Exploration and Expansion Chapter 16
Section 1: Voyages of Discovery <ul><li>Foundations of Exploration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Drive to Explore  </li></ul><...
Section 1, Continued <ul><li>Advances in Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
 
Section 1, Continued <ul><ul><li>Advances in shipbuilding  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep draft ships - could withsta...
Section 1, Continued <ul><li>Explorers from Portugal and Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Portuguese  </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Section 1, Continued <ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias - first European to sail around southern tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope) i...
Section 1, Continued <ul><li>The Spanish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eager to find new routes to riches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Section 1, Continued <ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci - discovered Columbus’ error in 1502 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailed along coas...
Section 1, Continued <ul><li>Ferdinand Magellan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese, but sailed for Spain </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Section 1, Continued <ul><li>Explorers from the Rest of Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The English… didn’t want to be left o...
Section 1, Continued <ul><li>The French  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>searched for Northwest Passage to Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Section 2: Conquest and Colonies <ul><li>Scramble for colonies… </li></ul><ul><li>Spain builds an Empire - Among the first...
Section 2: Conquest and Colonies <ul><li>The Conquest of Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hernan Cort és - conquistador (Spani...
Section 2: Conquest and Colonies <ul><li>The Conquest of Peru </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Francisco Pizarro led expedition to Pe...
Section 2: Conquest and Colonies <ul><li>Life in the Spanish Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The king chose viceroys to gover...
Section 2, Continued  <ul><li>The Portuguese in Brazil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Tordesillas, signed by Portugal and...
Section 2, Continued <ul><li>French, Dutch, and English Colonies in the Americas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New France (Canada)...
Section 2, Continued <ul><ul><li>The Dutch of New Netherland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly interested in trade </l...
Section 2, Continued <ul><ul><li>The English Colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1st English colony established in Jam...
Section 2, Continued <ul><li>British-French Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In mid-1700s, English colonists tried to settle...
 
Assignment <ul><li>Pick two explorers/ conquistadors from the chapter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a drawing that : </li><...
 
Section 3: New Patterns of Trade <ul><li>The Columbian Exchange - new era of cultural changes and global transfer of plant...
Section 3, Continued <ul><ul><li>Effects of the Columbian Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crops from the Americas ...
Section 3, Continued <ul><li>The Introduction of New Diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans had no natural resist...
Section 3, Continued <ul><li>Mercantilism - an economic system that held that a nation’s power depended on its wealth (150...
Section 3, Continued <ul><li>Balance of Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations could build wealth by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Section 3, Continued <ul><li>Colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential to the mercantilist system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Section 3, Continued <ul><li>The Rise of Capitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism Emerges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
Section 3, Continued <ul><ul><li>A New Business Organization  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overseas ventures were expens...
 
Section 4: The Atlantic Slave Trade <ul><li>Origins of the Slave Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Atlantic Slave Trade </li...
Section 4, Continued <ul><li>Slavery in the Colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Exploration

1,275

Published on

This is about exploration

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,275
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
39
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Exploration

  1. 1. Exploration and Expansion Chapter 16
  2. 2. Section 1: Voyages of Discovery <ul><li>Foundations of Exploration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Drive to Explore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renaissance had awakened spirit of innovation and discovery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Curious about exotic lands and peoples </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sought faster route to Asia to gain foothold in trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>God, Glory, and Gold </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Section 1, Continued <ul><li>Advances in Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compass (from China) - let sailors know which direction was north </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Astrolabe (form Muslims) - let sailors calculate their location based on the position of the sun and stars </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Section 1, Continued <ul><ul><li>Advances in shipbuilding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep draft ships - could withstand heavier waves and carry more cargo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caravel - new light, fast sailing ship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular ship for exploratory voyages </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steered with rudder instead of oars </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Its sails could catch wind from any direction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Section 1, Continued <ul><li>Explorers from Portugal and Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Portuguese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1st country to launch large-scale exploratory voyages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prince Henry/ Henry the Navigator - patron and supporter of explorers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established a court to bring sailors, mapmakers, and astronomers together </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sent explorers into the Atlantic and south to Africa </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to find a water route around Africa to India </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Section 1, Continued <ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias - first European to sail around southern tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope) in 1488 </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco da Gama - Successfully sailed around Africa to reach India in 1497 </li></ul><ul><li>Pedro Cabral - set out for India; ended up landing in Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal established trading centers and became very rich and powerful </li></ul>
  7. 8. Section 1, Continued <ul><li>The Spanish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eager to find new routes to riches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella paid for Italian sailor Christopher Columbus’ voyage in 1492 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Columbus thought he could sail west to reach China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was wrong about the earth’s size and didn’t know about the Americas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reached Caribbean island of Hispaniola after 2 months at sea; thought he was in Asian islands called the Indies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was hailed as a hero in Spain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Returned to the Americas 3 more times, still thinking it was Asia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Section 1, Continued <ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci - discovered Columbus’ error in 1502 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailed along coast of S. America and concluded it wasn’t Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain now wanted to explore this new land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vasco Nu ñez de Balboa - led expedition across isthmus of Panama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st European to see the Pacific Ocean (1513) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Section 1, Continued <ul><li>Ferdinand Magellan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese, but sailed for Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set out to sail around world in 1519 with 5 ships and 250 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long and difficult journey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magellan was killed in a fight with native people in the Philippines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>His men sailed on, arriving back in Spain in 1522 with 18 survivors -- First people to circumnavigate the world! (Explorer’s Journal, p. 474) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Section 1, Continued <ul><li>Explorers from the Rest of Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The English… didn’t want to be left out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John Cabot - set sail in 1497 and reached Canada; thought he reached Asia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Went on a later expedition and never returned </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sir Francis Drake - sent to round the tip of S. America and explore its west coast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Became the second man to circumnavigate the globe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Hudson - tried to find a shorter route to Asia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hoped to find a Northeast Passage, but found only ice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Section 1, Continued <ul><li>The French </li></ul><ul><ul><li>searched for Northwest Passage to Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jacques Cartier - (1534) - sailed into St. Lawrence River and claimed the surrounding land as New France (Canada) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Dutch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explored the Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Hudson - also sailed for the Dutch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Searched for NE and NW passage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explored the river now called the Hudson River and the Hudson Bay </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Section 2: Conquest and Colonies <ul><li>Scramble for colonies… </li></ul><ul><li>Spain builds an Empire - Among the first to successfully settle in the Americas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain in the Caribbean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settled Caribbean islands Hispaniola and Cuba </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced encomienda system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists were given land to work and Native Americans to work the land </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were required to teach native workers about Christianity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disastrous for Native Americans - overworked, mistreated, caught deadly diseases from Europeans -- Millions died. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Section 2: Conquest and Colonies <ul><li>The Conquest of Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hernan Cort és - conquistador (Spanish conqueror) who conquered the Aztecs in Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moctezuma II - Aztec emperor who ruled over much of Mexico and was unpopular with those he conquered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cort és used this to his advantage - got thousands of Native Americans to help him defeat the Aztecs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cort és and his men had several advantages over the Aztecs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metals weapons, heavy armor, guns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diseases (which killed thousands of Aztecs) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Section 2: Conquest and Colonies <ul><li>The Conquest of Peru </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Francisco Pizarro led expedition to Peru, seeking gold from Inca Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease (smallpox) and civil war had already weakened the empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demanded Atahualpa, the Incan ruler, hand over the empire and accept Christianity… Atahualpa refused </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish took him prisoner </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atahualpa offered them a fortune in gold and silver </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Spanish took the money, killed him, then headed to Cuzco, the Inca capital and took over the empire. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Section 2: Conquest and Colonies <ul><li>Life in the Spanish Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The king chose viceroys to govern his holdings in the Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The colonial economy depended on mining silver and gold, and some farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans worked the mines; they suffered from disease and mistreatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The population dropped an estimated 90% from 50 million to 4 million </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reformers like Bartolom é de Las Casas spoke out to protect Native Americans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Section 2, Continued <ul><li>The Portuguese in Brazil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Tordesillas, signed by Portugal and Spain in 1494, drew an imaginary line through the Atlantic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everything west of the line went to Spain; only Brazil remained a Portuguese colony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the 1530s, colonists began to settle in Brazil, creating huge farming estates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First used Native American labor, then used African slaves (like Spain) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Section 2, Continued <ul><li>French, Dutch, and English Colonies in the Americas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New France (Canada) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established colonies in hopes of finding gold and silver like the Spanish… unsuccessful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But they did find fish and furs, which were valuable in Europe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sent small groups of traders rather than large numbers of colonists, so French population in N. America remained small </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not enslave Native Americans; they traded with them and became allies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ren é-Robert La Salle canoed down the entire Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the huge region for France; named it Louisiana after King Louis XIV </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Section 2, Continued <ul><ul><li>The Dutch of New Netherland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly interested in trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settled New Netherland on the Hudson River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bought island of Manhattan from Wappinger people in 1626 and founded the city of New Amsterdam (NYC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The colony remained small because the Dutch focused on other more profitable colonies in the Caribbean and Asia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Section 2, Continued <ul><ul><li>The English Colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1st English colony established in Jamestown in 1607 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hoped to find gold and silver - found a marsh instead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80% of settlers died in the first winter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1620 - Pilgrims escaping religious persecution established a colony at Plymouth, MA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had difficulties, but survived </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Received help from Native Americans early on, but later distrusted them </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Section 2, Continued <ul><li>British-French Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In mid-1700s, English colonists tried to settle in French territory (Ohio River Valley) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tension grew; war broke out in 1754 between English and French and Native American allies on both sides (French and Indian War) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Went badly for England at first, but France eventually surrendered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>England got Canada and all the territory east of the MS River. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War was costly; the king tried to make the colonists pay, which led to resentment </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Assignment <ul><li>Pick two explorers/ conquistadors from the chapter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a drawing that : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies the explorer/ conquistador </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows where he’s from and what country he sailed for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where he sailed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What he did when he got there/ how he interacted with native populations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate and long-term results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You may use captions for clarity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawings are due Friday, Feb. 4 at the beginning of class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework : Read Sections 3 and 4 </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Section 3: New Patterns of Trade <ul><li>The Columbian Exchange - new era of cultural changes and global transfer of plants, animals and disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Exchange of Goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans brought foods from the New World back to Europe (potatoes, corn, turkeys) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced items from the Old World to the Americas ( coffee, rice, wheat, sheep, cattle, horses ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horses provided a new source of labor and transportation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Section 3, Continued <ul><ul><li>Effects of the Columbian Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crops from the Americas (corn, potatoes) became staples in Europe and other places in the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provided nutrition and helped people live longer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corn helped China’s population grown </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changed traditional cuisines (Italians began cooking with tomatoes) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impacted economic activities (Texas cattle ranching, Brazilian coffee growing, corn and peanuts in Africa) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An estimated 1/3 of crops grown around the world are from the Americas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Section 3, Continued <ul><li>The Introduction of New Diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans had no natural resistance to European diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smallpox, measles, influenza, malaria killed millions of Native Americans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population of central Mexico decreased by 30% within 10 years of European contact </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Inca Empire decreased from 13 million in 1492 to 2 million in 1600 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North American population fell from 2 million in 1492 to 500,000 by 1900 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Section 3, Continued <ul><li>Mercantilism - an economic system that held that a nation’s power depended on its wealth (1500s - 1700s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A wealthy nation could build a strong military and expand its influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed there was a fixed amount of wealth in the world, so a nation had to take wealth from other nations to become more powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led to intense competition between countries in the 1500s and 1600s </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Section 3, Continued <ul><li>Balance of Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations could build wealth by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mining gold and silver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creating a favorable balance of trade by selling more goods than it bought from foreign countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce imports from other countries by placing tariffs (taxes) on those goods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage exports that could sell for high prices (cloth got a higher profit than raw wool) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governments provided subsidies to help people start new industries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control overseas sources of raw materials and precious metals (so they didn’t have to rely on other countries) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 30. Section 3, Continued <ul><li>Colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential to the mercantilist system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existed to benefit the home country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provided European powers sources of raw materials and new markets for manufactured goods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could only sell raw materials to their home country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could only buy manufactured goods from their home country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Towns and cities grew because of increased business activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new class of wealthy merchants emerged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural life in Europe remained the same </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Section 3, Continued <ul><li>The Rise of Capitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism Emerges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most economic activities are carried out by private individuals or organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals (not just government) began to amass great fortunes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Able to invest in more business ventures; business activities increased </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 32. Section 3, Continued <ul><ul><li>A New Business Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overseas ventures were expensive, so people began to pool their money into joint-stock companies to fund larger businesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investors bought shares of stock in a company </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the company made a profit, each shareholder got a share of the profit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The British East India Company was one of the first joint-stock companies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founded in 1600; imported spices from Asia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia Company of London formed in 1607 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established the colony of Jamestown </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 34. Section 4: The Atlantic Slave Trade <ul><li>Origins of the Slave Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Atlantic Slave Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Middle Passage </li></ul></ul>
  31. 35. Section 4, Continued <ul><li>Slavery in the Colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects of the Slave Trade </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×