DEFINITION: CHILDREN Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2009) children is the plural form of child derives from the Old English cild which means a young person usually between infancy and youth. The term “children” are used interchangeably with “students”
DEFINITION: SELF-EFFICACY Bandura“ as individuals’ confidence in their ability to organize Jinks & Lorsbach (2003) and execute a given brought up twocourse of action to solve a components to define self- problem or accomplish a efficacy; task; characterized as a 1. sense of self efficacymultidimensional construct that varies in strength, 2. efficacy information generality, and level (or difficulty)”
SELF EFFICACY AND READING ENGAGEMENT Essential for children to be guided appropriately as far as self-efficacy is concerned. Children become much more sophisticated at processing the evaluative feedback they receive, and for some this leads to a growing realization that they are not as capable as others (Guthrie, 2001)
FOUR MAIN WAYS TO HELP INCREASE SELF-EFFICACY (BANDURA , 1997)
MODEL OF TRIADIC RECIPROCALITY(PINTRICH & SCHUNK, 2002) Personal Behaviour Environment
SELF-EFFICACY AND READING ENGAGEMENT “Engage reading and its constituents (motivation and cognitive strategies) can be increased by instructional practices directed toward them” (Guthrie, et al., 2004, p. 404) CORI or Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction is one of the reading instructional programs developed to “identify effective reading instruction that increase children’s reading comprehension” (Guthrie, et al., 2004, p. 403).
SELF-EFFICACY AND READING ENGAGEMENT Long & Gove (2003) suggested engagement strategies and literature circles to promote reading. Brozo & Flynt (2008) added that by making abundance of text available for interaction which center on producing interest in new learning by connecting the outside school and the inside will help build reading self- efficacy.
SELF-EFFICACY AND READING ENGAGEMENT Choices for picking texts, interesting reading materials, partners during instruction are motivation practices that generate students’ self-efficacy for reading (Guthrie, et al., 2004; Brozo & Flynt, 2008). Teacher has the opportunity to use appropriate prompts in the classroom to enhance the student’s self-efficacy (McCabe, 2006; Schunk & Zimmerman, 2007).
BOOK BUDDY END OF SURVEY RESPONSE(FRIEDLAND & THIESDELL, 2006) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Enjoy selecting Interested to Like the reading Reading with book and join again in the material buddy helped reading to future with own buddy reading
CORI CORI students scored higher than Strategy Instruction (SI) and the Traditional Instruction (TI). CORI managed to initiate reading and with continuous effort will increase the students’ self-efficacy and result in further engagement in reading.
IMPLICATIONS Teacher’s role in cultivating interest School culture to support reading environment