AcrylamideThermally induced harmful chemical Advanced Food Chemistry Food Engineering Master Program İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi
Background- 1950 industrial chemical used for water treatment, paperindustry, glues, flocculants, synthetis of dyes- 2002 discovered in Sweden in starchy foods (productionTemperature dependent) so not found in boiled or notheated food- 2009 Health Canada assesses whether acrylamide is ahazard to human health and whether any regulatory actionneeds to be taken.- 2010 EChA added acrylamide to the list of substances ofvery high concern
Drops of chemistrySynthesized for the first IUPAC Prop-2-enamide time in 1949 Raw formula C3H5NO3Unsaturated and highly Melting point 84.5 °C reactive amide Boiling point 136°CWhite odorless crystalline solid EU classification:Soluble in water, ethanol, Toxic (T) ether and chloroform Carc. Cat. 2 Muta. Cat. 2
ROUTES OF EXPOSURE: The substance can be absorbed into EXPOSURE the body by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion.INHALATION RISK: Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful RISK concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly.EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE: irritating the eyes, the EXPOSURE skin and the respiratory tract. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system.EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM OR REPEATED EXPOSURE: effects on EXPOSURE the nervous system, resulting in peripheral nerve damage. This substance is probably carcinogenic to humans. May cause heritable genetic damage in humans.
Formation in food Reaction bw reducing sugars and Asparagine in the context of the Maillard Reaction (browning). Thermal input (temperature & heating time) frying, roasting or baking generally at + 120°C Top Eight Food: french fries (oil Food fried and oven baked), breakfast cereals, potato chips, cookies, coffee, toasted bread, pies and cakes
Acrylamide is a result of the Maillard reactionA reaction occurs between the carbohydrates (sugar) and proteins and is responsible for changes in color, flavor and nutritive in food.It has been confirmed that asparagine is the main amino acid responsible for its formation.Available evidence suggests that sugars and other carbonyl compounds play a specific role in the decarboxylation process of asparagine
Why being worried?Neurotoxicity in humans is well known from occupational and accidental exposuresExperimental studies in animals have shown reproductive, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties IARC classified chemical as “probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A)” Relative levels of acrylamide in the diet are higher than many other known carcinogens Regarded as a genotoxic carcinogen - a safe level of exposure cannot be established
Acrylamide in food?Its presence in food was unknown prior to the Swedish report in 2002. Found “by chance” when blood samples of exposed workers (miners) and an unexposed control group were compared and high levels of acrylamide were found in both groups.
Effects of Acrylamide on peopleAcrylamide is considered to be a mutagen and possibly a carcinogen in humans.Case studies provided by National Cancer Institute some of the cancers that are believed to be related to acrylamide are: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, larynx, kidney, breast, ovary.Neurological damage has been associated to exposure of high levels of acrylamide in water treatment plants. There have been cases of human poisoning due to contaminated water in proximity to ground injection sites where acrylamide is disposed of.
What has been done?Risks to consumers have been discussed by many international bodies (e.g. EFSA, FAO, WHO), EU committees and national authorities Initiatives to reduce/prevent acrylamide formation CIAA Toolbox* EU Acrylamide Workshops & Stakeholder meetings EU Initiatives EU Monitoring Recommendation EU Indicative Values EU Checklist
Eu monitoring programmeMonitoring of food groups known to be major contributorsPrincipal aim is to investigate if mitigation strategies (i.e. Toolbox*) are used and/or effective Toolbox*Produce taken from same source over period of 3 years (last one was 2007 – 2009)Data from Member States analysed by EFSAResults did not show clear trendsProgramme extended (open-ended)Accompanied by a checklist to collect further informationInformation used to establish indicative values
Source: Food Drink Europe - Acrylamide Toolbox 2011
The main food categories in the Toolbox:Potato-based products French fries pCereal-based productsC Bread bCrisp breadCoffee, roasted grain and chicory Roast and ground coffee d Instant (soluble) coffeeBaby/infant foods Baby biscuitso Infant cereals a Baby foods other than cereal-based foods
From Farm to fork :Potato Based Products Case study
FarmingF Selection of potato varieties with low reducing sugars that are suitable for the product type.t Minimising the risk of high reducing sugars by growing those low sugar varietiesg Ensuring tubers are mature at time of harvesting (immature tubers tend to have higher reducing sugar levels).
StorageS Controlling storage conditions from farm to factory (e.g. temp. >6°C identified as good practice for long term storaget Storing crops within the recommended window for the specific variety
ManufacturingMCalcium salts (e.g. Ca-lactate), when used at <0.3% inthe dough, can be an effective reduction tool. Thepercentage decrease is highly dependent on the AAstarting level of the product this tool is applied to.s In potato-based pellet snacks ~1% addition of calciumchloride has given a ~20-80% reduction dependent onthe product design. Too high levels of calcium salts can,however, generate off-flavours.h Treatment of potato flakes with calcium salts duringtheir production have demonstrated 30-40% reductiondependent on the product design and formulation. Toohigh levels can, however, generate undesirable productattributes.
ProcessingP Asparaginase may reduce AA in reconstituted doughbased products but off flavours can be created in some recipess Thermal input controls Acrylamide formation in the finished productf Controlling moisture helps to manage cooking controlC Blanching is a very effective tool to impact AA levels in French fries
Contd Disodium diphosphate after blanching reduces AA content by reducing pHcVacuum frying offers an alternate thermal input control system, however this technology is not widely availablewFor manufacturers that use high temperature flash frying, rapid cooling helps to reduce AA formationf In-line optical sorting can be an effective measure to remove dark products
Final Preparation: Consumer GuidanceC Follow exactly the product specific cooking instructions on the packaging.i Cook at maximum 175°C, do not overcookC Cook to a golden yellow colourC When cooking small amounts, reduce the cooking time
Future issuesBreeding new potato varieties with lower reducing sugar content and/or less cold sweetening effect.Further optimise agricultural practices to minimise reducing sugars and Asn. The nitrogen fertiliser regime appears to influence the reducing sugar concentration of the potato tuber, i.e. increased reducing sugars (60–100%) upon lowering the field N-fertilisation.At the likely levels of acrylamide intake from the diet, the key effects of concern are genotoxicity and possible carcinogenic effectsAppropriate efforts to reduce acrylamide concentrations in food should continueKeep identifying how to optimise processing, preparation and cooking regimes to reduce levels of acrylamide in food
ReferencesCONFEDERATION OF THE FOOD AND DRINK INDUSTRIES OF THE EU. Food drink europe acrylamide toolbox 2011 (2011).EUROPEAN FOOD SAFETY AUTHORITY, Results on acrylamide levels in food from monitoring years 2007-2009 and exposure assessment. efsa (2011).EC (European Commission), Recommendation of 11 January 2011 on investigations into the levels of acrylamide in food (2011).FAO/WHO (Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organization). Summary and conclusions report of the seventy-second meeting of the JECFA (2010)World Health Organization, Principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food. Environmental Health (2010)FAO/WHO. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). (2011).SPIVEY, A. A matter of degrees: advancing our understanding of acrylamide. Environmental Health Perspectives (2010).