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From farm to fork - water soluble vitamins

From farm to fork - water soluble vitamins



Advancend food Processing course presentation.

Advancend food Processing course presentation.
Gioacchino dell'Aquila - Food Engineering Master Degree - Istanbul Aydin University -



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    From farm to fork - water soluble vitamins From farm to fork - water soluble vitamins Presentation Transcript

    • From Farm to Fork Effect of thermal treatment on food nutrient content Water soluble vitamins
    • Heat treatment Advantages vs disadvantages
      • Control of processing conditions
      • Capability to produce shelf-stable food
      • No refrigeration required in most of the cases
      • Destruction of anti-nutritional factors
      • Improvement in the availability of some nutrients
      • Improvement of safety
    • ( contd )
      • Alteration or destruction of food component
      • Change in texture, flavour, taste, colour
      • Product may burn or overcook
      • Loss of nutritional value
      • Less destructive processing methods exist
    • Water-soluble vitamins Vitamin B complex group of compounds soluble in aqueous solution including Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pantothenic acid (B5), Cyanocobalamin (B12) and Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal, pyridoxine or pyridoxamine). Biotin , Lipoic acid and Folic acid and Ascorbic acid are also part of the water-soluble vitamins.
    • Tab.1 Major food sources of water-soluble vitamins
    • Ascorbic acid Formation of collagen, wound healing; maintaining blood vessels, absorption of iron, calcium, folacin; production of brain hormones and immune factors; antioxidant Most unstable under heat, drying, storage; very soluble in water, leaches out of some vegetables during cooking; alkalinity (baking soda) destroys vitamin C Thiamin Helps release energy from foods; promotes normal appetite; important in function of nervous system Losses depend on cooking method, length, alkalinity of cooking medium; destroyed by sulfite used to treat dried fruits such as apricots; dissolves in cooking water. Riboflavin Helps release energy from foods; promotes good vision, healthy skin. Sensitive to light; unstable in alkaline solutions. Niacin Energy production from foods; aids digestion, promotes normal appetite; promotes healthy skin, nerves. - Vitamin B6 Aids in protein metabolism, absorption; aids in red blood cell formation; helps body use fats. Considerable losses during cooking. Folic Acid Aids in protein metabolism; promotes red blood cell formation; prevents birth defects of spine, brain; lowers homocystein levels and thus coronary heart disease risk. Easily destroyed by storing, cooking and other processing. Pantothenic Acid Involved in energy production; aids in formation of hormones bout half of pantothenic acid is lost in the milling of grains and heavily refined foods Biotin Helps release energy from carbohydrates; aids in fat synthesis - Organic Function Stability in food
    • Processing by application of heat
      • Heat processing using steam or water
        • Blanching
        • Pasteurisation
        • Heat sterilisation
          • In container sterilisation
          • UHT / aseptic processes
        • Evaporation and distillation
        • Extrusion
    • ( contd )
      • Heat processing using hot air
          • Dehydratation
          • Baking and roasting
      • Heat processing using hot oils
          • Frying
      • Heat processing using direct and radiated energy
          • Dielectric heating
          • Ohmic heating
          • Infrared heating
    • Blanching
      • Handling raw food for further processing
      • Pre-treatment prior to
      • Heat sterilisation
      • Dehydratation
      • Freezing
      • - Conventional steam blanching
      • - Conventional hot water blanching
      • - Microwave Blanching
    • Steam blanching + cooling
      • Smaller loss in water soluble components
      • Smaller volumes of waste
      • Nutrient losses reduced by pre-conditioning
      • (hot air treatment prior to blanching)
      • Cold air - Higher nutrient retention, loss of weight
      • Running water (fluming) – losses due to leaching
      • Individual quick blanching (IQB)
      • Factors influencing vitamin loss in blanching
      • Leaching, oxidation, thermal destruction
      • Preparation method used : cutting, slicing, dicing
      • Surface area/volume of food
      • Method of blanching and cooling
      • Time/Temperature
      • Quality, variety and seasonality of food
    • Tab.2 Effect of blanching method on ascorbic acid content in selected food
      • Rate of ascorbic acid loss is influenced also by several factors:
      • PH,
      • metals as copper or iron,
      • enzymes,
      • presence of oxygen
      • Time / Temperature
    • Pasteurisation
      • Goals:
      • Minimisation of foodborne illnesses
      • Extention of shelf-life
      • Destruction of spoilage microorganism
      • Enzyme inactivation
      • Mild heating treatment reduce components loss
      • but
      • HTST (flash pateurisation) vs Holder Processing
      • Applying high temperature / short time
      • Best retention of nutrients
      • Less changes in flavour
      • Destruction of microorganism
      • Inactivation of enzyme
      • Scientific literature reports -10 -20% of vitamin C
      • reduced by deareation and proper choice of packaging (glass better than plastic or paper)
    • Tab.3 Vitamin losses during pasteurisation of milk (Food processing technology, 2000)
    • Heat sterilisation
      • Inactivation of enzymes
      • Descruction of microbiological activities
      • Food spoilage
      • Foodborne diseases
      • Commercial standard (10% of viable organism)
      • Shelf-life > 6 months
      • Adequate storage required
      • Refrigeration not needed
      • Changes in nutritional and sensory quality of food
    • In-container sterilisation time is affected by Heat resistence of target enzyme or microb Rate of Heating (saturated steam, hot water) Material and size of packaging pH, physical state of food
    • Ultra High Temperature Food is sterilised before filling containers Atmosphere is sterile (aseptic processing) Different behaviour of low acid and acid food In Low acid food Thiamin (50-75%) and Pantothenic acid (20-35%) and Vitamin C show relevant losses In Acid food Riboflavin, Vitamin C and Pantothenic acid likely to be loss
    • Tab.4 Loss of vitamins in canned and bottled food
    • UHT processed vegetables and meat products Thiamin and Pyridoxin loss Other vitamins are largely unaffected UHT processed milk Retention of Riboflavin, Pantothenic acid, Niacin In- bottle sterilised milk Vitamin C (-90%), Pirydoxin (-50%), Folacin (-50%)
    • Tab.5 Changes in nutritional value of milk after UHT and in bottle sterilisation
    • Supply Chain, Storage and Shelf-life
      • Time that a food lasts a acceptable and safe product in distribution (Storage, Marketing, Home)
      • Abiotic spoilage (Light, Moisture, Oxygen, Temp.)
      • Prediction of conditions the food will be exposed
      • Choose of a proper packaging
    • Consumer expectation Appearance, colour, aroma, enjoyability, price, safety, nutritional value Research for more efficient technology to satisfy the demand Development of new trends (product)
    • Are these technologies enough efficient to overcome and to supply the market needs?
    • References
      • Fellows, P., 2000. Food processing technology. Principles and practice.
      • Da-Wen Sun, 2005. Emerging technologies for food processing
      • Berk, Z., 2009. Food process engineering and technology
      • Brennan, J.G., 2006. Food processing handbook
      • Sihna, N.K., 2011. Handbook of vegetable and vegetable processing
      • Balasundaram G., et al. , 2004. Nutrition and dietetics
      • Kilcast, D., Subramaniam, P., 2000. The stability and shelf-life of food
    • Thank you for your attention