Chapter 17 Reconstruction-updated
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Chapter 17 Reconstruction-updated

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  • 1. Chapter 17
    • Reconstruction
    • 1863-1877
  • 2. Part 1: The Politics of Reconstruction
  • 3. Objectives
    • Discuss the 3 Reconstruction Plans.
    • What key changes did emancipation make in the political and economic status of African Americans?
    • Explain the expansion of citizenship rights in the post-Civil War years.
    • Explain to what extent did women share in the gains made by African Americans
  • 4.
    • How was the south impacted by the Civil War?
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10. The Politics of Reconstruction
    • Confederates surrendered at Appomattox
    • War Casualties
      • Deaths Wounded
      • 360,000 Union 275,000
      • 260,000 Confederate 190,000
  • 11. The Defeated South
    • The price for secession
      • war and defeat
      • casualties
      • psychological wounds
      • agriculture land laid in waste (cotton destroyed)
      • cities destroyed
      • economy weakened (12% of the nations wealth)
      • emancipation
  • 12. Abraham Lincoln’s Plan
    • bring the south back into the Union quickly
    • opposed harsh punishments
    • respect private property
    • 10% Plan
        • 10% of 1860 voters need to take
        • the amnesty pledge
        • could then est. state gov’ts that agreed to abolish slavery
  • 13. Abraham Lincoln’s Plan
    • Opposition
      • Radical Republicans
      • Wade Davis Bill
        • Required 50% to take amnesty pledge
        • Guaranteed equality to former slaves
        • Pocket Vetoed
  • 14. Abraham Lincoln’s Plan
    • Distribution of Land
      • former slaves work confiscated lands
          • abandoned plantations leased
          • to Northerners
          • paid on a schedule
      • 40 Acre and a Mule
          • General William T. Sherman
          • set aside land be given to freedmen to work
          • loan mules from the U.S. gov’t
  • 15. Abraham Lincoln’s Plan
    • Freedmen’s Bureau
      • est. by Congress March 1865
      • provided food and clothing
      • managed abandoned lands
      • provided education, legal, and employment services
  • 16. Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction
    • Johnson the Man
    • Democrat
    • former slave owner
    • tailor
    • educated by his wife
    • state legislator & governor
    • only U.S. Senator to remain loyal
    • to the Union
    • supporter of yeomen farmers
    • disliked the plantation elite
  • 17. Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction
    • Quick reentry into the Union
    • restore property to Confederates who took loyalty oath
      • some excluded (planter elite)
    • granted pardons to 90% of those that applied
    • opposed political rights for freedmen
  • 18. Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction
    • Plan was put into place without Congressional Support
    • Fall 1965-10 of the 11 states claimed to have met requirements
    • December 1865-Johnson declared the “restoration” of the Union complete
    • Plan opposed by Radical Republicans
  • 19. The Radical Republican Vision
    • Equal political rights and economic opportunity
  • 20. The Radical Republican Vision
    • Thaddeus Stevens
      • Radical Republican
      • Pennsylvania Representative
      • wanted to confiscate lands from the wealthiest 10% of southerners and redistribute it to freedmen
  • 21. The Radical Republican Vision
    • Black Codes
    • designed to restrict the freedom of the black labor force and keep freedmen close to slave labor
  • 22. The Radical Republican Vision
    • December 1865 Congress refused to seat Southern Lawmakers
      • the old regime was back in charge
      • denied rights of freedmen
    • 1866 Congress passed 2 laws to aid freedmen
      • Civil Rights Bill-granted citizenship to freedmen
      • Enlarge the Freedmen’s Bureau
  • 23. The Radical Republican Vision
    • Johnson vetoed both bills
    • Congress overrided the vetoes
    • 1866 Congress adopted the 14th Amendment
    • Waving the Bloody Shirt
      • used in campaigning and to gain support for bills
      • reminded Northerners of the great sacrifices during the Civil War
  • 24. Congressional Reconstruction and the Impeachment Crisis
    • Republicans took control of Reconstruction in 1867
    • Reconstruction Act-divided south in to 5 military districts
    • To rejoin the union
      • new constitutions
      • universal male suffrage
      • ratify the 14th Amendment
  • 25. Military Districts
  • 26. Congressional Reconstruction and the Impeachment Crisis
    • Tenure of Office Act-any officer appoint with Senate approval could not be removed until the Senate had approved a successor
    • Johnson tried to fire Edwin Stanton, the Secretary of War
    • He appointed U.S. Grant who removed himself from the office
  • 27. Congressional Reconstruction and the Impeachment Crisis
    • House Republicans voted to impeach Johnson by a vote of 126-47
    • Behind the scenes Johnson agreed to abide by the Reconstruction Acts
    • Senate voted 35 for conviction and 19 for acquittal, 1 vote short to kick him out of office
    • est. that impeachment should be based on criminal actions, not political disagreements
  • 28. Election of 1868
    • Summer of 1868, 7 Confederate states had earned readmission to the Union
    • Republicans nominated Ulysses S. Grant
      • Platform: question of universal suffrage left to the states
    • Democrats nominated Horatio Seymore
      • Platform: states’ rights
  • 29. Election of 1868
    • Ku Klux Klan-founded as a TN social Club
      • Terrorized freedmen and white Republicans influencing the election
    • Grant won the election with over 500,000 African Americas voting for him
    • overwhelming support for the Republican Party
  • 30. Election of 1868
    • 15th Amendment
      • February 1869
      • granted all men the right to vote
      • unreconstructed states TX, MS, VA had to now ratify both the 14th and 15th Amendments
  • 31. Woman Suffrage and Reconstruction
    • Leaders Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
      • objected to the word male in the 15th Amendment
      • along with Lucy Stone started the American Equal Rights Association
      • Stone and Frederick Douglas insisted that this was the hour for freedmen
  • 32. Woman Suffrage and Reconstruction
    • Two Competing Organizations
      • American Woman Suffrage Association
        • Lucy Stone
        • focused on gaining voting rights at the state level
        • worked for the 15th Amendment
      • National Women’s Suffrage Association
        • more radical wing
        • advocated active democratic participation
  • 33. Part II: The Meaning of Freedom
  • 34. Meaning of Freedom
    • Freedmen wanted to define the meaning of freedom for themselves
    • relied on family and religion
  • 35. Meaning of Freedom
    • 1st impulse--MOVE
      • many returned
      • some settled in cities or predominately black areas
  • 36. Meaning of Freedom
    • Tried to reunite families
    • males took more authority and wanted to provide for their families
    • women continued to work outside of home because they needed to
  • 37. Meaning of Freedom
    • Religion
      • no white interference
      • first social institution they fully controlled
      • pooled resources to build churches
  • 38. Meaning of Freedom
    • Sharecroppers
      • most wanted to own their own land (no $$)
      • 10s of thousands were evicted off confiscated lands
      • croppers could live near families, work together, and set their own hours
      • by 1880, 75,000 former slaves were sharecropping
  • 39. Meaning of Freedom
    • Politics
      • 5 states had black electorate majorities
      • Union League became the political voice
      • leaders often teachers and ministers
  • 40. Part III: Southern Politics and Society
  • 41. Southern Politics and Society
    • Most Northerners were satisfied with the Reconstruction Plan
      • viable Republican Party
      • required active protection of black voters
    • Southern Republicans were unstable
    • By 1877 Southern Democrats were back in control
  • 42. Southern Politics and Society
    • Carpetbaggers-Northern middle class emigrants to the South
    • Scalawags-Native Southern white Republicans
  • 43. Southern Politics and Society
    • New State Constitutions
      • significant black presence
      • political and humanitarian reforms
      • Insisted on equal rights
        • still segregated society
    • Government did little to help blacks get land, but did help them bargain
    • Encouraged strong economy
      • heavy subsidies for railroad development
  • 44. Southern Politics and Society
    • Southerners did not believe that the Republics were a legitimate political group
    • The Klan tried to destroy reconstruction gov’ts
      • Congress passed laws to try and stop them
  • 45. Southern Politics and Society
    • Democrats began to gain support in the North
    • Conservative Democrats (Redeemers won control of Southern States
    • Supreme Court
      • weakened enforcement of 14th and 15th Amendments
        • declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional
  • 46. Southern Politics and Society
    • Modernization of the South happened
    • became more dependent on cotton
    • Crop Lien System
      • loans made to be paid off by profits from cotton sales
      • many fell deep into debt
    • South became an impoverished region
  • 47. Part IV: Reconstructing the North
  • 48. Reconstructing the North
    • Railroad construction continued the industrial boom
    • Railroad Tycoons drove smaller companies out of business
    • Credit Mobilier Scandal
      • set up fake companies to get more money
      • worked the politicians
  • 49. Reconstructing the North
    • Radical Republicans loosing influence and dying
    • appalled by party corruption
    • suspicious of universal suffrage
    • many had supported abolition, but wanted Federal Reconstruction to end
    • Grant easily won re-election in 1872
  • 50. Reconstructing the North
    • 1873-financial panic triggered the longest depression to this date in US History
    • prices fell, unemployment rose
    • government did little to help
    • Scandal continued in the Grant Administration
  • 51. Reconstructing the North
    • Election of 1877
    • Democrats-Samuel Tilden
    • Republican-Rutherford B. Hayes
    • Both promised to clean up corruption
  • 52. Reconstructing the North
    • Compromise of 1877
    • Tilden had more votes, but not a majority of electoral votes
    • Hayes struck a deal
      • he becomes president
      • ends Reconstruction
      • removes troops
      • gives money for internal improvements in the South