Spices sensory and functional aspects in food processing


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Spices sensory and functional aspects in food processing

  1. 1. SPICESSensory and functional aspects in food processing Gioacchino dellAQUILA Food Engineering MSc İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi
  2. 2. What are spices? FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATIONAny aromatic vegetable in whole, broken or ground form whose significant function in food is seasoning rather than nutritionalINTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDISATIONThe term spices and condiments refers to natural plant or vegetable product or mixtures that are used to impart flavor, aroma and pungency to the food
  3. 3. Common used spices Ajowan Asafoetida Basil Bayleaf Cassia Celery Cinnamon CloveCoriander Cumin Fenugreek Garlic Ginger Mustard Mint Oregano Pepper Poppy Rosemary SumakTamarind Thyme Turmeric Vanilla
  4. 4. Spice Market Shares in Turkey
  5. 5. Definition of drug Adapted from Vaidya et al., (2008) Botanical name Spice DrugCinnamomum aromaticum Cinnamon BarkMyristica fragrans Mace ArilMyristica fragrans Nutmeg EndospermEugenia caryophyllata Cloves Flower budCurcuma longa Turmeric RootZingiber officinale Ginger RhizomeLaurus nobilis Bayleaf Leaves
  6. 6. Properties*Flavoring agents in meals, curries, bakery, pickles, processed meats, beverages, liquors.*Enhance or vary the flavors of foods.*Possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties preventing food spoilage*Used as preservatives in pickle and chutney.*Possess important nutritional and medicinal properties.
  7. 7. Basic Uses of spices Adapted from Ravindran et al., (2002)Flavoring Cinnamon, Allspice, Dill, Mint, Cumin, Marjoram, Basil, Anise, Mace, Nutmeg, Fennel, Sesame, Vanilla, Fenugreek, Cardamom, CeleryDeodorizing Garlic, Savory, Bay leaves, Clove, Leek, Thyme, Rosemary, Caraway, Oregano, Onion, CorianderOdors maskingPungency Garlic, Bay leaves, Clove, Leek, Thyme, Rosemary, Caraway, Oregano, Onion, Coriander, Mustard, Ginger, Red pepper, PepperColouring Paprika, Turmeric, Saffron
  8. 8. Sensory aspects*Flavor is combination of taste, aroma and texture derived from an overall combination of volatile components (aroma) and nonvolatile components (taste) in a spice.
  9. 9. Essential oils
  10. 10. Hot and spicy taste
  11. 11. Classification of sensory characteristics Adapted from Farrel, (1985) Flavor Spices Alliaceous Onion, Garlic Bitter Celery seed, Curry powder, Fenugreek, Mace, Marjoram, Nutmeg, Oregano, Turmeric Fragrant Basil Herbaceous Dill weed, Rosemary, Saffron, Thyme Pungent and hot Capsicum, Ginger , Mustard, Black and White PepperPungent and sweet Cassia, Cloves ,Cinnamon
  12. 12. Sweet Anise, Cardamom, Fenugreek Sulfurous Garlic, Onion Warm,fruity Anise, Bay leaf, Caraway, Cardamom, Cumin,and camphrous Fennel, RosemaryWarm, fragrant Basil, Oregano, Peppermint , Spearmint and cooling Warm, spicy, Allspice, Basil, Caraway, Cardamom, Cassia, and very Chilli powder, Cinnamon, Cloves, Coriander, aromatic Curry powder, Dill weed, Ginger, Mace, Nutmeg ,Thyme, Saffron Woody Cassia, Cinnamon, Cloves
  13. 13. Flavouring Compounds in SpicesAll Spice EugenolAniseed AnetholAsafoetida Mixed Alkyl DisulphidesBay Leaf Linalool, Methyl cinnamateCardamom Cineol, Borneol, CamphorClove EugenolCumin CinnamaldehydeGarlic Diallyl disulphidesPeppermint Menthol 14
  14. 14. Chemistry of flavour*Sweetness: Esters, sugars.*Saltiness: Cations, chlorides and citrates.*Astringency: Phenols and tannins.*Bitterness: Alkaloids (caffeine and glycosides).*Pungency: Thio-esters and iso-thiocyanates. *Aromatic freshness: (floral, earthy or spicy)-Terpenes. 15
  15. 15. *<Compounds with benzene structure – floral,creamy, sweet notes>*<Sulphur and nitrogen compounds givecharacteristic notes to onion, garlic, mustard,citrus and floral oils>*<Alcohols, esters and aldehydes are themajor contributors of aromatic sensations> 16
  16. 16. Colour Components Source Agriculture Research Institute, United States Department Agriculture Pigment Tint Spiceβ- Carotene Reddish Orange Red pepper, mustard, paprika, saffronCryptoxanthin Red Paprika, red pepperLutein Dark red PaprikaZeaxanthin Yellow PaprikaCapsanthin Dark red Paprika, red pepperCrocetin Dark red SaffronCrocin Yellowish orange SaffronFlavonoids Yellow GingerCurcumin Orange- yellow TurmericChlorophyll Green Coriander, Bay leaf
  17. 17. Nutritional facts Source National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, IndiaSpice 100 g /KCal Spice 100 g /KCalAsafoetida 297 Mint 48Cardamom 229 Mustard 541Coriander Seed 288 Nutmeg Fruit 472Cumin Seeds 356 Nutmeg Rind 52Garlic (Dry) 145 Bishops weed 363Ginger (Fresh) 67 Parsley 87Poppy Seeds 408 Turmeric 349
  18. 18. Spice formAdapted from Raghavan (2007)
  19. 19. Antimicrobial ComponentsSulphur compounds Sulphides and thiols in Aliaceae family.Terpene and derivatives: a. Mono (Di, tri) terpenes- mint. b. Sesquiterpenes - cinnamon, ginger.Phenols Wide spread as natural antimicrobialsGlycosides Made up of a sugar molecule and a non sugar part called aglycon – mustard oil. 20
  20. 20. Antimicrobial activity depends► Kind of spice.► Composition and concentration of spice.► Microbial species and its occurrence level.► Substrate composition.► Processing conditions and storage.
  21. 21. Antimicrobial function Adapted from Saha et al., (2007) Spice Microorganisms inhibitedCinnamon Aspergillus flavus, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureusCloves mycotoxinogenic Aspergillus flavus, Camplyobacter jejuni, E. coli, Penicillium, FusariumMustard mycotoxinogenic Aspergillus flavusOregano A. flavus, Salmonella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenesThyme Vibrio parahaemolyticus 22Rosemary Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus
  22. 22. Black Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridia spp pepper Basil Wide range of gram +ve and –ve bacteria, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, L . monocytogenes, Shigella sppFenugreek Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris Fennel Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimuriumTurmeric Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarumCoriander Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger
  23. 23. Antimicrobial function Adapted from Kenjii and Mitsuo (2008)
  24. 24. Antimicrobial function Adapted from Saha et al., (2007) Spices Antimicrobial agent Effect Mustard Allyl and related isothiocyanates Strong Clove Eugenol Strong Cinnamon Eugenol, cinnamic aldehyde StrongOregano,Thyme Terpenes, carvacol, p-cymene, thymol Medium and Savory Basil Methyl chavicol, linalool Medium Cumin Limonene Medium
  25. 25. Antioxidant capacity of spices* Antioxidant properties mainly due to flavanoids,terpenoids, lignans and polyphenols.* Cinnamon, Turmeric, Black Pepper, Garlic, Ginger andOnions exhibit antioxidant properties.* Spices such as Rosemary, Thyme, Marjoram, Clove andGinger attribute their antioxidant activity to phenoliccompounds.* Rosemary extract is commonly added to meat and meatproducts, dressings, and fats and oils (Craig, 2009).
  26. 26. Antioxidant mechanismsThe initiation of free radical formation can be delayed by the use of metal chelating agents, singletoxygen inhibitors and peroxide stabilizers.The propagation of free radical chain reaction can be minimized by the donation of hydrogen fromthe antioxidants and the metal chelating agents.Free radical scavenging (donate H)Quenching oxygen singlet (Carotenoids)Transition metal chelation (Ascorbic acid)Antioxidant complexing with radical molecule
  27. 27. Antioxidants in Spices Source: Spices Board Of India Spice AntioxidantsRosemary Carnosic acid, carnosol, rosemarinic acid, rosmanol Sage Carnosol, carnosic acid, rosmanol, rosmarinic acidOregano Derivatives of phenolic acid, flavonoids, tocopherols Thyme Carvacrol thymol, p-cymene, caryophyllene, carvone, borneolSummer Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, carvacrol, thymol savory
  28. 28. Medicinal Properties Spice Medicinal propertiesBasil Anti-helminthic, antipyretic, carminative, diureticCoriander Carminative, tonic, analgesic, antinflammatoryFennel Stimulant, carminative, stomachicMint Stimulant, stomachic, carminative, antisepticOregano Stimulant, carminative, stomachic, diureticThyme Carminative, anti-helminthic, stomachic, tonic
  29. 29. Medicinal properties Adapted from Mazza et al. (2010)
  30. 30. Emerging global spices Adapted from Raghavan (2007)
  31. 31. Safety in Use of Spices► Gaining popularity as bio-preservatives.► GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe).► Natural and consumer friendly.► Very small amount of extract is effective.► Provides adequate shelf life and convenience.► Sensory aspects of food are retained.
  32. 32. Conclusion*Limits use of doubtful safety artificial preservatives(anti-microbial and anti-oxidants)*Prevents addition of artificial colorants.*Food professionals always search for “new” spices*Growing demand for ethnic and crosscultural cuisines*Consumers seeking fresh and preservatives free food*Green consumerism, ecofriendly lifestyles
  33. 33. Case Study Investigation ofAntimicrobial & Antioxidant Activities of Turkish Traditional Spices MSc Candidate: Gioacchino dellAQUILA Thesis Advisor: Yrd. Doc. Duygu ALTIOK
  34. 34. Objectives*Evaluate the efficacy of spices as biopreservatives*Investigate the potential synergistic effect of fitocomplex*Establish investigation protocol for raw spice material*Determine the antimicrobial activity*Quantify the antioxidant activity*Design a self preserving, nutraceutic salad dressing
  35. 35. Designing new food spiceExamine the efficiency and functionality of spices.Need to study toxicology and safety .Interactions with food components.Mechanisms of action against microorganisms.Influence on nutritional and sensory qualities.Method of applications in marketable food.Extraction, isolation, and economic production.
  36. 36. Selected samples CLOCKWISE Rhus coriaria: Sumak Ocimum basilicum: Reyhan Thymbra spicata: Zaater Mentha spicata: Nane Origanum vulgare: Kekik
  37. 37. MaterialsSpice samplesCollected from Konya organic farmers market in October 2012Botanical identification in Eskisehir University Preparation*cleaning from foreign bodies*separately grounded*stored in dark glass jars Ideal spice blend preparation2 gr of each spice where mixed in a mortar Tabletting0.25 g of spice to obtain round tablet (12 mm ∅, 1,5 mm h)
  38. 38. MaterialsNutrient agar (Merck, 1.05450.0500) Solubility 20 g in 1 L of distilled water.For our purpose we placed a Schott bottle on a magnetic stirring plate and completely dissolved the agar. The bottle has been closed with screw cap. It needs to be loosen to avoid blasting during sterilization.Nutrient broth (Merck, 1.05443.0500) Solubility of 8 g in 1 L distilled water.We prepared a nutrient solution to refresh the laboratory microbial stock will be used in this experiment. Placing a becker on a magnetic stirring plate we dissolved the weighted amount of nutrient broth in distilled water. After the solution is clear with no residues we placed 8 ml in tubes closing them with cotton caps. Test tubes had been sterilised.
  39. 39. MethodsPreliminar operations:*Sterilization by autoclave of Agar and Nutrient solution*Sterilization by UV irradiation of Spice Tablets (30 min)*Sterilization of equipment needed*Activation of culture media ( E. coli; S. aureus ) and incubation*Preparation of sterile Petri dishes (25 ml agar)*Cleaning surfaces and operator hands with 70% ETOh*Performing in sterile conditions by Bunsen flame
  40. 40. Methods*Agar disc diffusion method_Evaluation of the susceptibility of a known microorganism against an antimicrobial compound by measuring the diameter of inhibition zone created after incubation .*Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity_Spectrophotometric method for assessing the Trolox (Vit E water soluble analog) equivalent antioxidant activity. Its based on the evaluation of absorbance decrease at 734 nm in presence of antioxidant in the sample.
  41. 41. Agar disc diffusion method *100 μL of Microorganism culture is inoculated and swabbed to cover all the agar surface *Always ensuring sterility each tablet is placed in the middle of Petri dishes *All test were performed in duplicate for each microorganism *Petri dishes were incubated for 24 h at 37.5°C before reading results
  42. 42. Results Kekik
  43. 43. ResultsZaater
  44. 44. ResultsSumak
  45. 45. Results Nane
  46. 46. ResultsReyhan
  47. 47. ResultsMixture
  48. 48. ResultsMixture The experiment had the same results on the spice mixture. Presence of colonies might be related to: Different composition on fito-complex. Insufficient antimicrobial concentration Contamination of stock culture Contamination during performing Presence of resistant colonies
  49. 49. Inhibition zone (clear zone diameter – tablet diameter) mm Staphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli Control + + Mixture A1 10 4 A2 12 6Ocimum basilicum R1 10 8 R2 8 10 Thymbra spicata Z1 30 16 Z2 20 13 Mentha spicata N1 13 11 N2 13 11 Rhus coriaria S1 18 15 S2 20 18Origanum vulgare K1 28 36 K2 28 35
  50. 50. Discussion of preliminar results*All the sample were active against E. coli and S. aureus*Zateer, Kekik and Sumak were the most active*Wider Inhibition Zones populated by colonies would be absent increasing the concentration*In mixture consider eventual synergistic or antisynergistic effect between different spices compounds*Two different inhibition zones shows that more than one compounds are charged of antimicrobial activity*Qualitative studies on the samples would clarify which components are responsible for the antimicrobial activity
  51. 51. Is then worthy to investigate in moreeffective and efficient food preserving techniques in terms of spices as biopreservatives?
  52. 52. Thank you for your time!