PER 100g Energy (kcal) Protein (g) Carbs (g) Fat (g) Calcium (mg) milk (whole) 47 3.6 4.8 1.8 122 milk (skim) 35 3.6 4.9 0.3 129
Summarised from: Horowitz and Rosen Tab. 1 in Mulville and Outram 2005 Cow Sheep Goat Camel Horse Fat 3.5-5.5% 5.3-8.6% 3.5-4.5% 2.6-4.9% 1.2-1.9% Protein (Casein) 2.6-3.9% 3.9-5.2% 2.6-3.1% 1.6-3.7% 1.3% Sugars (Lactose) 4.6-5% 4.3-4.8% 4.3-4.6% 4.1-5.4% 5.8-6.2%
Converts inedible vegetation into an edible, nutritious product
In groups managing sheep and goats, according to calculations by Russell (1988), based on Redding (1981), milk products provide c. 70-79% of calorific productivity.
Does not store, but can be converted into storable products
Adds nutrients, notably a range of B Vitamins
Increases the length of time food can be stored
Ghee Sediment Curd Whey
RAW CUISINE Transformation Lactic acid Lactose (milk sugar) Bacillus/Lactobacillus
Collect butter together. Can take days (three days for herd of 100 lactating ewes)
Transfer melted butter into another pan. Some fluid left, which is fed to lambs
Heat and add cereal, e.g. crushed grain, can be cracked wheat, rice, flour
Add herbs for flavouring and colour
Strain out cereal. Cool and place in containers.
Flavourings for ghee/clarified butter Fayjan: Ruta chalapensis 1 rue group Handagowg: Melilotus indicus , M. albus, Trigonella stellata 2 , T. kotschyi, T. arabica clover group Arbayan: Anthemis spp., Crepis spp., etc. daisy/chamomile group 1 2
Made with defatted yoghurt, laban , but also can be made with full-fat yoghurt
combined with cooked cereal, left together to ferment for a few days and then shaped into balls and left to dry in the sun, can be ground later
( Valamoti and Anastasaki
2007; Valamoti 2011 )
Examples of meals include: cereals – wheat in various forms (flour, jarīsha , burghul , farīka ), barley, sorghum - soaked/cooked and eaten with samn and/or a laban sauce (either fresh or reconstituted from jamīd )
Special meals, that might be served to a guest included mujalala torn up bread, steeped in fresh laban or marīsa with samn on top.
‘ Aqoob’ - Gundelia tournefortii
Woman with churn, Gilat, W Negev, Chalcolithic, 4 th millennium BC Late Neo/EBA ceramic milk churns from (left to right) central Europe, Balkans, Cyprus (Sherratt 1981) ‘ natural’ fermentation, minimal equipment - supports early exploitation?