Basic Control System unit3

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Basic Control System unit3

  1. 1. E3145/3/1 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) OBJECTIVES General Objective : To understand and to apply the concept of piping and instrumentation drawing (PNID). Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to :  State the definition of PNID.  Discuss the comparison between pneumatic control system and hydraulic control system.  Draw the instruments symbols.  Name the symbols of pneumatic system components and hydraulic system components. UNIT3
  2. 2. E3145/3/2 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) 3.0 Explanation of PNID Piping and instrumentation drawing (PNID) includes the components of pneumatic control system and hydraulic control system. Pneumatic control system uses compressible fluid meanwhile the hydraulic control system uses incompressible fluid. The basic components of pneumatic system are : compressor , air tank, air dryer, regulator, directional control valve and actuator. For hydraulic system the components are : pump, motor or cylinder, oil tank and valve. Basically, pneumatic system is widely used in the electronic, food, and automotive industry. Below are the uses of pneumatic system : • Transferring of materials • Drilling system • Material handling (clamping, shifting, positioning, orienting) • Stamping • Packaging • Automation INPUTINPUT Piping and instrumentation drawing (PNID) includes the components of pneumatic control system and hydraulic control system.
  3. 3. E3145/3/3 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) Meanwhile, hydraulic system is normally used to operate : • Back hoe • Bull dozer • CNC machine • Load loader • Die casting machine The advantages of using pneumatic system and hydraulic system are shown in Table 3.1 : Pneumatic System Hydraulic System 1. Air – easy to get (unlimited). 1. Flexible – In power transmission , hydraulic power is more flexible compared to pneumatic power. 2. Transmission – air is easy to transfer for a long distance through pipe line. 2. Force gain – a small force can be used to control the large force. 3. Storage – compressed air can be stored in air storage tank and can be released if not needed. 3. Component – Does not need a lot of moving mechanism. 4. Temperature – compressed air is not sensitive to temperature reactions that can cause burning. 4. Compact – hydraulic motor size is smaller compared to electric motor. 5. Clean – air leakage does not cause environmental pollution. 5. Economy – hydraulic system is better and more profit. 6. Component – pneumatic system is easier to maintain and cheaper. 7. Speed – it can work faster than hydraulic system. 8. It responses very fast to the start and stop commands from the controller. 9. Air does not need a back flow. Table 3.1 : Advantages between pneumatic system and hydraulic system
  4. 4. E3145/3/4 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) (Source : Jubaidi Bin Razali, Pneumatik & Hidraulik) 3.1 IDENTIFYING INSTRUMENTS SYMBOLS 3.1.1 Symbols of pneumatic component The symbols of pneumatic components found in a pneumatic system are shown below : (Source : Jubaidi Bin Razali, Pneumatik & Hidraulik)
  5. 5. E3145/3/5 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) (Source : Jubaidi Bin Razali, Pneumatik & Hidraulik)
  6. 6. E3145/3/6 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) (Source : Jubaidi Bin Razali, Pneumatik & Hidraulik)
  7. 7. E3145/3/7 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) (Source : Jubaidi Bin Razali, Pneumatik & Hidraulik)
  8. 8. E3145/3/8 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) (Source : Jubaidi Bin Razali, Pneumatik & Hidraulik)
  9. 9. E3145/3/9 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) 3.1.2 Symbols of hydraulic component The symbols of hydraulic components found in a hydraulic system are shown below : (Source : Jubaidi Bin Razali, Pneumatik & Hidraulik)
  10. 10. E3145/3/10 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) (Source : Jubaidi Bin Razali, Pneumatik & Hidraulik)
  11. 11. E3145/3/11 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) (Source : Jubaidi Bin Razali, Pneumatik & Hidraulik)
  12. 12. E3145/3/12 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) (Source : Jubaidi Bin Razali, Pneumatik & Hidraulik)
  13. 13. E3145/3/13 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) (Source : Jubaidi Bin Razali, Pneumatik & Hidraulik)
  14. 14. E3145/3/14 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) (Source : Jubaidi Bin Razali, Pneumatik & Hidraulik)
  15. 15. E3145/3/15 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) Activity 3 TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 3.1 Explain what is meant by Piping and Instrumentation Drawing (PNID) 3.2State the basic components of pneumatic system and hydraulic system. 3.3 State 5 components of pneumatic system and hydraulic system. 3.4 Give 3 industries that use pneumatic system.
  16. 16. E3145/3/16 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) Feedback To Activity 3 3.1 Piping and instrumentation drawing (PNID) includes the components of pneumatic control system and hydraulic control system. Pneumatic control system uses a compressible fluid while the hydraulic control system uses incompressible fluid. 3.2The basic components of pneumatic system are : compressor , air tank, air dryer, regulator, directional control valve and actuator. The basic components of hydraulic system are : tank, filter, pump, valve, motor and cylinder. 3.3 Pneumatic system components a. Pneumatic compressor b. Pneumatic cylinder (single acting) c. Pneumatic cylinder (double acting) d. Valve 2/2 e. Flow controller valve Hydraulic system components a. Fixed displacement hydraulic pump b. Double acting cylinder c. Differential cylinder d. Pneumatic motor e. Direction controller valve 2/2 type 3.4 a. Food industry b. Automotive industry c. Electronic industry
  17. 17. E3145/3/17 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) KEY FACTS 1. Piping and instrumentation drawing (PNID) includes : • components of pneumatic control system • components of hydraulic control system 2. The basic components of pneumatic system are : • compressor • air tank • air dryer • regulator • directional control valve • actuator 3. The basic components of hydraulic system are : • pump • motor or cylinder • oil tank • valve.
  18. 18. E3145/3/18 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) SELF-ASSESSMENT You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback on Self- Assessment given on the next page. If you face any problems, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck. Q3-1 Define the word ‘PNEUMATIC’ and explain how this system functions. Q3-2 State the advantages between pneumatic system and hydraulic system. Q3-3 State 5 advantages of pneumatic system. Q3-4 Draw the symbols of the pneumatic components given below in the space provided. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION SYMBOLS Pneumatic compressor Fixed displacement Pneumatic cylinder (single acting) Non-return spring Spring return
  19. 19. E3145/3/19 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) Pneumatic cylinder (double acting) One rod Two rod 2/2 valve Closed loop double port Open loop double port
  20. 20. E3145/3/20 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) Feedback To Self-Assessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”, check your answers now. Q3-1 The word ‘Pneu’ is from Greece which means wind, ‘matic’ refers to power. Therefore pneumatic system means a system which is operated by wind. The pneumatic system uses compressed air as a power transfer medium. The compressed air is obtained from the environment. Then it is compressed using electric motor. Q3-2 Pneumatic System Hydraulic System 1. Air – easy to get (unlimited). 1. Flexible – In power transmission , hydraulic power is more flexible compared to pneumatic power. 2. Transmission – air is easy to transfer for a long distance through pipe line. 2. Force gain – a small force can be used to control the large force. 3. Storage – compressed air can be stored in air storage tank and can be released if not needed. 3. Component – Does not need a lot of moving mechanism.
  21. 21. E3145/3/21 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) 4. Temperature – compressed air is not sensitive to temperature reactions that can cause burning. 4. Compact – hydraulic motor size is smaller compared to electric motor. 5. Clean – air leakage does not cause environmental pollution. 5. Economy – hydraulic system is better and more profit. 6. Component – pneumatic system is easier to maintain and cheaper. 7. Speed – it can work faster than hydraulic system. 8. It responses very fast to the start and stop commands from the controller. 9. Air does not need a back flow. Q3-3 (Any five answers from this list are accepted) 1. Air – easy to get unlimited. 2. Transmission – air is easy to transfer for a long distance through pipe line. 3. Storage – compressed air can be stored in air storage tank and can be released if not needed. 4. Temperature – compressed air is not sensitive to temperature reactions that can cause burning. 5. Clean – air leakage does not cause environmental pollution. 6. Component – pneumatic system is easier to maintain and cheaper. 7. Speed – it can work faster than hydraulic system 8. It responses very fast to the start and stop commands from the controller. 9. Air does not need a back flow.
  22. 22. E3145/3/22 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID) Q3-4
  23. 23. E3145/3/23 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DRAWING (PNID)

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