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This is about exploration

This is about exploration



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Exploration Exploration Presentation Transcript

  • Exploration and Expansion Chapter 16
  • Section 1: Voyages of Discovery
    • Foundations of Exploration
      • The Drive to Explore
        • Renaissance had awakened spirit of innovation and discovery
          • Curious about exotic lands and peoples
        • Sought faster route to Asia to gain foothold in trade
        • God, Glory, and Gold
  • Section 1, Continued
    • Advances in Technology
      • Navigation tools
        • Compass (from China) - let sailors know which direction was north
        • Astrolabe (form Muslims) - let sailors calculate their location based on the position of the sun and stars
  • Section 1, Continued
      • Advances in shipbuilding
        • Deep draft ships - could withstand heavier waves and carry more cargo
        • Caravel - new light, fast sailing ship
          • Most popular ship for exploratory voyages
          • Steered with rudder instead of oars
          • Its sails could catch wind from any direction
  • Section 1, Continued
    • Explorers from Portugal and Spain
      • The Portuguese
        • 1st country to launch large-scale exploratory voyages
        • Prince Henry/ Henry the Navigator - patron and supporter of explorers
          • Established a court to bring sailors, mapmakers, and astronomers together
          • Sent explorers into the Atlantic and south to Africa
          • Wanted to find a water route around Africa to India
  • Section 1, Continued
    • Bartholomeu Dias - first European to sail around southern tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope) in 1488
    • Vasco da Gama - Successfully sailed around Africa to reach India in 1497
    • Pedro Cabral - set out for India; ended up landing in Brazil
    • Portugal established trading centers and became very rich and powerful
  • Section 1, Continued
    • The Spanish
      • Eager to find new routes to riches
      • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella paid for Italian sailor Christopher Columbus’ voyage in 1492
        • Columbus thought he could sail west to reach China
          • Was wrong about the earth’s size and didn’t know about the Americas
        • Reached Caribbean island of Hispaniola after 2 months at sea; thought he was in Asian islands called the Indies.
        • Was hailed as a hero in Spain
        • Returned to the Americas 3 more times, still thinking it was Asia
  • Section 1, Continued
    • Amerigo Vespucci - discovered Columbus’ error in 1502
      • Sailed along coast of S. America and concluded it wasn’t Asia
      • Spain now wanted to explore this new land
    • Vasco Nu ñez de Balboa - led expedition across isthmus of Panama
      • 1st European to see the Pacific Ocean (1513)
  • Section 1, Continued
    • Ferdinand Magellan
      • Portuguese, but sailed for Spain
      • Set out to sail around world in 1519 with 5 ships and 250 men
      • Long and difficult journey
        • Magellan was killed in a fight with native people in the Philippines
        • His men sailed on, arriving back in Spain in 1522 with 18 survivors -- First people to circumnavigate the world! (Explorer’s Journal, p. 474)
  • Section 1, Continued
    • Explorers from the Rest of Europe
      • The English… didn’t want to be left out
        • John Cabot - set sail in 1497 and reached Canada; thought he reached Asia
          • Went on a later expedition and never returned
        • Sir Francis Drake - sent to round the tip of S. America and explore its west coast
          • Became the second man to circumnavigate the globe
        • Henry Hudson - tried to find a shorter route to Asia
          • Hoped to find a Northeast Passage, but found only ice
  • Section 1, Continued
    • The French
      • searched for Northwest Passage to Asia
      • Jacques Cartier - (1534) - sailed into St. Lawrence River and claimed the surrounding land as New France (Canada)
    • The Dutch
      • Explored the Americas
      • Henry Hudson - also sailed for the Dutch
        • Searched for NE and NW passage
        • Explored the river now called the Hudson River and the Hudson Bay
  • Section 2: Conquest and Colonies
    • Scramble for colonies…
    • Spain builds an Empire - Among the first to successfully settle in the Americas
      • Spain in the Caribbean
        • Settled Caribbean islands Hispaniola and Cuba
        • Introduced encomienda system
          • Colonists were given land to work and Native Americans to work the land
          • Were required to teach native workers about Christianity
          • Disastrous for Native Americans - overworked, mistreated, caught deadly diseases from Europeans -- Millions died.
  • Section 2: Conquest and Colonies
    • The Conquest of Mexico
      • Hernan Cort és - conquistador (Spanish conqueror) who conquered the Aztecs in Mexico
        • Moctezuma II - Aztec emperor who ruled over much of Mexico and was unpopular with those he conquered
        • Cort és used this to his advantage - got thousands of Native Americans to help him defeat the Aztecs
        • Cort és and his men had several advantages over the Aztecs
          • Metals weapons, heavy armor, guns
          • Horses
          • Diseases (which killed thousands of Aztecs)
  • Section 2: Conquest and Colonies
    • The Conquest of Peru
      • Francisco Pizarro led expedition to Peru, seeking gold from Inca Empire
        • Disease (smallpox) and civil war had already weakened the empire
        • Demanded Atahualpa, the Incan ruler, hand over the empire and accept Christianity… Atahualpa refused
          • Spanish took him prisoner
          • Atahualpa offered them a fortune in gold and silver
          • The Spanish took the money, killed him, then headed to Cuzco, the Inca capital and took over the empire.
  • Section 2: Conquest and Colonies
    • Life in the Spanish Empire
      • The king chose viceroys to govern his holdings in the Americas
      • The colonial economy depended on mining silver and gold, and some farming
        • Native Americans worked the mines; they suffered from disease and mistreatment
          • The population dropped an estimated 90% from 50 million to 4 million
        • Reformers like Bartolom é de Las Casas spoke out to protect Native Americans
  • Section 2, Continued
    • The Portuguese in Brazil
      • Treaty of Tordesillas, signed by Portugal and Spain in 1494, drew an imaginary line through the Atlantic
        • Everything west of the line went to Spain; only Brazil remained a Portuguese colony
      • In the 1530s, colonists began to settle in Brazil, creating huge farming estates
        • First used Native American labor, then used African slaves (like Spain)
  • Section 2, Continued
    • French, Dutch, and English Colonies in the Americas
      • New France (Canada)
        • Established colonies in hopes of finding gold and silver like the Spanish… unsuccessful
          • But they did find fish and furs, which were valuable in Europe
        • Sent small groups of traders rather than large numbers of colonists, so French population in N. America remained small
        • Did not enslave Native Americans; they traded with them and became allies
        • Ren é-Robert La Salle canoed down the entire Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the huge region for France; named it Louisiana after King Louis XIV
  • Section 2, Continued
      • The Dutch of New Netherland
        • Mostly interested in trade
        • Settled New Netherland on the Hudson River
        • Bought island of Manhattan from Wappinger people in 1626 and founded the city of New Amsterdam (NYC)
          • The colony remained small because the Dutch focused on other more profitable colonies in the Caribbean and Asia
  • Section 2, Continued
      • The English Colonies
        • 1st English colony established in Jamestown in 1607
        • Hoped to find gold and silver - found a marsh instead
          • 80% of settlers died in the first winter
        • 1620 - Pilgrims escaping religious persecution established a colony at Plymouth, MA
          • Had difficulties, but survived
          • Received help from Native Americans early on, but later distrusted them
  • Section 2, Continued
    • British-French Conflict
      • In mid-1700s, English colonists tried to settle in French territory (Ohio River Valley)
      • Tension grew; war broke out in 1754 between English and French and Native American allies on both sides (French and Indian War)
        • Went badly for England at first, but France eventually surrendered
        • England got Canada and all the territory east of the MS River.
      • War was costly; the king tried to make the colonists pay, which led to resentment
  • Assignment
    • Pick two explorers/ conquistadors from the chapter
      • Create a drawing that :
        • Identifies the explorer/ conquistador
        • Shows where he’s from and what country he sailed for
        • Where he sailed
        • What he did when he got there/ how he interacted with native populations
        • Immediate and long-term results
      • You may use captions for clarity.
      • Drawings are due Friday, Feb. 4 at the beginning of class.
      • Homework : Read Sections 3 and 4
  • Section 3: New Patterns of Trade
    • The Columbian Exchange - new era of cultural changes and global transfer of plants, animals and disease
      • The Exchange of Goods
        • Europeans brought foods from the New World back to Europe (potatoes, corn, turkeys)
        • Introduced items from the Old World to the Americas ( coffee, rice, wheat, sheep, cattle, horses )
          • Horses provided a new source of labor and transportation
  • Section 3, Continued
      • Effects of the Columbian Exchange
        • Crops from the Americas (corn, potatoes) became staples in Europe and other places in the world
          • Provided nutrition and helped people live longer
          • Corn helped China’s population grown
          • Changed traditional cuisines (Italians began cooking with tomatoes)
        • Impacted economic activities (Texas cattle ranching, Brazilian coffee growing, corn and peanuts in Africa)
        • An estimated 1/3 of crops grown around the world are from the Americas
  • Section 3, Continued
    • The Introduction of New Diseases
      • Native Americans had no natural resistance to European diseases
        • Smallpox, measles, influenza, malaria killed millions of Native Americans
          • Population of central Mexico decreased by 30% within 10 years of European contact
          • The Inca Empire decreased from 13 million in 1492 to 2 million in 1600
          • North American population fell from 2 million in 1492 to 500,000 by 1900
  • Section 3, Continued
    • Mercantilism - an economic system that held that a nation’s power depended on its wealth (1500s - 1700s)
      • A wealthy nation could build a strong military and expand its influence
      • Believed there was a fixed amount of wealth in the world, so a nation had to take wealth from other nations to become more powerful
        • Led to intense competition between countries in the 1500s and 1600s
  • Section 3, Continued
    • Balance of Trade
      • Nations could build wealth by:
        • mining gold and silver
        • creating a favorable balance of trade by selling more goods than it bought from foreign countries
          • Reduce imports from other countries by placing tariffs (taxes) on those goods
          • Encourage exports that could sell for high prices (cloth got a higher profit than raw wool)
            • Governments provided subsidies to help people start new industries
          • Control overseas sources of raw materials and precious metals (so they didn’t have to rely on other countries)
  • Section 3, Continued
    • Colonies
      • Essential to the mercantilist system
      • Existed to benefit the home country
        • Provided European powers sources of raw materials and new markets for manufactured goods
        • Could only sell raw materials to their home country
        • Could only buy manufactured goods from their home country
    • Impact on Society
      • Towns and cities grew because of increased business activity
      • A new class of wealthy merchants emerged
      • Rural life in Europe remained the same
  • Section 3, Continued
    • The Rise of Capitalism
      • Capitalism Emerges
        • Most economic activities are carried out by private individuals or organizations
        • Individuals (not just government) began to amass great fortunes
          • Able to invest in more business ventures; business activities increased
  • Section 3, Continued
      • A New Business Organization
        • Overseas ventures were expensive, so people began to pool their money into joint-stock companies to fund larger businesses
        • Investors bought shares of stock in a company
          • If the company made a profit, each shareholder got a share of the profit
        • The British East India Company was one of the first joint-stock companies
          • Founded in 1600; imported spices from Asia
        • Virginia Company of London formed in 1607
          • Established the colony of Jamestown
  • Section 4: The Atlantic Slave Trade
    • Origins of the Slave Trade
      • The Atlantic Slave Trade
      • The Middle Passage
  • Section 4, Continued
    • Slavery in the Colonies
      • Living Conditions
      • Resistance
    • Effects of the Slave Trade