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Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
Rpl dodag
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Rpl dodag

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  • 1. Routing Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks Artemis Paradisi Jacques Tiberghien
  • 2. - RPL: IPv6 Routing protocol for low power and lossy networks.
  • 3. IPv6 on Low Power and Lossy Networks? 3 Applications TCP/UDP MAC&PHY IPv6 Applications TCP/UDP IEEE 802.15.4 RPL 6LowPan A GFE I J K B C D H L M The Internet The LowPower network is just one subnet The sink node plays the role of a router
  • 4. 6LowPan – Why ? 4 TCP/UDP IEEE 802.15.4 RPL 6LowPan • Frame length :  IPv6: <= 1280 bytes; IEEE 802.15.4: <= 81 bytes. Frame fragmentation & defragmentation • Header length :  IPv6 header >= 40 bytes; TCP header = 20 bytes, …  No version field, no flow label,  One subnet : 64 instead 128 bit addresses, Header compression • Connectivity inside the subnet : • Single broadcast domain vs. multi-hop connectivity Route-over architecture 001 resTLA SLANLA 3 13 8 24 18 INT 64 IPv6 address :
  • 5. 6LowPan – Why ? 5 A GFE I J K B C D H L M The Internet IPv6 : One subnet = one broadcast domain This is not true in LowPans! Solutions : - Link level routing - Routing in the subnet ! “Route over” uses simplified versions of IPv6 ND protocols.
  • 6. Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks • RPL origin: “The Internet of things”. – IETF working group for IPv6 routing. – None of the existing protocols is adequate! – New design combining interesting ideas of all. • RPL Basic Mechanisms – Routing based upon one or more Destination Oriented Directed Acyclic Graphs (DODAGs) • Optimal routes between sink and all other nodes for both the collect and distribute data traffics. • Redundant equivalent routes are kept for reliability in case of link or node failure. – Multiple DODAGs if different optimisation criteria. 6
  • 7. RPL: the DODAG 7 A HF C G EDB I NMLK Grounded DODAG FloatingDAG J For node I, E is a parent G & H are siblings 1 1 1 1 1 1 For node G, D,H,L are neighbors D is preferred parent Each link has a cost. (distance, latency, ETX, …) This cost can be augmented with node related data (battery state, …)1
  • 8. The ETX cost function 8 ETX = Estimated number of transmissions from x to y. = Number of times a frame needs to be transmitted over a link before being acknowledged. = (dxy x dyx) -1 dxy = success rate from x to y. Each node broadcasts precisely once per second a short message, each receiver counts during 10 seconds the number of broadcasts it receives from each neighbor. dxy = (number of frames received from x by y) / 10 What about RDC ?
  • 9. RPL: the RANK of nodes in a DODAG 9 A HF C G EDB I NMLK Grounded DODAG FloatingDAG J Rank=1.0 Rank=2.0 For node I, E is a parent G & H are siblings 1 1 1 1 1 1 For node G, D,H,L are neighbors D is preferred parent
  • 10. RPL: the RANK of nodes in a DODAG 10 A H 2 C 1 G 3 E 1 D 1 I 2 NML Grounded DODAG For node I, E is a parent G & H are siblings 1 1 1 5 1 1 For node G, If route via a sibling (H) is “better” , then it should increase its rank. 1
  • 11. RPL: Messages for routing 11 A HF C G EDB I NMLK Grounded DODAG FloatingDAG J DAO 1 1 1 1 1 1 DIO DIS
  • 12. RPL: Collect, Distribute and P2P routing 12 A H C G ED I NML 1 1 1 1 1 1 A H C G ED I NML 1 1 1 1 1 1 A H C G ED I NML 1 1 1 1 1 1 Collect Distribute P2P
  • 13. 13 Routing in sensor networks(1). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 A 0/0 GFE I J K B C 1 1 1 1 D H L M 4 1 The Internet For this example, links have a distance as in DV and AODV. The Rank calculations are made so that Rank = hop count
  • 14. 14 Routing in sensor networks(2). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 GF E 1/1 I J K B 1/4 C 1 1 1 1 D H L M 4 1 The Internet A sends DIO to B and E. A becomes their preferred parent. A 0/0
  • 15. 15 Routing in sensor networks(3). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 2/7 F 2/5 E 1/1 I J K 2/8 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D H L M 4 1 The Internet B sends DIO to A,C,F,G and K. A ignores (rank). B becomes the parent of all others.A 0/0
  • 16. 16 Routing in sensor networks(4). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 2/7 F 2/2 E 1/1 I 2/2 J 2/2 K 2/8 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D H L M 4 1 The Internet E sends DIO to A,F,I and J. A ignores (rank). E becomes the parent of F,I and J. A 0/0
  • 17. 17 Routing in sensor networks(5). 1 3 33 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 3/6 F 2/2 E 1/1 I 2/2 J 2/2 K 2/8 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D 3/8 H L M 4 1 The Internet C sends DIO to B,D and G. B ignores (rank). C becomes the parent of D and G. A 0/0
  • 18. 18 Routing in sensor networks(6). 1 3 33 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 3/6 F 2/2 E 1/1 I 2/2 J 2/2 K 3/3 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D 3/8 H L M 4 1 The Internet F sends DIO to B,E and K. B and E ignore (rank), F becomes parent of K. A 0/0
  • 19. 19 Routing in sensor networks(7). 1 3 33 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 3/6 F 2/2 E 1/1 I 2/2 J 2/2 K 3/3 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D 3/8 H L M 4 1 The Internet A 0/0 I sends DIO to E and J. E ignores (rank), J ignores (distance)
  • 20. 20 Routing in sensor networks(8). 1 3 33 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 3/6 F 2/2 E 1/1 I 2/2 J 2/2 K 3/3 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D 3/8 H L M 4 1 The Internet A 0/0 J sends DIO to E,I and K. E ignores (rank), I and K ignore (distance)
  • 21. 21 Routing in sensor networks(9). 1 3 33 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 3/6 F 2/2 E 1/1 I 2/2 J 2/2 K 3/3 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D 3/8 H 4/9 L M 4 1 The Internet A 0/0 D sends DIO to C and H. C ignores (rank), D becomes parent of H
  • 22. 22 Routing in sensor networks(10). 1 3 33 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 3/6 F 2/2 E 1/1 I 2/2 J 2/2 K 3/3 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D 3/8 H 4/7 L M 4 1 The Internet A 0/0 G sends DIO to B,C,H and K. B and C ignore (rank), K ignores (distance) G becomes parent of H.
  • 23. 23 Routing in sensor networks(11). 1 3 33 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 4/4 F 2/2 E 1/1 I 2/2 J 2/2 K 3/3 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D 3/8 H 4/7 L 4/6 M 4 1 The Internet A 0/0 K sends DIO to B,F,G,J and L. B,F and J ignore (rank), K becomes parent of G and L.
  • 24. 24 Routing in sensor networks(12). 1 3 33 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 4/4 F 2/2 E 1/1 I 2/2 J 2/2 K 3/3 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D 3/8 H 5/5 L 4/6 M 4 1 The Internet A 0/0 G sends DIO to B,C,H and K. B,C and K ignore (rank), H adapts its rank and distance and keeps G as a parent
  • 25. 25 Routing in sensor networks(13). 1 3 33 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 4/4 F 2/2 E 1/1 I 2/2 J 2/2 K 3/3 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D 3/8 H 5/5 L 4/6 M 5/7 4 1 The Internet A 0/0 L sends DIO to K,H and M. K ignores (rank), H ignores (distance) L becomes parent of M
  • 26. 26 Routing in sensor networks(14). 1 3 33 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 4/4 F 2/2 E 1/1 I 2/2 J 2/2 K 3/3 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D 3/8 H 5/5 L 4/6 M 6/6 4 1 The Internet A 0/0 H sends DIO to D,G,L and M. D,G and L ignore (rank), H becomes parent of M
  • 27. 27 Routing in sensor networks(15). 1 3 33 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 4/4 F 2/2 E 1/1 I 2/2 J 2/2 K 3/3 B 1/4 C 2/5 1 1 1 1 D 3/8 H 5/5 L 4/6 M 6/6 4 1 The Internet A 0/0 Finally, the entire DODAG has been constructed.
  • 28. 28 Routing in sensor networks(1’). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 GFE I J K B C 1 1 1 1 D H L M 4 1 The Internet For this example, links have a distance as in DV and AODV. The Rank calculations are made so that Rank = Distance to sinkA 0
  • 29. 29 Routing in sensor networks(2’). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 GF E 1 I J K B 4 C 1 1 1 1 D H L M 4 1 The Internet A sends DIO to B and E. A becomes their preferred parent. A 0
  • 30. 30 Routing in sensor networks(3’). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G F 2 E 1 I 2 J 2 K B 4 C 1 1 1 1 D H L M 4 1 The Internet E sends DIO to A,F,I and J. A ignores (rank). E becomes parent F,I and J. A 0
  • 31. 31 Routing in sensor networks(4’). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G F 2 E 1 I 2 J 2 K 3 B 3 C 1 1 1 1 D H L M 4 1 The Internet F sends DIO to B,E and K. E ignores (rank). F becomes parent of B and K. A 0
  • 32. 32 Routing in sensor networks(5’). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 6 F 2 E 1 I 2 J 2 K 3 B 3 C 4 1 1 1 1 D H L M 4 1 The Internet B sends DIO to A,C,F,G and K. A and F ignore (rank). B becomes parent of C and G. K keeps its previous parent (distance). A 0
  • 33. 33 Routing in sensor networks(6’). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 4 F 2 E 1 I 2 J 2 K 3 B 3 C 4 1 1 1 1 D H L 6 M 4 1 The Internet K sends DIO to B,F,G,J and L. J ignores (rank), B ignores (distance), K becomes parent of G and L. A 0
  • 34. 34 Routing in sensor networks(7’). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 4 F 2 E 1 I 2 J 2 K 3 B 3 C 4 1 1 1 1 D 7 H L 6 M 4 1 The Internet C sends DIO to B,D and G. B ignores (rank), G ignores (distance), C becomes parent of D. A 0
  • 35. 35 Routing in sensor networks(8’). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 4 F 2 E 1 I 2 J 2 K 3 B 3 C 4 1 1 1 1 D 7 H 5 L 6 M 4 1 The Internet G sends DIO to B,C,H and K. B and K ignore (rank), C ignores (distance), G becomes parent of H. A 0
  • 36. 36 Routing in sensor networks(9’). 1 3 3 3 1 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 G 4 F 2 E 1 I 2 J 2 K 3 B 3 C 4 1 1 1 1 D 6 H 5 L 6 M 6 4 1 The Internet H sends DIO to D,G,L and M. G ignores (rank), L ignores (distance), H becomes parent of D and M. A 0
  • 37. RPL Conclusions • When the network is started up, the DODAG is build. • The DODAG supports optimal routing, both for collect and distribute protocols. • Protocols for detecting network changes and subsequent DODAG repairs (local and global) are part of the RPL proposal (not explained here) • An Objective Function, giving the rank of the nodes in function of the properties of the links and the nodes, can freely be chosen to influence the DODAG topology and prevent loops. 37

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