I became involved in the project in 2002 through my work in northern Jordan conducted in the early ’90s recording ‘traditional’ farming practices there. There are similarities with what Turkowski recorded, and also differences too, and I conducted my research some 50 years later.
While milk jugs difficult to interpret without biomolecular/lipid analyses, these seem more convincing direct analogies Space for kurdish ceramic butter churn
Map of jordan
1. Laban, jameed, kishk, and more: yoghurt and yoghurt-based products in the Levant Carol Palmer British Institute in Amman, Jordan
2. Importance of Pastoralism in the Middle East Mobile husbandry of animals <ul><li>settled agriculture with herdsman husbandry (transhumance) </li></ul><ul><li>semi-sedentary pastoralism (agro-pastoralism) </li></ul><ul><li>semi-nomadic pastoralism </li></ul><ul><li>pure pastoral nomadism </li></ul><ul><li>Khazanov 1984 ‘Nomads and the Outside World’ </li></ul>
7. Summarised from: Horowitz and Rosen Tab. 1 in Mulville and Outram 2005 Cow Sheep Goat Camel Horse Fat 3.5-5.5% 5.3-8.6% 3.5-4.5% 2.6-4.9% 1.2-1.9% Protein (Casein) 2.6-3.9% 3.9-5.2% 2.6-3.1% 1.6-3.7% 1.3% Sugars (Lactose) 4.6-5% 4.3-4.8% 4.3-4.6% 4.1-5.4% 5.8-6.2%
8. <ul><li>Converts inedible vegetation into an edible, nutritious product </li></ul><ul><li>In groups managing sheep and goats, according to calculations by Russell (1988), based on Redding (1981), milk products provide c. 70-79% of calorific productivity. </li></ul>
9. <ul><li>Does not store, but can be converted into storable products </li></ul>
10. Fermentation <ul><li>Adds flavour </li></ul><ul><li>Adds nutrients, notably a range of B Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the length of time food can be stored </li></ul>
18. <ul><li>Ghee/Clarified Butter </li></ul><ul><li>Collect butter together. Can take days (three days for herd of 100 lactating ewes) </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer melted butter into another pan. Some fluid left, which is fed to lambs </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Heat and add cereal, e.g. crushed grain, can be cracked wheat, rice, flour </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Add herbs for flavouring and colour </li></ul><ul><li>Boil, Boil </li></ul><ul><li>Strain out cereal. Cool and place in containers. </li></ul>
19. Flavourings for ghee/clarified butter Fayjan: Ruta chalapensis 1 rue group Handagowg: Melilotus indicus , M. albus, Trigonella stellata 2 , T. kotschyi, T. arabica clover group Arbayan: Anthemis spp., Crepis spp., etc. daisy/chamomile group 1 2
20. Kishk <ul><li>Made with defatted yoghurt, laban , but also can be made with full-fat yoghurt </li></ul><ul><li>combined with cooked cereal, left together to ferment for a few days and then shaped into balls and left to dry in the sun, can be ground later </li></ul><ul><li>Trachanas </li></ul><ul><li>( Valamoti and Anastasaki </li></ul><ul><li>2007; Valamoti 2011 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Tarhana (Turkey) </li></ul>
21. Meals <ul><li>Examples of meals include: cereals – wheat in various forms (flour, jarīsha , burghul , farīka ), barley, sorghum - soaked/cooked and eaten with samn and/or a laban sauce (either fresh or reconstituted from jamīd ) </li></ul><ul><li>Special meals, that might be served to a guest included mujalala torn up bread, steeped in fresh laban or marīsa with samn on top. </li></ul>
23. ‘ Aqoob’ - Gundelia tournefortii
25. Woman with churn, Gilat, W Negev, Chalcolithic, 4 th millennium BC Late Neo/EBA ceramic milk churns from (left to right) central Europe, Balkans, Cyprus (Sherratt 1981) ‘ natural’ fermentation, minimal equipment - supports early exploitation?