INFORMATION TECHOLOGY
GOOD MORNING I AM GOING TO SHOW YOU
A POWER POINT PRESENTATION ON TOPIC
THE LATEST TECHOLOGIES AND G...
The iFusion is an integrated communications docking station for
the Apple iPhone. Combining the capabilities of many topse...
The cradle design of the iFusion supports
the iPhone 3G, 3GS and 4, providing a
means to securely dock the phone while
sup...
The Livescribe Echo Smartpen allows you to record audio while
you’re taking notes, and then play them back later. You can
...
The Logitech Wireless Solar Keyboard K750 makes
battery hassles a thing of the past, even indoors.
The keyboard connects a...
The Boogie Board Jot 4.5 LCD eWriter is quite a looker,
considering how it sports a compact and durable design that
makes ...
The laser keyboard is bright red in colour making it easy to view against variety
of backgrounds .The device is compatible...
The camera comes with built-in Wi-Fi capabilities and has a
2.8-inch tilting touch-screen. However, what is unique about
t...
The spanking new imageFORMULA P-208 Scan-tini personal scanner
is said to be able to quickly handle a variety of documents...
These Shoes were Made for Charging
as you walk, you generate pressure and in
turn, that pressure generates energy, so it
l...
Cardiorespiratory health has been defined as the ability of your heart, lungs and
organs to consume, transport and utilize...
The Crux360™ is a
clamshell-keyboard case
that allows you to use the
iPad® in a multitude of
positions. All iPad ports
and...
 The iLuv iMM747 Audio Cube is a fully-dedicated iPad stereo

docking station. The Audio Cube provides two speaker
channe...
 Maximize your brightness during presentations with the NEC P420X, an

entry-grade professional installation projector lo...
 myDitto Key enables SoHo business professionals to access

their myDitto Servers remotely, through an easy-to-use,
light...
 The WOWee ONE SLIM is a compact portable speaker unit which

provides a full range frequency response. It is intended fo...
The advantage or
disadvantage of technologies
depend on how people use it in
their daily lives. If we let these
technologi...
What is IT?
 Information Technology (IT) is "the study, design,
development, implementation, support or

management of in...
What is ICT?
 Information Communications Technology (ICT) covers

any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate,
tran...
The Importance of IT/ICT
 essential ingredient in managing business processes of








most organizations
reducti...
IT Components
 Process
 Application (software)

 Hardware
that is used to get, create, arrange, analyze and
present the...
Process
 The ability to translate the information

needs, to analyze and present the
information and the ability to analy...
Application (Software)
 Software can be categorized into:
 Curricular software
 it is designed to educate students with...
Hardware
 The physical components of a computer

system
 Includes all types of technology hardware
including computers, ...
Telecommunication devices









Wireless Phone
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
Walkie Talkie
Pager
Fax machine...
Example of Telecommunication
Devices
CELULAR PHONE
PAGER

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Example of Telecommunication
Devices
PDA

WALKIE TALKIE

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Example of Telecommunication
Devices
FAX MACHINE

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Example of Telecommunication
Devices

Computer

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Computer
 An electronic device or a programmable machine
that receives inputs, stores and manipulates data

(retrieves an...
Computer
Monitor

Central Processing
Unit (CPU)

Keyboard

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Types of Computer
 Analog
 Process physical data. Example: Temperature, air

pressure, electrical

 Digital
 Process d...
Components of Computer
 Central Processing Unit (CPU)
 Storage

 Input Devices
 Output Devices
 Communication Devices...
Central Processing Unit
(CPU)
 CPU or the processor is the portion of a computer system

that carries out the instruction...
Storage
 A data storage device often called memory is a device for

recording (storing) information (data).
 Primary Sto...
Input Devices
 Any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment)

used to provide data and control signals to an
info...
Output Devices
 Any piece of computer hardware equipment
used to communicate the results of data
processing carried out b...
Communication Devices
 Communication is a process of transferring

information from one entity to another.
 Provide conn...
Categories of Computers






Supercomputer
Mainframe
Midrange (Minicomputers)
Microcomputers
Workstation

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Supercomputer
 Highly sophisticated and powerful computer that
can perform very complex computations
extremely rapidly.
...
Mainframe
 Largest category of computer, used for major
business processing.
 Intended to service multiple users
 Capab...
Midrange (Minicomputers)
 A class of computer systems which fall in between

mainframe computers and microcomputers.
 Ca...
Microcomputers
 A computer with a microprocessor as its central
processing unit
 Also known as personal computer.
 Phys...
Workstation
 A high-end microcomputer designed for technical or

scientific applications.
 Intended primarily to be used...
Computer Hardware
Monitor – 14”, 15”, 17” & 21”
Keyboards- 108, 110, 114 keys,
Mouse,
Speaker,
Printer,
Scanner,
CD...
Monitor
•A monitor or display (sometimes called
a visual display unit) is an electronic
visual display for computers.
•It ...
Printers


a printer is a peripheral which produces a
hard copy (permanent readable text and/or
graphics) of documents st...
Software
 Complete instructions that control, manage and
support operational activities of computer

system.
 The collec...
User
Application Software
System Software
Computer
Hardware

Relationship between User, Application
Software, System Softw...
Example of Computer Software
 System Software
 Application Software

 Programming Languages
 Firmware
 Device Drivers...
System Software
 A computer software designed to operate the

computer hardware and to provide and
maintain a platform fo...
Operating System
 Allows the parts of a computer to work together by

performing tasks like transferring data between mem...
Example of Operating System
 DOS
 UNIX

 OS/2
 Macintosh
 Windows 95/98/2000/NT/ME/XP

 LindowsOS

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DOS
 Disk Operating System (DOS)
 Operating system for older IBM and IBM-

compatible PCs between 1981 and 1995.
 Advan...
DOS

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UNIX
 A computer operating system originally
developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T

employees at Bell Labs.
 Operating Sy...
UNIX

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OS/2
 Operating system/2 created by Microsoft and

IBM for IBM PCS that can take advantage of
the 32-bit microprocessor.
...
OS/2

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Macintosh
 OS for Apple Macintosh computer that

support multitasking.
 The first commercially successful personal
compu...
Macintosh System 1.1

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Mac OS 8.0

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Mac OS X Jaguar

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Microsoft Windows
 A series of software operating systems and

graphical user interfaces produced by
Microsoft.
 Windows...
List of Microsoft Windows
versions















1985 November 20 - Windows 1.01
1986 August - Windows 1.03
...
List of Microsoft Windows
versions (cont…)















1994 September - Windows NT 3.5
1995 August - Windo...
Windows 3.1
 Introduced graphical User Interface for

example Program manager
 Based on windows- allowing few program in...
Windows 3.1

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Windows 95
 Popular in mid 90s, used in personal PCs.
 Most of the software is based on windows format
 Using storage a...
Windows 95

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Windows 98
 32-bit operating system that is closely integrated
with the Internet and that supports multitasking,

multith...
Windows 98

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Windows 2000
 32-bit operating system for PCs, workstations

and network servers.
 Support multitasking, multiprocessing...
Windows 2000 Pro

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Windows ME
 Microsoft Windows ME (Millennium Edition)
 Enhanced Windows Operating System for
consumer users featuring to...
Windows ME

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Windows NT
 Microsoft Windows NT (New Technology)
 Posses the same ability in UNIX such as multi-user,

multitasking and...
Windows NT 3.1

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Windows XP
 Microsoft Windows XP (Experience)
 Reliable, robust operating system with versions

for both home and corpor...
Windows XP

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LindowsOS
 Linspire, previously known as LindowsOS, was a

commercial operating system based on Debian
GNU/Linux and late...
LindowsOS

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The computer BIOS and device
firmware
 The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a standard defining a firmware

interface....
The computer BIOS and device
firmware (example)

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Utility software
 Utility software is a kind of system software designed to help analyze,

configure, optimize and mainta...
Computer Language
Translation Programs
 Convert programming languages into machine language.

 Programs written in high-...
Application software
 Also known as an application, is computer software designed

to help the user to perform singular o...
Word Processor
 A computer application used for the production and

manipulating (including composition (creating), editi...
Electronic spreadsheet
 A computer application that simulates a paper, accounting

worksheet, which manipulates lines and...
Database
 Consists of an organized collection of related data for one or more

uses, typically in digital form.
 Shared ...
Graphic Presentation
 A computer program that allows users to

compose and edit graphics images and
pictures interactivel...
Programming languages
 An artificial language designed to express computations that can be

performed by a machine, parti...
Low-level Programming
languages
 A programming language that provides little or no

abstraction from a computer's instruc...
First Generation Languages
 The first-generation programming language, or 1GL

also known as Machine Language, is machine...
Second Generation Languages


2GL, is assembly language, developed in 1950s that resembles machine
language but substitut...
High-level Programming
languages
 A programming language with strong abstraction from the details of

the computer.
 It ...
3rd Generation Language
 Specify instructions as brief statements that

are more like natural language than assembly
lang...
4th generation Languages
 A programming language that can be employed directly by end user

or less skilled programmers t...
Very High-level Programming
languages
 A programming language with a very high level of abstraction, used

primarily as a...
5th Generation Languages
 A programming language based around

solving problems using constraints given to
the program, r...
Firmware
 Low-level software often stored on electrically programmable

memory devices.
 Fixed, usually small programs a...
Device Drivers
 A device driver or software driver is a computer

program allowing higher-level computer programs
to inte...
Middleware
 Computer software that connects software components

or applications.
 Controls and co-ordinates distributed...
Middleware

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Testware
 Software for testing hardware or a software

package.
 Example use of testware: Web testing, environment & co...
IT in Management
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Latest in cost efficiency- including labor cost,
transportation, communication
Incr...
The Importance of Computer
 Efficiency and effectiveness in information










management
Business management...
The Problems of Computer
 Computer crime
 Hackers
 Illegal downloading

 Hard to manage
 Computer broke down

 Gap b...
Review
 Introduction
 IT & ICT

 Computer
 Hardware

 Software
 Application
 Operating System

 Programming Langua...
Introduction
 Android's mobile

operating system is based
on the Linux kernel and is
the world's best-selling
Smartphone....
Introduction
 The Android operating
system, including the

Linux kernel, contains
approximately 12
million lines of code....
Android Framework
Background
 Android Inc. was founded in Palo

Alto, California in October, 2003
by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick
Sears, an...
Background
 Google acquired Android

Inc. in
August, 2005, making
Android Inc. a wholly
owned part of Google Inc.
 Nick ...
Background
 Once at Google, Rubin led a

team to develop a mobile
device platform powered by
the Linux kernel.
 Google m...
Background
 On October 21st, 2008,

Android 1.0 became
available to the public.
 "Today's announcement is
more ambitious...
Explanation
Features of Android 1.0
 Android Market application download and updates through the Market
app
 Web browser...
More Features












Google Search of the internet and phone apps, contacts, calendar, etc.
Google Talk ins...
Explanation
Current Features


Handset Layouts




Storage




The platform is adaptable to larger,
VGA, 2D graphics ...
Features (cont.)
 Messaging


SMS and MMS are available forms of
messaging, including threaded text
messaging and now An...
Dalvik Virtual Machine
 Java Support
 Most Android apps are

written in Java, however,
there is no Java Virtual
Machine ...
Media Support
Android supports the following
audio/video/still media formats:









WebM
H.263
H.264 (in 3GP or...
Multi-Touch
 Android has support for

multi-touch which was
originally made available in
handsets such as the HTC
Hero.
...
Android 2.3 Gingerbread
 Latest version
available for mobile

phones
 Enhanced UI with
more polish and
several refinemen...
Google TV
 Based on Android,
Google TV allows your

TV to be connected to
the internet and all of
the media content that
...
Android 3.0 Honeycomb
 Designed for use on
Tablet devices

 Different UI compared
to Version 2.3
Gingerbread
All the various android OS
Significance
 Android is the fastest growing mobile operating

system.
 Its growing even faster than IOS!!
 More develo...
Summary
 Started as a small idea
by a few developers

 Fastest growing and
most popular mobile

 Purchased by Google

O...
Done by

A.SHIVAMANI
TH ‘A’
9
latest technology and gagets and about it and android
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  1. 1. INFORMATION TECHOLOGY GOOD MORNING I AM GOING TO SHOW YOU A POWER POINT PRESENTATION ON TOPIC THE LATEST TECHOLOGIES AND GADGETS AND ABOUT ANDROID
  2. 2. The iFusion is an integrated communications docking station for the Apple iPhone. Combining the capabilities of many topselling iPhone accessories into a single device, the iFusion utilizes built-in Bluetooth technology, a full duplex speaker phone and a patented ergonomic design to deliver superior voice quality that meets the requirements of today's home and business consumer.
  3. 3. The cradle design of the iFusion supports the iPhone 3G, 3GS and 4, providing a means to securely dock the phone while supplying power, battery charging and data synchronization via an integrated USB cable. With support for A2DP Bluetooth streaming, users are able to enjoy their favorite iPhone music over the internal speakerphone.
  4. 4. The Livescribe Echo Smartpen allows you to record audio while you’re taking notes, and then play them back later. You can save and share interactive notes to your computer, iPad or iPhone via a micro-USB connector that also allows you to recharge your pen. The memory storage holds 400 or 800 hours of recorded audio, depending on the model, and includes an OLED display that makes it easy to navigate smartpen apps.
  5. 5. The Logitech Wireless Solar Keyboard K750 makes battery hassles a thing of the past, even indoors. The keyboard connects automatically via a 2.4GHz wireless unifying receiver, and the solar battery will stay charged for up to 3 months, even in total darkness.
  6. 6. The Boogie Board Jot 4.5 LCD eWriter is quite a looker, considering how it sports a compact and durable design that makes it ideal for writing quick memos and reminders on-the-go. Small and lightweight, it should not be an issue to find a pocket or purse to fit it in a jiffy. It comes with an attachable tapered stylus and stackable design for a truly unique user experience, while a plastic, removable cover helps protect the writing surface from unwanted marks and scratches.
  7. 7. The laser keyboard is bright red in colour making it easy to view against variety of backgrounds .The device is compatible not just with smart-phones but can be used with tablets and multiple touch-screen gadgets. It syncs with the gadgets via Bluetooth. The battery life of CTX VK200 Keyfob is impressive at 120 minutes of continuous use. It can be charged via USB 2.0 port and is compatible with most devices with Bluetooth ver 2.0 and 2.1. The Keyfob is prices at 100 dollars and is expected to be available soon in the market. The keyboard is formed of a small projector that emits laser rays to form a fully functional keyboard on any flat surface..
  8. 8. The camera comes with built-in Wi-Fi capabilities and has a 2.8-inch tilting touch-screen. However, what is unique about the camera is that it comes without a traditional shutter button. To click a picture, the photographer can either click on the camera touch-screen or press a ring around the lens. Also, in place of a Zoom button, there is lens-ring control option which can be pulled back and forth to adjust the lens.
  9. 9. The spanking new imageFORMULA P-208 Scan-tini personal scanner is said to be able to quickly handle a variety of documents, where they will include receipts, business cards, photographs, bills and contracts, making life a snap when it comes to managing and organizing personal documents or a small or mobile office. These documents will then be converted into digital information which is easily searched, not to mention stored, and shared.
  10. 10. These Shoes were Made for Charging as you walk, you generate pressure and in turn, that pressure generates energy, so it looks as though in the future you may be able to just keep on talking, as long as you are able to keep on walking.
  11. 11. Cardiorespiratory health has been defined as the ability of your heart, lungs and organs to consume, transport and utilize oxygen, and it ought to be tracked and monitored so that one is able to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Tinké relies on optical sensing technologies in order to capture blood volume which changes at your fingertips, where it quantifies both cardiorespiratory health and stress levels into indexes. These two indexes will trend alongside one another for daily and monthly monitoring, while delivering a better understanding of your health progression from the comfort of your mobile devices. The Vita Index is a personalized cardiorespiratory score which is depicted after putting together data collected from heart rate, blood oxygen level and respiratory rate, while the Zen Index relies on heart rate variability as its basis, churning out a personalized score for your stress levels.
  12. 12. The Crux360™ is a clamshell-keyboard case that allows you to use the iPad® in a multitude of positions. All iPad ports and buttons remain accessible while using the case.  It features a full bluetooth® keyboard, and features four modes:  Laptop Mode — allows use of the keyboard.  Movie Mode — great for watching videos, playing games, or just surfing the Internet.  Tablet Mode — great for reading books or magazines.  Carry Mode — closes up and protects your iPad’s® screen from nicks and scratches.
  13. 13.  The iLuv iMM747 Audio Cube is a fully-dedicated iPad stereo docking station. The Audio Cube provides two speaker channels, each with iLuv’s enhanced jAura Soundcell Technology. The iMM747 features easy docking via an adjustable, sliding docking wall, which provides secure iPad vertical support and a flexible 30 pin connector that automatically adjusts to dock your iPhone 4 or iPod as well.
  14. 14.  Maximize your brightness during presentations with the NEC P420X, an entry-grade professional installation projector loaded with eco-friendly and advanced technologies. Ideal for corporate boardrooms, higher education classrooms and government training rooms, this model delivers remarkable brightness (4200 lumens) and features built-in wall color correction, automatic keystone correction, wired and wireless networking, closed captioning and up to 3500 hours of lamp life (in ECO ModeTM). The P420X touts an active lens cover, which hides content, mutes audio and lowers lamp brightness to 25%, allowing you to maximize the effectiveness of your presentations.
  15. 15.  myDitto Key enables SoHo business professionals to access their myDitto Servers remotely, through an easy-to-use, lightweight USB key. From owners who frequently travel on business trips to telecommuting employees, users simply insert their myDitto Key into a laptop or PC and — through a direct peer-to-peer connection — safely access any critical file from their office network server no matter where they are.
  16. 16.  The WOWee ONE SLIM is a compact portable speaker unit which provides a full range frequency response. It is intended for use as both a fixed and portable solution for all iPod, iPad, mp3, mp4, mobile phone and computer applications. It uses the same hybrid technology as the WOWee ONE and produces an incredible bass sound with a 40Hz - 20kHz sound range.  The unit is powered by an internal rechargeable battery and can deliver up to 10 hours of playtime per charge. It can be recharged via computer USB or a 5V USB power adapter using a plug. There is also a built in LED low battery indicator.
  17. 17. The advantage or disadvantage of technologies depend on how people use it in their daily lives. If we let these technologies rule us then it becomes bane. Conversely, if we let these technologies to be our buddies in studying then it is boon.
  18. 18. What is IT?  Information Technology (IT) is "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of information systems".  Information technology is a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information. STID 1103 1/30/2014 19
  19. 19. What is ICT?  Information Communications Technology (ICT) covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form. For example, personal computers, digital television, email, robots.  ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data.  It is also concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other. STID 1103 1/30/2014 20
  20. 20. The Importance of IT/ICT  essential ingredient in managing business processes of       most organizations reduction in administration costs improve staff productivity assist in the design & manufacture of products improve the efficiency of interactions with clients, customers, suppliers & distribution outlets create opportunities for new services, products & business ventures speed, efficiency, effectiveness & competitive advantages STID 1103 1/30/2014 21
  21. 21. IT Components  Process  Application (software)  Hardware that is used to get, create, arrange, analyze and present the information in various format including text, image, audio and video. STID 1103 1/30/2014 22
  22. 22. Process  The ability to translate the information needs, to analyze and present the information and the ability to analyze the process effectiveness.  It Includes techniques and activities that involve design, development, implementation and IT management. STID 1103 1/30/2014 23
  23. 23. Application (Software)  Software can be categorized into:  Curricular software  it is designed to educate students with concepts and skills. The learning objective is determine by the software.  Generic software  Software that is used to achieve various learning objectives. Example: Word processor, databases and multimedia STID 1103 1/30/2014 24
  24. 24. Hardware  The physical components of a computer system  Includes all types of technology hardware including computers, scanner, modem, printers etc. STID 1103 1/30/2014 25
  25. 25. Telecommunication devices         Wireless Phone Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Walkie Talkie Pager Fax machine Video Conferencing Telegraph Chatting software: Example IRC, Yahoo Messenger STID 1103 1/30/2014 26
  26. 26. Example of Telecommunication Devices CELULAR PHONE PAGER STID 1103 1/30/2014 27
  27. 27. Example of Telecommunication Devices PDA WALKIE TALKIE STID 1103 1/30/2014 28
  28. 28. Example of Telecommunication Devices FAX MACHINE STID 1103 1/30/2014 29
  29. 29. Example of Telecommunication Devices Computer STID 1103 1/30/2014 30
  30. 30. Computer  An electronic device or a programmable machine that receives inputs, stores and manipulates data (retrieves and processes data), can be programmed with instructions and provides output in a useful format.  A computer is composed of hardware and software, and can exist in a variety of sizes and configurations. STID 1103 1/30/2014 31
  31. 31. Computer Monitor Central Processing Unit (CPU) Keyboard STID 1103 1/30/2014 32
  32. 32. Types of Computer  Analog  Process physical data. Example: Temperature, air pressure, electrical  Digital  Process data in binary ( 1 and 0)  Hybrid  Combination of analog and digital computers STID 1103 1/30/2014 33
  33. 33. Components of Computer  Central Processing Unit (CPU)  Storage  Input Devices  Output Devices  Communication Devices STID 1103 1/30/2014 34
  34. 34. Central Processing Unit (CPU)  CPU or the processor is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computer's functions.  Manipulates raw data into a more useful form and controls the other parts of the computer systems.  A microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable, clock driven, register based device that takes input and provides output.  E.g. Intel Pentium, AMD Athlon, SUN UltraSparc STID 1103 1/30/2014 35
  35. 35. Storage  A data storage device often called memory is a device for recording (storing) information (data).  Primary Storage (main memory, internal memory)  Temporarily stores data and program instructions during processing (volatile storage). Example RAM.  Secondary Storage (external memory)  Store data and programs when they are not being used in processing. Example: HardDisk, Floppy Disk, CD, DVD, Tape Drive, ROM, flash memory (USB) STID 1103 1/30/2014 36
  36. 36. Input Devices  Any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system (such as a computer).  Convert data and instructions into electronic form for input into the computer.  Example  Pointing devices (mouse, touch screen)  Source data automation (optical character recognition ~ Bar code, magnetic ink character recognition)  Handwriting recognition (pen-based input ~ PDA, laptop mouse pointing)  Keyboard, Scanner, sensor device  voice input device (Microphone) STID 1103 1/30/2014 37
  37. 37. Output Devices  Any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world.  Convert electronic data produced by the computer system and display them into a form that people can understand.  Example:Video Display Terminal (monitors), Printers, plotters, speakers, headphone, earphone. STID 1103 1/30/2014 38
  38. 38. Communication Devices  Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another.  Provide connections between the computer and communication networks.  Example: Modem, Digital Camera, HeadPhone/Telephony (conferencing), radio/TV. STID 1103 1/30/2014 39
  39. 39. Categories of Computers      Supercomputer Mainframe Midrange (Minicomputers) Microcomputers Workstation STID 1103 1/30/2014 40
  40. 40. Supercomputer  Highly sophisticated and powerful computer that can perform very complex computations extremely rapidly.  Most powerful & expensive.  Used in scientific and military work, such as classified weapons research and weather forecasting. STID 1103 1/30/2014 41
  41. 41. Mainframe  Largest category of computer, used for major business processing.  Intended to service multiple users  Capable of handling and processing very large amounts of data quickly.  Used in large institutions such as government, banks and large corporations. STID 1103 1/30/2014 42
  42. 42. Midrange (Minicomputers)  A class of computer systems which fall in between mainframe computers and microcomputers.  Capable of supporting the computing needs of small organizations or of managing networks of other computers such as in Universities, factories and research laboratories as server to manage organization computer network  E.g. Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett-Packard (HP3000 line), and Sun Microsystems (SPARC Enterprise). STID 1103 1/30/2014 43
  43. 43. Microcomputers  A computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit  Also known as personal computer.  Physically small compared to mainframe and mini.  E.g. desktop computers, laptop and notebook computers, tablet PC, palmtop computers, personal digital assistants (PDA's). STID 1103 1/30/2014 44
  44. 44. Workstation  A high-end microcomputer designed for technical or scientific applications.  Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems.  Desktop computer with powerful graphics and mathematical capabilities and the ability to perform several complicated at once.  Used in scientific, engineering and design work STID 1103 1/30/2014 45
  45. 45. Computer Hardware Monitor – 14”, 15”, 17” & 21” Keyboards- 108, 110, 114 keys, Mouse, Speaker, Printer, Scanner, CD Drive, CD Writer Floppy A Drive Joy Stick Plotter STID 1103 1/30/2014 46
  46. 46. Monitor •A monitor or display (sometimes called a visual display unit) is an electronic visual display for computers. •It comprises the display device, circuitry, and an enclosure. •2 types of Monitor • CRT -Cathode Ray Tube (just like television set •Flat Panel - Using TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display, or plasma display panel (pixel rely on wgas in the cell or plasma) STID 1103 1/30/2014 47
  47. 47. Printers  a printer is a peripheral which produces a hard copy (permanent readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. o o o o Dot matrix Ink Jet Laser Jet Bubble Jet STID 1103 1/30/2014 48
  48. 48. Software  Complete instructions that control, manage and support operational activities of computer system.  The collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do.  3 basic functions: a) manage computer system’s data sources b) create platforms & tools to use the data source c) act as the ‘middle-man’ between human and data source storage STID 1103 1/30/2014 49
  49. 49. User Application Software System Software Computer Hardware Relationship between User, Application Software, System Software and Computer Hardware STID 1103 1/30/2014 50
  50. 50. Example of Computer Software  System Software  Application Software  Programming Languages  Firmware  Device Drivers  Middleware  Testware STID 1103 1/30/2014 51
  51. 51. System Software  A computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide and maintain a platform for running application software.  The most important types of system software are:     The operating system The computer BIOS and device firmware Utility software Computer Language Translation Programs STID 1103 1/30/2014 52
  52. 52. Operating System  Allows the parts of a computer to work together by performing tasks like transferring data between memory and disks or rendering output onto a display device.  It also provides a platform to run high-level system software and application software.  Manages and control the computer’s activities  Main functions of the operating system  Allocates and assigns system resources  Schedules the use of computer resources and computer job  Monitor computer system activities STID 1103 1/30/2014 53
  53. 53. Example of Operating System  DOS  UNIX  OS/2  Macintosh  Windows 95/98/2000/NT/ME/XP  LindowsOS STID 1103 1/30/2014 54
  54. 54. DOS  Disk Operating System (DOS)  Operating system for older IBM and IBM- compatible PCs between 1981 and 1995.  Advantage:  Ease of use ~ user interface (command line interface)  Disadvantage:  Do not support multitasking  Limits program use of memory to 640 kilobytes STID 1103 1/30/2014 55
  55. 55. DOS STID 1103 1/30/2014 56
  56. 56. UNIX  A computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs.  Operating System for all types of computers, which is machine independent and support multi-user processing, multitasking and networking.  widely used in both servers and workstations STID 1103 1/30/2014 57
  57. 57. UNIX STID 1103 1/30/2014 58
  58. 58. OS/2  Operating system/2 created by Microsoft and IBM for IBM PCS that can take advantage of the 32-bit microprocessor.  Support multitasking and networking.  Has its own graphical user interface and desktop and server version  Require memory intensive applications STID 1103 1/30/2014 59
  59. 59. OS/2 STID 1103 1/30/2014 60
  60. 60. Macintosh  OS for Apple Macintosh computer that support multitasking.  The first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface.  Has access to the internet and has powerful graphics and multimedia capabilities. STID 1103 1/30/2014 61
  61. 61. Macintosh System 1.1 STID 1103 1/30/2014 62
  62. 62. Mac OS 8.0 STID 1103 1/30/2014 63
  63. 63. Mac OS X Jaguar STID 1103 1/30/2014 64
  64. 64. Microsoft Windows  A series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft.  Windows – Operating System to control and manage computer activities  Based on graphical user interface – easier to use STID 1103 1/30/2014 65
  65. 65. List of Microsoft Windows versions              1985 November 20 - Windows 1.01 1986 August - Windows 1.03 1986 May - Windows 1.02 1987 April - Windows 1.04 1987 December - Windows 2.03 1988 May - Windows 2.10 1989 March - Windows 2.11 1990 May - Windows 3.0 1992 August - Windows 3.1 1992 October - Windows for Workgroups 3.1 1993 August - Windows NT 3.1 1993 November - Windows for Workgroups 3.11 1993 October - Windows 3.2 STID 1103 1/30/2014 66
  66. 66. List of Microsoft Windows versions (cont…)              1994 September - Windows NT 3.5 1995 August - Windows 95 1995 June - Windows NT 3.51 1996 July - Windows NT 4.0 1998 June - Windows 98 2000 April - Windows Mobile 2000 February - Windows 2000 2000 June - Windows Me 2001 August - Windows XP 2003 April - Windows Server 2003 2006 November - Windows Vista 2008 February - Windows Server 2008 2009 July - Windows 7 STID 1103 1/30/2014 67
  67. 67. Windows 3.1  Introduced graphical User Interface for example Program manager  Based on windows- allowing few program in their own windows.  Disadvantages:  Require high memory and storage  Operates only on computers with micro processor 286, 2MB RAM and at least 10MB hardisk. STID 1103 1/30/2014 68
  68. 68. Windows 3.1 STID 1103 1/30/2014 69
  69. 69. Windows 95  Popular in mid 90s, used in personal PCs.  Most of the software is based on windows format  Using storage area of 80 MB, 8MB RAM and micro      processor at least 486 DX. Using 32-bit operating system Perform twice better than windows 3.1(16-bit) Support multitasking Support plug and play Better GUI STID 1103 1/30/2014 70
  70. 70. Windows 95 STID 1103 1/30/2014 71
  71. 71. Windows 98  32-bit operating system that is closely integrated with the Internet and that supports multitasking, multithreading and networking  Faster and more integrated compare to windows 95 with support for additional hardware such as MMX, DVD.  The most visible features is integration of the OS with Web browser software STID 1103 1/30/2014 72
  72. 72. Windows 98 STID 1103 1/30/2014 73
  73. 73. Windows 2000  32-bit operating system for PCs, workstations and network servers.  Support multitasking, multiprocessing, intensive networking and Internet services for corporate computing. STID 1103 1/30/2014 74
  74. 74. Windows 2000 Pro STID 1103 1/30/2014 75
  75. 75. Windows ME  Microsoft Windows ME (Millennium Edition)  Enhanced Windows Operating System for consumer users featuring tools for working with video, photos, music and home networking.  Improved capabilities for safeguarding critical files. STID 1103 1/30/2014 76
  76. 76. Windows ME STID 1103 1/30/2014 77
  77. 77. Windows NT  Microsoft Windows NT (New Technology)  Posses the same ability in UNIX such as multi-user, multitasking and high security.  Suitable for high technology application, graphic and animation.  Appropriate as server in a network. STID 1103 1/30/2014 78
  78. 78. Windows NT 3.1 STID 1103 1/30/2014 79
  79. 79. Windows XP  Microsoft Windows XP (Experience)  Reliable, robust operating system with versions for both home and corporate users.  Features support of internet and multimedia and improved networking, security and corporate management capabilities STID 1103 1/30/2014 80
  80. 80. Windows XP STID 1103 1/30/2014 81
  81. 81. LindowsOS  Linspire, previously known as LindowsOS, was a commercial operating system based on Debian GNU/Linux and later Ubuntu.  The first "Broadband OS"  Built to take full advantage of broadband technology.  Designed to fully utilize the world of tomorrow, where Internet connectivity is bountiful and cheap, and computers are ubiquitous. STID 1103 1/30/2014 82
  82. 82. LindowsOS STID 1103 1/30/2014 83
  83. 83. The computer BIOS and device firmware  The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a standard defining a firmware interface. It is built into the PC.  Firmware is a term often used to denote the fixed, usually rather small, programs and data structures that internally control various electronic devices. It provides basic functionality to operate and control the hardware connected to or built into the computer.  The primary function of the BIOS is to load and start an operating system. When the PC starts up, the first job for the BIOS is to initialize and identify system devices such as the video display card, keyboard and mouse, hard disk, CD/DVD drive and other hardware. The BIOS then locates software held on a peripheral device (designated as a 'boot device'), such as a hard disk or a CD, and loads and executes that software, giving it control of the PC. STID 1103 1/30/2014 84
  84. 84. The computer BIOS and device firmware (example) STID 1103 1/30/2014 85
  85. 85. Utility software  Utility software is a kind of system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the computer.  A single piece of utility software is usually called a utility or tool.  Example of utility softwares:         Disk storage utilities ~ manage the storage like HDD, FDD, CD Disk defragmenters ~ detect computer files whose contents are broken across several locations on the hard disk, and move the fragments to one location to increase efficiency. Disk partitions ~ divide an individual drive into multiple logical drives Backup utilities ~ make a copy of all information stored on a disk, and restore either the entire disk or selected files Disk compression ~ compress/uncompress the contents of a disk, increasing the capacity of the disk. Anti-virus utilities ~ scan for computer viruses. Registry cleaners ~ clean and optimize the Windows registry by removing old registry keys that are no longer in use. Network utilities ~ analyze the computer's network connectivity, configure network settings, check data transfer or log events. STID 1103 1/30/2014 86
  86. 86. Computer Language Translation Programs  Convert programming languages into machine language.  Programs written in high-level language such as COBOL, C must be     translated into machine language that the computer can execute The program in high-level language before translation is called source code. A compiler translates source code into machine code called object code But some programming language do not use complier, but use an interpreter Interpreter used to translate each source code statement one at a time into machine code during execution and executes it. It is a bit slow to execute since it translated one statement at a time. STID 1103 1/30/2014 87
  87. 87. Application software  Also known as an application, is computer software designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks.  Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players.  Application software that we will learn in this class  Word Processor (Microsoft Word)  Electronic Spreadsheets (Microsoft Excel)  Database (Microsoft Access)  Graphic presentation  Presentation (Microsoft Power Point) STID 1103 1/30/2014 88
  88. 88. Word Processor  A computer application used for the production and manipulating (including composition (creating), editing, formatting, deleting, saving and possibly printing) of any sort of printable material (e.g. memo, letters, report, etc.)  Advantages (in comparison with type writer)  Save time and efficient to create documents  More flexible in term of deleting, and editing the content  Used in  Business  Personal  Education…etc STID 1103 1/30/2014 89
  89. 89. Electronic spreadsheet  A computer application that simulates a paper, accounting worksheet, which manipulates lines and numbers and to do calculation and is used to create charts, graph and table.  It displays multiple cells that together make up a grid consisting of rows and columns, each cell containing alphanumeric text, numeric values or formulas.  A formula defines how the content of that cell is to be calculated from the contents of any other cell (or combination of cells) each time any cell is updated.  Spreadsheets are frequently used for financial information because of their ability to re-calculate the entire sheet automatically after a change to a single cell is made. STID 1103 1/30/2014 90
  90. 90. Database  Consists of an organized collection of related data for one or more uses, typically in digital form.  Shared collection of logically related data (and a description of this data), designed to meet the information needs of an organization  Advantages:  Data consistency  More information from the same amount of data  Sharing of data  Improved data integrity  Improved security  Enforcement of standards  Economy of scale STID 1103 1/30/2014 91
  91. 91. Graphic Presentation  A computer program that allows users to compose and edit graphics images and pictures interactively on a computer and save them in one of many popular vector graphics formats, such as EPS, PDF, WMF, SVG, or VML .  Animation  Example: Corel Draw, Photoshop. STID 1103 1/30/2014 92
  92. 92. Programming languages  An artificial language designed to express computations that can be performed by a machine, particularly a computer.  Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine, to express algorithms precisely, or as a mode of human communication.  Many programming languages have some form of written specification of their syntax (form) and semantics (meaning).  It can be divided into:    Low-level programming languages High-level programming languages Very high-level programming languages STID 1103 1/30/2014 93
  93. 93. Low-level Programming languages  A programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture.  The word "low" refers to the small or nonexistent amount of abstraction between the language and machine language; because of this, low-level languages are sometimes described as being "close to the hardware."  Low-level programming languages are sometimes divided into two categories:  first generation  second generation. STID 1103 1/30/2014 94
  94. 94. First Generation Languages  The first-generation programming language, or 1GL also known as Machine Language, is machine code.  It is the only language a microprocessor can process directly without a previous transformation.  Using binary code ( 1 and 0 )  Programming in machine language is very slow, labor-intensive process  Example : 1010 1101 8B54 2408 83FA 0077 STID 1103 1/30/2014 95
  95. 95. Second Generation Languages  2GL, is assembly language, developed in 1950s that resembles machine language but substitutes mnemonics for numeric codes. ( example: load, sum).  It is considered a second-generation language because while it is not a microprocessor's native language, an assembly language programmer must still understand the microprocessor's unique architecture (such as its registers and instructions).  These simple instructions are then assembled directly into machine code.  The assembly code can also be abstracted to another layer in a similar manner as machine code is abstracted into assembly code.  Difficult to read, debug and learn and costly in term of programmers time  Example:  mov edx, [esp+8], cmp edx, 0, ja @f, mov eax, 0, ret STID 1103 1/30/2014 96
  96. 96. High-level Programming languages  A programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.  It may use natural language elements, be easier to use, or be more portable across platforms.  Such languages hide the details of CPU operations such as memory access models and management of scope.  It makes the language user-friendly.  Can be divided into:   3rd Generation language 4th Generation language STID 1103 1/30/2014 97
  97. 97. 3rd Generation Language  Specify instructions as brief statements that are more like natural language than assembly language.  Easier to write and understand in comparison of assembly language.  More user friendly  Example: FORTRAN, COBOL,BASIC, Pascal Lisp and C STID 1103 1/30/2014 98
  98. 98. 4th generation Languages  A programming language that can be employed directly by end user or less skilled programmers to develop computer applications more rapidly than conventional programming languages (nonprocedural or less).  Use for the development of commercial business software  Seven categories of 4th generation languages        Query languages Report generators Graphics languages Application generators Very high level programming languages Application software packages PC tools  E.g. LINC (Logic and Information Network Compiler), Oracle Express 4GL. STID 1103 1/30/2014 99
  99. 99. Very High-level Programming languages  A programming language with a very high level of abstraction, used primarily as a professional programmer productivity tool.  Very high-level programming languages are usually limited to a very specific application, purpose, or type of task.  For this reason, very high-level programming languages are often referred to as goal-oriented programming languages.  Example: 5th Generation Language STID 1103 1/30/2014 100
  100. 100. 5th Generation Languages  A programming language based around solving problems using constraints given to the program, rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer.  Used mainly in artificial intelligence research.  E.g. Prolog, OPS5 (Official Production System), and Mercury STID 1103 1/30/2014 101
  101. 101. Firmware  Low-level software often stored on electrically programmable memory devices.  Fixed, usually small programs and data structures that internally control various electronic devices.  Examples of devices containing firmware range from end-user products such as remote controls or calculators, through computer parts and devices like hard disks, keyboards, TFT screens or memory cards, all the way to scientific instrumentation and industrial robotics.  Also more complex consumer devices, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, synthesizers, etc., contain firmware to enable the device's basic operation as well as implementing higher-level functions. STID 1103 1/30/2014 102
  102. 102. Device Drivers  A device driver or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a hardware device.  Control parts of computers such as disk drives, printers, CD drives, or computer monitors.  Acts as a translator between a hardware device and the applications or operating systems that use it. STID 1103 1/30/2014 103
  103. 103. Middleware  Computer software that connects software components or applications.  Controls and co-ordinates distributed systems which includes web servers, application servers, and similar tools that support application development and delivery.  Examples include EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) software, telecommunications software, transaction monitors, and messaging-and-queueing software. STID 1103 1/30/2014 104
  104. 104. Middleware STID 1103 1/30/2014 105
  105. 105. Testware  Software for testing hardware or a software package.  Example use of testware: Web testing, environment & compatibility testing, performance testing  Functional testing, scalability testing, test automation, load and stress testing STID 1103 1/30/2014 106
  106. 106. IT in Management 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Latest in cost efficiency- including labor cost, transportation, communication Increment in business performance – virtual marketing and globalization, Sharing of information Global marketing- E-commerce, E-business Increment in customer satisfaction Increment in share market Low margin cost Increment in quality- products and services STID 1103 1/30/2014 107
  107. 107. The Importance of Computer  Efficiency and effectiveness in information          management Business management Education purposes Borderless world Military Entertainment Finance and banking Town planning Publication Graphic and animation STID 1103 1/30/2014 108
  108. 108. The Problems of Computer  Computer crime  Hackers  Illegal downloading  Hard to manage  Computer broke down  Gap between humans  Less communication among people  Secluded in their rooms  Privacy and confidentiality  Personal information can be revealed easily STID 1103 1/30/2014 109
  109. 109. Review  Introduction  IT & ICT  Computer  Hardware  Software  Application  Operating System  Programming Languages  Windows Technology STID 1103 1/30/2014 110
  110. 110. Introduction  Android's mobile operating system is based on the Linux kernel and is the world's best-selling Smartphone.  There are currently over 200,000 apps available for Android that are made accessible through the Android Market, which is the online app store run by Google.  The apps are primarily written in Java.
  111. 111. Introduction  The Android operating system, including the Linux kernel, contains approximately 12 million lines of code.  In this there are: 3 million lines of XML, 2.8 million lines of C, 2.1 million lines of Java, and 1.75 million lines of C++.
  112. 112. Android Framework
  113. 113. Background  Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October, 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White.  Their goal was to develop a "smarter mobile device that was more aware of its owner's location and preferences.”  They operated secretively, admitting only that they were working on software for mobile phones.
  114. 114. Background  Google acquired Android Inc. in August, 2005, making Android Inc. a wholly owned part of Google Inc.  Nick Sears was the only original founder that did not stay with Android Inc. after the acquisition.  At this point in time, many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move.
  115. 115. Background  Once at Google, Rubin led a team to develop a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel.  Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers with the intent of providing a flexible, upgradable system.  This caused speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market to build.
  116. 116. Background  On October 21st, 2008, Android 1.0 became available to the public.  "Today's announcement is more ambitious than any single 'Google Phone' that the press has been speculating about over the past few weeks. Our vision is that the powerful platform we're unveiling will power thousands of different phone models.“ -Eric Schmidt, former Google Chairman/CEO
  117. 117. Explanation Features of Android 1.0  Android Market application download and updates through the Market app  Web browser to show, zoom and pan full HTML and XHTML web pages        multiple pages show as windows ("cards")Video Camera support, but no way to change resolution, white balance, quality, etc. Folders allow the grouping of a number of app icons into a single folder icon on the Home screen. Email provides access to email servers commonly found on the Internet and supports POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP. Gmail synchronization with the Gmail app Google Contacts synchronization with the People app Google Calendar synchronization with the Calendar app Google Maps with Latitude and Street View to view maps and satellite imagery, as well as find local business and get driving directions using GPS
  118. 118. More Features           Google Search of the internet and phone apps, contacts, calendar, etc. Google Talk instant messaging. Instant messaging, text messaging, and MMS. Media Player enables managing, importing, and playing back but lacked video and stereo Bluetooth support Notifications appear in the Status bar - drag down to see details, also ringtone, LEDs and vibration options. Voice Dialer allows dialing and placing of phone calls without typing a name or number Wallpaper allows the user to set the background image or photo behind the Home screen icons and widgets. YouTube video player. Other apps include: Alarm Clock, Calculator, Dialer (Phone), Home screen (launcher), Pictures (Gallery), and Settings. Other supported features include: WiFi, and Bluetooth.
  119. 119. Explanation Current Features  Handset Layouts   Storage   The platform is adaptable to larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 2.0 specifications, and traditional smartphone layouts. SQLite, a lightweight relational database, is used for data storage purposes Connectivity  Android supports connectivity technologies including GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EV-DO, UMTS, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi (no connections through Proxy server and no Ad hoc wireless network) LTE, NFC and WiMAX.
  120. 120. Features (cont.)  Messaging  SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging, including threaded text messaging and now Android Cloud to Device Messaging Framework is also a part of the Android Messaging service.  Multiple Language Support  Several languages are available on Android. The number of languages more than doubled for the platform 2.3. However, it lacks font rendering of several languages even after official announcements of added support.  Web Browser  The web browser available for Android uses the open-source WebKit layout engine, along with Chrome's JavaScript engine.
  121. 121. Dalvik Virtual Machine  Java Support  Most Android apps are written in Java, however, there is no Java Virtual Machine in the platform and Java byte code is not executed.  Java classes are compiled into Dalvik executables and run on the Dalvik virtual machine.  Dalvik is a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for battery-powered mobile devices with limited memory and CPU. Dalvik Virtual Machine
  122. 122. Media Support Android supports the following audio/video/still media formats:         WebM H.263 H.264 (in 3GP or MP4 container) MPEG-4 SP AMR AMR-WB (in 3GP container) AAC HE-AAC (in MP4 or 3GP container)          MP3 MIDI Ogg Vorbis FLAC WAV JPEG PNG GIF BMP
  123. 123. Multi-Touch  Android has support for multi-touch which was originally made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero.  The feature was originally disabled at the kernel level (possibly to avoid infringing Apple's patents on touchscreen technology at the time).  Google has since released an update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid which enables multi-touch.
  124. 124. Android 2.3 Gingerbread  Latest version available for mobile phones  Enhanced UI with more polish and several refinements  Also adds support for NFC, which allows for mobile payments with only the use of the device
  125. 125. Google TV  Based on Android, Google TV allows your TV to be connected to the internet and all of the media content that it has to offer.
  126. 126. Android 3.0 Honeycomb  Designed for use on Tablet devices  Different UI compared to Version 2.3 Gingerbread
  127. 127. All the various android OS
  128. 128. Significance  Android is the fastest growing mobile operating system.  Its growing even faster than IOS!!  More developers are choosing to create Android applications  Amazing different apps available.
  129. 129. Summary  Started as a small idea by a few developers  Fastest growing and most popular mobile  Purchased by Google OS available  The future of mobile computing is Android!  Puts Stucki’s Iphone to shame.  First open source mobile operating system  Set higher standards for what a smartphone should be
  130. 130. Done by A.SHIVAMANI TH ‘A’ 9

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