Chapter 17 <ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>1863-1877 </li></ul>
Part 1:  The Politics of Reconstruction
Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the 3 Reconstruction Plans. </li></ul><ul><li>What key changes did emancipation make in the pol...
<ul><li>How was the south impacted by the Civil War? </li></ul>
 
 
 
 
 
The Politics of Reconstruction <ul><li>Confederates surrendered at Appomattox </li></ul><ul><li>War Casualties </li></ul><...
The Defeated South <ul><li>The price for secession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>war and defeat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>casualt...
Abraham Lincoln’s Plan <ul><li>bring the south back into the Union quickly </li></ul><ul><li>opposed harsh punishments </l...
Abraham Lincoln’s Plan <ul><li>Opposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wade Davis ...
Abraham Lincoln’s Plan <ul><li>Distribution of Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>former slaves work confiscated lands </li></ul><...
Abraham Lincoln’s Plan <ul><li>Freedmen’s Bureau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>est. by Congress March 1865 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction <ul><li>Johnson the Man </li></ul><ul><li>Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>former...
Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction <ul><li>Quick reentry into the Union </li></ul><ul><li>restore property to ...
Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction <ul><li>Plan was put into place without Congressional Support </li></ul><ul...
The Radical Republican Vision <ul><li>Equal political rights and economic opportunity </li></ul>
The Radical Republican Vision <ul><li>Thaddeus Stevens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical Republican </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
The Radical Republican Vision <ul><li>Black Codes </li></ul><ul><li>designed to restrict the freedom of the black labor fo...
The Radical Republican Vision <ul><li>December 1865 Congress refused to seat Southern Lawmakers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the ...
The Radical Republican Vision <ul><li>Johnson vetoed both bills </li></ul><ul><li>Congress overrided the vetoes </li></ul>...
Congressional Reconstruction and the Impeachment Crisis <ul><li>Republicans took control of Reconstruction in 1867 </li></...
Military Districts
Congressional Reconstruction and the Impeachment Crisis <ul><li>Tenure of Office Act-any officer appoint with Senate appro...
Congressional Reconstruction and the Impeachment Crisis <ul><li>House Republicans voted to impeach Johnson  by a vote of 1...
Election of 1868 <ul><li>Summer of 1868, 7 Confederate states had earned readmission to the Union </li></ul><ul><li>Republ...
Election of 1868 <ul><li>Ku Klux Klan-founded as a TN social Club </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorized freedmen and white Repu...
Election of 1868 <ul><li>15th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>February 1869 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>granted all men the...
Woman Suffrage and Reconstruction <ul><li>Leaders Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>object...
Woman Suffrage and Reconstruction <ul><li>Two Competing Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Woman Suffrage Associ...
Part II:  The Meaning  of Freedom
Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>Freedmen wanted to define the meaning of freedom for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>relied on fam...
Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>1st impulse--MOVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many returned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some settled i...
Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>Tried to reunite families </li></ul><ul><li>males took more authority and wanted to provide for...
Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>Religion  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no white interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>first social i...
Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>Sharecroppers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most wanted to own their own land (no $$) </li></ul></ul><u...
Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 states had black electorate majorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Part III:  Southern Politics and Society
Southern Politics and Society <ul><li>Most Northerners were satisfied with the Reconstruction Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>v...
Southern Politics and Society <ul><li>Carpetbaggers-Northern middle class emigrants to the South </li></ul><ul><li>Scalawa...
Southern Politics and Society <ul><li>New State Constitutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>significant black presence </li></ul><...
Southern Politics and Society <ul><li>Southerners did not believe that the Republics were a legitimate political group </l...
Southern Politics and Society <ul><li>Democrats began to gain support in the North </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative Democrat...
Southern Politics and Society <ul><li>Modernization of the South happened </li></ul><ul><li>became more dependent on cotto...
Part IV:  Reconstructing the North
Reconstructing the North <ul><li>Railroad construction continued the industrial boom </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad Tycoons dr...
Reconstructing the North <ul><li>Radical Republicans loosing influence and dying </li></ul><ul><li>appalled by party corru...
Reconstructing the North <ul><li>1873-financial panic triggered the longest depression to this date in US History </li></u...
Reconstructing the North <ul><li>Election of 1877 </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats-Samuel Tilden </li></ul><ul><li>Republican-R...
Reconstructing the North <ul><li>Compromise of 1877 </li></ul><ul><li>Tilden had more votes, but not a majority of elector...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Chapter 17 Reconstruction-updated

3,535

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,535
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
145
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 17 Reconstruction-updated

  1. 1. Chapter 17 <ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>1863-1877 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Part 1: The Politics of Reconstruction
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the 3 Reconstruction Plans. </li></ul><ul><li>What key changes did emancipation make in the political and economic status of African Americans? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the expansion of citizenship rights in the post-Civil War years. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain to what extent did women share in the gains made by African Americans </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>How was the south impacted by the Civil War? </li></ul>
  5. 10. The Politics of Reconstruction <ul><li>Confederates surrendered at Appomattox </li></ul><ul><li>War Casualties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deaths Wounded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>360,000 Union 275,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>260,000 Confederate 190,000 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 11. The Defeated South <ul><li>The price for secession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>war and defeat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>casualties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>psychological wounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agriculture land laid in waste (cotton destroyed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cities destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economy weakened (12% of the nations wealth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emancipation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 12. Abraham Lincoln’s Plan <ul><li>bring the south back into the Union quickly </li></ul><ul><li>opposed harsh punishments </li></ul><ul><li>respect private property </li></ul><ul><li>10% Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% of 1860 voters need to take </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the amnesty pledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>could then est. state gov’ts that agreed to abolish slavery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 13. Abraham Lincoln’s Plan <ul><li>Opposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wade Davis Bill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required 50% to take amnesty pledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteed equality to former slaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket Vetoed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 14. Abraham Lincoln’s Plan <ul><li>Distribution of Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>former slaves work confiscated lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>abandoned plantations leased </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to Northerners </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>paid on a schedule </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 Acre and a Mule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General William T. Sherman </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>set aside land be given to freedmen to work </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>loan mules from the U.S. gov’t </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 15. Abraham Lincoln’s Plan <ul><li>Freedmen’s Bureau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>est. by Congress March 1865 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provided food and clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>managed abandoned lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provided education, legal, and employment services </li></ul></ul>
  11. 16. Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction <ul><li>Johnson the Man </li></ul><ul><li>Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>former slave owner </li></ul><ul><li>tailor </li></ul><ul><li>educated by his wife </li></ul><ul><li>state legislator & governor </li></ul><ul><li>only U.S. Senator to remain loyal </li></ul><ul><li>to the Union </li></ul><ul><li>supporter of yeomen farmers </li></ul><ul><li>disliked the plantation elite </li></ul>
  12. 17. Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction <ul><li>Quick reentry into the Union </li></ul><ul><li>restore property to Confederates who took loyalty oath </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some excluded (planter elite) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>granted pardons to 90% of those that applied </li></ul><ul><li>opposed political rights for freedmen </li></ul>
  13. 18. Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction <ul><li>Plan was put into place without Congressional Support </li></ul><ul><li>Fall 1965-10 of the 11 states claimed to have met requirements </li></ul><ul><li>December 1865-Johnson declared the “restoration” of the Union complete </li></ul><ul><li>Plan opposed by Radical Republicans </li></ul>
  14. 19. The Radical Republican Vision <ul><li>Equal political rights and economic opportunity </li></ul>
  15. 20. The Radical Republican Vision <ul><li>Thaddeus Stevens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical Republican </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania Representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wanted to confiscate lands from the wealthiest 10% of southerners and redistribute it to freedmen </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. The Radical Republican Vision <ul><li>Black Codes </li></ul><ul><li>designed to restrict the freedom of the black labor force and keep freedmen close to slave labor </li></ul>
  17. 22. The Radical Republican Vision <ul><li>December 1865 Congress refused to seat Southern Lawmakers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the old regime was back in charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>denied rights of freedmen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1866 Congress passed 2 laws to aid freedmen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Bill-granted citizenship to freedmen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlarge the Freedmen’s Bureau </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. The Radical Republican Vision <ul><li>Johnson vetoed both bills </li></ul><ul><li>Congress overrided the vetoes </li></ul><ul><li>1866 Congress adopted the 14th Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Waving the Bloody Shirt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used in campaigning and to gain support for bills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reminded Northerners of the great sacrifices during the Civil War </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. Congressional Reconstruction and the Impeachment Crisis <ul><li>Republicans took control of Reconstruction in 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction Act-divided south in to 5 military districts </li></ul><ul><li>To rejoin the union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new constitutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>universal male suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ratify the 14th Amendment </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. Military Districts
  21. 26. Congressional Reconstruction and the Impeachment Crisis <ul><li>Tenure of Office Act-any officer appoint with Senate approval could not be removed until the Senate had approved a successor </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson tried to fire Edwin Stanton, the Secretary of War </li></ul><ul><li>He appointed U.S. Grant who removed himself from the office </li></ul>
  22. 27. Congressional Reconstruction and the Impeachment Crisis <ul><li>House Republicans voted to impeach Johnson by a vote of 126-47 </li></ul><ul><li>Behind the scenes Johnson agreed to abide by the Reconstruction Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Senate voted 35 for conviction and 19 for acquittal, 1 vote short to kick him out of office </li></ul><ul><li>est. that impeachment should be based on criminal actions, not political disagreements </li></ul>
  23. 28. Election of 1868 <ul><li>Summer of 1868, 7 Confederate states had earned readmission to the Union </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans nominated Ulysses S. Grant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform: question of universal suffrage left to the states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democrats nominated Horatio Seymore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform: states’ rights </li></ul></ul>
  24. 29. Election of 1868 <ul><li>Ku Klux Klan-founded as a TN social Club </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorized freedmen and white Republicans influencing the election </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grant won the election with over 500,000 African Americas voting for him </li></ul><ul><li>overwhelming support for the Republican Party </li></ul>
  25. 30. Election of 1868 <ul><li>15th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>February 1869 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>granted all men the right to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unreconstructed states TX, MS, VA had to now ratify both the 14th and 15th Amendments </li></ul></ul>
  26. 31. Woman Suffrage and Reconstruction <ul><li>Leaders Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>objected to the word male in the 15th Amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>along with Lucy Stone started the American Equal Rights Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone and Frederick Douglas insisted that this was the hour for freedmen </li></ul></ul>
  27. 32. Woman Suffrage and Reconstruction <ul><li>Two Competing Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Woman Suffrage Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lucy Stone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focused on gaining voting rights at the state level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>worked for the 15th Amendment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Women’s Suffrage Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more radical wing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>advocated active democratic participation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 33. Part II: The Meaning of Freedom
  29. 34. Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>Freedmen wanted to define the meaning of freedom for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>relied on family and religion </li></ul>
  30. 35. Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>1st impulse--MOVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many returned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some settled in cities or predominately black areas </li></ul></ul>
  31. 36. Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>Tried to reunite families </li></ul><ul><li>males took more authority and wanted to provide for their families </li></ul><ul><li>women continued to work outside of home because they needed to </li></ul>
  32. 37. Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no white interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>first social institution they fully controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pooled resources to build churches </li></ul></ul>
  33. 38. Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>Sharecroppers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most wanted to own their own land (no $$) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10s of thousands were evicted off confiscated lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>croppers could live near families, work together, and set their own hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 1880, 75,000 former slaves were sharecropping </li></ul></ul>
  34. 39. Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 states had black electorate majorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union League became the political voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leaders often teachers and ministers </li></ul></ul>
  35. 40. Part III: Southern Politics and Society
  36. 41. Southern Politics and Society <ul><li>Most Northerners were satisfied with the Reconstruction Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>viable Republican Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>required active protection of black voters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern Republicans were unstable </li></ul><ul><li>By 1877 Southern Democrats were back in control </li></ul>
  37. 42. Southern Politics and Society <ul><li>Carpetbaggers-Northern middle class emigrants to the South </li></ul><ul><li>Scalawags-Native Southern white Republicans </li></ul>
  38. 43. Southern Politics and Society <ul><li>New State Constitutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>significant black presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>political and humanitarian reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insisted on equal rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>still segregated society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Government did little to help blacks get land, but did help them bargain </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged strong economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heavy subsidies for railroad development </li></ul></ul>
  39. 44. Southern Politics and Society <ul><li>Southerners did not believe that the Republics were a legitimate political group </li></ul><ul><li>The Klan tried to destroy reconstruction gov’ts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress passed laws to try and stop them </li></ul></ul>
  40. 45. Southern Politics and Society <ul><li>Democrats began to gain support in the North </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative Democrats (Redeemers won control of Southern States </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weakened enforcement of 14th and 15th Amendments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 46. Southern Politics and Society <ul><li>Modernization of the South happened </li></ul><ul><li>became more dependent on cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Crop Lien System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>loans made to be paid off by profits from cotton sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many fell deep into debt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South became an impoverished region </li></ul>
  42. 47. Part IV: Reconstructing the North
  43. 48. Reconstructing the North <ul><li>Railroad construction continued the industrial boom </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad Tycoons drove smaller companies out of business </li></ul><ul><li>Credit Mobilier Scandal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set up fake companies to get more money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>worked the politicians </li></ul></ul>
  44. 49. Reconstructing the North <ul><li>Radical Republicans loosing influence and dying </li></ul><ul><li>appalled by party corruption </li></ul><ul><li>suspicious of universal suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>many had supported abolition, but wanted Federal Reconstruction to end </li></ul><ul><li>Grant easily won re-election in 1872 </li></ul>
  45. 50. Reconstructing the North <ul><li>1873-financial panic triggered the longest depression to this date in US History </li></ul><ul><li>prices fell, unemployment rose </li></ul><ul><li>government did little to help </li></ul><ul><li>Scandal continued in the Grant Administration </li></ul>
  46. 51. Reconstructing the North <ul><li>Election of 1877 </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats-Samuel Tilden </li></ul><ul><li>Republican-Rutherford B. Hayes </li></ul><ul><li>Both promised to clean up corruption </li></ul>
  47. 52. Reconstructing the North <ul><li>Compromise of 1877 </li></ul><ul><li>Tilden had more votes, but not a majority of electoral votes </li></ul><ul><li>Hayes struck a deal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>he becomes president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ends Reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>removes troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gives money for internal improvements in the South </li></ul></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×