 247,000 people and had worldwide revenue of €48 760 million in 2002. Unilever has two parent companies: Unilever NV in Rotterdam, Netherlands, and Unilever PLC in London, United Kingdom. This arrangement is similar to that of Reed Elsevier, and that of Royal Dutch Shell prior to their unified structure. Both Unilever companies have the same directors and effectively operate as a single business. The current non-executive Chairman of Unilever N.V. and PLC is Antony Burgmans while Patrick Cescau is Group Chief Executive. Unilever's major competitors include Nestlé and Procter & Gamble. Unilever is operating in Bangladesh since 1964. 5.1. Mission Unilever's mission is to add Vitality to life. They meet everyday needs for nutrition; hygiene and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. 5.2. Vision To make cleanliness a commonplace; to lessen work for women; to foster health and contribute to personal attractiveness, in order that life may be more enjoyable and rewarding for the people who use the products. 5.3. Goals and Objectives The goals of UBL are:
  14. 14. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 14 | P a g e 2012  To manufacture high-standard products.  Promoting products to the highest extent  Producing large volume to achieve production cost economies.  Enabling quality products to be sold out at obtainable prices. 6. Performance Evaluation Tool of Unilever Under the supervision of Human Resources Department (HRD), the Human Resources Director, Jerry Jose, directly involved towards the performance evaluation process of the Unilever. The other major work areas of this department are-  Factory Personnel functions or Industrial Relations,  Recruitment, Training and developments, labor welfare,  Personnel Services and Security. To be specific for the project, we were concerned to know certain things which a directly related to our project topic. Higher productivity, industrial relations or the factory personnel functions are looked after by factory personnel manager, training and development activities are supervised by Manager Human Resource Development, Employee Welfare, activities are monitored by Assistant Manager labor welfare, personnel services are looked after by the FPM along with the office services manager and finally security officer is responsible for all the security services At present, the total number of personnel in Unilever Bangladesh Limited are 720 which includes 159 in management & 543 unionized permanent workers. For the evaluation process, Unilever Bangladesh mainly follows Management by Objective (MBO) method. They named this process Performance and Development Planning (PDP) process. Through this process employees are engaged to identify and deliver the challenging goals. They mainly took part in decision making process. By doing so they built up their leadership skills and behavior which help them to prepare themselves for better position in future. Providing this opportunity, Unilever assesses their future leaders for the organizations. So far the process gave them a very sustainable feedback.
  15. 15. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 15 | P a g e 2012 7. Career Management in Unilever In Unilever, career management known as career progression. In this organization, progression is based purely on merit & potential. With advice & guidance from your manager & HR, the employees take control of their own career development. 7.1. Planning Careful planning ensures you build a strong foundation in professional skills, gain experience across different operating environments and processes, and develop capability in your chosen area of expertise. Performing well will lead to opportunities to take on new and more challenging roles. That in turn will allow you to deepen and broaden your skills and experience. 7.2. Depth & Breadth Depth of experience is about developing professional skills through performing and practicing your role. We'll encourage you to build this depth of skill early in your career to provide a solid basis for further progression. Breadth of experience is about increasing your knowledge and understanding of the business as a whole, so you can assess complex issues from different angles. Naturally, this becomes more important as seniority increases. 7.3. Wider Experience International experience is essential in many roles within a global organization – and assignments offer valuable development opportunities. You can also gain exposure through regional/global roles and project teams. In higher-level positions that have a wider geographic remit, cross-border, category and customer experience may be vital to help leverage our global scale.
  16. 16. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 16 | P a g e 2012 8. Talent Management Strategies of Unilever Unilever starts its talent management program from the beginning of recruitment process. Though they usually do not disclose their whole recruitment processes as a part of their talent management program. The following process is usually followed by the Unilever HRD and talent specialists. Unilever talent management process creates a comprehensive profile of their talents which help organization in succession planning. Figure: Learning Center of Unilever 8.1. Attract talent:  Design a talent management system  Unbiased reward and recognition  Flexible work environment and positive culture  Proper training  Effective appraisal system  Design job for talent people  Proactive visionary management and leadership  Provide proper research facility
  17. 17. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 17 | P a g e 2012 Fig.: Talent Management Process 8.2. Keep talent:  Compensate talents as supplier  Right location to attract and retain talents  Assign right job to right talent  Career and succession plan  Balance age, race, gender, color  Create challenging environment  Create social bond with employees through adventure, sports, party, contest, etc  Compensation and profit sharing plan  Eliminate non working people Figure: Talent Management Strategies in Unilever
  18. 18. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 18 | P a g e 2012 8.3. Manage Talent:  Establish effective communication and cooperation  Allow talent to create and apply knowledge  Build trust on talents  Set positive and constructive challenge  Performing XYZ analysis  Monitor talent as assets  Set challenging business goal  Take corrective action if necessary 8.4. Identify Talent:  Identify own talent before hiring talent  Performance based talent pool  Test based  Scorecard entries
  19. 19. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 19 | P a g e 2012 9. Critical Analysis of the Findings During our interview session with the talent specialist, Marufa Tabassum, of Unilever Bangladesh, we have found that Unilever has its very unique way of managing its manpower. As we mainly focused on the employees who are related to the managerial activities, these people need more assistance in career planning and organization also has more need to retain those staffs. For this privilege, employees feel satisfied, which made them motivate towards works and provide intrinsic reward. This is the reason employee turnover is so low in Unilever. Their career management planning helps the employees to boost their leadership skills. They have given more independence along with the responsibilities which improves their decision taking abilities. But this program also creates stress for few employees who cannot maintain the work life balance. Another thing is this planning program focuses more on the meritorious and potential employees. So those people, who have lack potential, may feel uncomfortable on that environment. As we know, the traditional talent management program has not conducted in Unilever directly. Unilever has its own way to manage its talent management program. To manage their talent, they start working from the beginning of the recruitment process. After the selection process has been done they train their employees to learn about the organization’s way of doing staffs and develop themselves. The organization set goals, performance evaluations, performance ratings, succession planning, high potential listings for the employees. These all things are done to shape an organizational culture within employees. Unilever conduct “Unilever Future Leaders Programme” (UFLP). They include 30-40 new trainees in this program to find out who is suitable for what. They develop general skills, professional skills, and leadership skills through this program. Unilever also has individual development plan for its employees. These all processes improve their working processes and flourish it. There is nothing to be surprised that Unilever has focus on its employees. Because they know employees can be the only sustainable competitive advantage. So they always look after their employees who make sure that employees are happy and motivated towards their works.
  20. 20. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 20 | P a g e 2012 10. Recommendations  Unilever should have meaningful descriptions of the capabilities i.e. skills, behaviors, abilities and knowledge required throughout the organization.  As a multinational organization, Unilever can integrate assignments with career development, succession planning according to employees’ performance.  Unilever should also focus on the employees who cannot perform their responsibilities. They can provide training program and monitor them for the improvement of their skills.  More certified training should be given to the employee to boost their effectiveness and efficiency. It may also use as a tool of motivation. 11. Conclusion: As organizations can continue to pursue high performance and improved results through the career management and talent management program practices, they are taking a holistic approach to talent management-from attracting and selecting wisely, to placing employees in position of greatest impact. The mandate is clear: for organizations to succeed in today’s rapidly changing and increasingly competitive marketplace, intense focus must be applied to aligning human capital with corporate strategy and objectives. It starts with recruiting and retaining talented people and continuous by sustaining the knowledge and competencies across the entire work force. With rapidly changing skill sets and job recruitments, this becomes an increasingly difficult challenge for organizations. Meeting this organizational supply and demand requires the right “Talent DNA” and supporting technology solutions. By implementing an effective talent management strategy, including integrated data, processes, and analytics, organizations can help ensure that the right people are in the right place at the right time, as well as organizational readiness for the future.
  21. 21. Career & Talent management in Unilever Bangladesh 21 | P a g e 2012 References: 1. Dessler, G. and Varkkey, B. (2011), Human Resource Management (12th Edition), N.D.: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp. 320-339, 359-360, 375-376. 2. http://www.unilever.com/careers/whyjoinus/experiencedprofessionals/ Retrieved on December 07, 2012. 3. Career Discussion:Talk That Performs, by Melvin J. Scales. Retrieved from http://www.right.com/thought-leadership/e-newsletter/career-discussion-talk-that- performs.pdf on December 05, 2012. 4. Career Discussion at Work: Practical tips for HR, managers and employees. Retrieved from http://www.cipd.co.uk/binaries/tool_10.pdf on December 08, 2012. 5. The Talent Management Pocket Book, by Cross, Andy – 2007 6. Talent Management in Unilever, Retrieved from http://www.nvp- plaza.nl/documents/doc/talent-mgmt-nvp.pdf 7. Best practice in Talent Management: How the World’s Leading Organization Manage, Develop, and Retain Top Talent, by Goldsmith, Marshall and Carter, Louis 8. A handbook on Human Resource Management Practice, by Armstrong, Micheal 9. Talent Assessment: A New Strategy for Talent Management, by Davis, Tony and Cutt, Maggie, 2007. 10. Talent Management What is it? Why now? by Bersin J., 2006.[Retieved fromwww.bf.umich.edu/docs/KeyReferenceArticles.pdf on 02 December, 2012.] 11. Talent management: an overview [Retrieved from http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr- resources/factsheets/talent-management-overview.aspx on December 03, 2012.]

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