How to Run Effective Meetings Management Skills Asma Sharabati
Some common complaints about meetings include:❑ Starting late❑ Not having a purpose❑ No clear objective for the meeting❑ Disorganized❑ Some attendees don’t participate❑ Some attendees do all the talking❑ Longer than they need to be❑ No common understanding of the results
three steps for effective meeting :1. Planning the meeting2. Conducting the meeting3. Evaluating the meeting
Conducting an Effective Meeting❑ Start the meeting with some general information about the purpose.This gives everyone the same foundation from which to begin the communication.❑ Establish ‘‘meeting-keeping’’ roles such as timekeeper, agendacop, scribe. This will help en sure that the meeting runs smoothly and that meeting notes will be available for everyone.❑ Introduce the use of a ‘‘parking lot.’’When a participant introduces a topic that is not on the agenda, have her put the thought on a Post-it Note and place the Post-it on the parking lot (a piece of paper taped on the wall with the words parking lot at the top of it). In this way, the thought is acknowledged and not forgotten.
❑ Follow the agenda.❑ Generate discussion among all attendees. Ways to do this include:—Asking for feedback—Asking another attendee to paraphrase what was just said—Encouraging participation by asking quiet attendees what they think—Reflecting on what you think is being said or thought—Supporting participant ideas❑ Recap the outcomes or results of the meetings. Make sure thateach attendee knows the action expected of him/her basedon the meeting.
❑ Meet your time commitments. If the meeting is running late, ask participants if they are able to extend the time, or reschedule the meeting continuation for another time.❑ Review ‘‘parking lot’’ items. If possible within the originally scheduled time, address these concerns. If time will not permit, ask if another meeting needs to be scheduled with these items on the agenda.❑ Set a time for a next meeting.❑ Ask for a meeting evaluation. This ensures that participantshave an opportunity to let you know what worked well inthe meeting and what they would like to see done differently.
IN SUMMARY . . .Without proper preparation, meetings can be a waste of time.Agendas are critical to keeping a meeting on track and keeping all participants informed.Agendas must list one or more objectives, which state the purpose of the meeting.Invite only the necessary people to meetings to keep the group focused and active.
When leading a meeting, speak with energy, tone variability, and hand gestures.Maintain eye contact with your listeners.Listen carefully and completely before preparing to disagree with someone.At the end of the meeting, summarize all the actions or decisions that were made to be sure everyone is in agreement.
References• Ellis, Carol W., Management skills for new Managers, American Management Association, 2004.• Communication Skills, Ferguson Career Skills Library, 2004.
Best Wishes Asma Sharabatiasma_hatem@hotmail.com Management Skills part 4 Hebron University 2011
Managerial skills Asma SharabatiHebron University
DEFINITIONS:Greenberg and Baron defines a team as‘a group whose members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or a set of performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable’Stephen Robbins describes a work team as‘a group whose individual efforts results in a performance that is greater than the sum of those individual inputs’
• A team is a group of people formed to achieve a goal. Teams can be temporary, or indefinite. With individuals sharing responsibility, the group as a whole can take advantage of all of the collective talent, knowledge, and experience of each team member.• Team building is an organizedeffort to improve team effectiveness.
Teamwork Considerations• Trust• Effective communication, especially listening• Attitude positive "can do"• Motivation to perform and improve• We mentality• Ownership of process with pride in accomplishment• Respect and consideration of others• Keeping focus
What Makes a Good Team?• A true team is a living, constantly changing, dynamic force in which a number of people come together to work• Team members discuss their objectives, assess ideas, make decisions, and work towards their targets together
Why Team?Benefits of Teams:Better decisions and motivationEveryone can participateNurtures improved working relationshipsEncourages rewards in the work itselfFreer contribution of informationIncreases communicationThrusts an organization towards common goalSupports an organization-wide perspective
Benefits Of Teamwork Integration of the TalentsThe Collective Utilization and CompetenciesOf Individuals’ Efforts they Possess
What Benefits Could Teams Provide Your Organization?
IMPORTANT CHARACHTERISTICS OF A TEAM:1. SMALL NUMBER: A team consists of few people as the interaction and influence processes needed for the team to function can occur only when the number is small.2. MIX OF SKILLS: A team includes people with a mix of skills appropriate to the task to be done.3. COMMON PURPOSE OR GOAL: A team comes together to take action to pursue a goal. The purpose becomes the focus of the team, which makes all decisions in pursuit of the goal.4. MUTUALLY ACCOUNTABLE: Mutually accountable is a kind of promise that members make to each other to do everything possible to achieve their goals, and it requires commitement and trust of all members.
Finding the Right Balance Of Skills Technical In disciplines expertise Problem-solving Team-working skills skills Ability to copeAbility to makeclear decisions with others
Responsibilities Team Leader• Moves the team to accomplish its task• Provides a conducive environment for getting the work done (location, resources)• Communicates with the team
Team Facilitator• Makes things happen with ease• Helps the group with the process• Enables the group to produce the "how" decisions• Note: Facilitators may be members or non- members of the team.
Team Recorder• Writes down the teams key points, ideas and decisions• Documents the teams process, discussions, and decisions
Team members• Displays enthusiasm and commitment to the teams purpose• Behaves honestly; maintain confidential information behind closed doors• Shares responsibility to rotate through other team roles• Shares knowledge and expertise and not withhold information• Asks questions• Respects the opinions and positions of others on the team, even if the person has an opposing view or different opinion
Points to Remember• A team member is still an individual, and should always be treated as such• Cross-functional teams offer the chance to learn about roles and work of others
Understanding Team Dynamics An Overview of Tuckman and Jensen’s Four-Phase Model Educational psychologist Bruce Wayne Tuckman, Ph.D. was charged by his boss at the Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda MD with a review of 50 articles about team behavior. From this body of work, Dr. Tuckman conceived his theory of group developmental processes in 1965.
Stage 1 - Forming During the first stage, the team is becoming acquainted with each other and teamwork. Members are building rapport, honesty, trust, and open communication. They are trying to determine what it takes to fit in. The team members usually have great enthusiasm for the project. However, they do not know how to work as a team to accomplish it. During this stage the team is deciding what they need to accomplish and who needs to accomplish it.The Forming stage. Groups initially concern themselves withorientation accomplished primarily through testing. Such testing serves toidentify the boundaries of both interpersonal and task behaviors.Coincident with testing in the interpersonal realm is the establishment ofdependency relationships with leaders, other group members, or pre-existing standards. It may be said that orientation, testing and dependenceconstitute the group process of forming.
Stage 2 - Storming Stage 2 is characterized by being overwhelmed by the information and task. Sometimes power struggles, emotions, and egos become evident. This stage is the most difficult to overcome. Some teams never progress past this stage. If this happens, they should be disbanded. To move forward to the next stage, the team must find some small success as a group. Once the team understands they can perform as a team, the team usually progresses to the next stage.The Storming stage. The second point in the sequence ischaracterized by conflict and polarization around interpersonal issues,with concomitant emotional responding in the task sphere. Thesebehaviors serve as resistance to group influence and task requirementsand may be labeled as storming.
Stage 3 – NormingDuring Stage 3 the team moves toward the mission. In this stagecustomer contact and measurements can help the team membersstart to assist each other and focus on the mission. This is the firststage where the team is actually working as a team. Here the teamknows how to operate as a team. The Norming stage. Resistance is overcome in the third stage in which in- group feeling and cohesiveness develop, new standards evolve, and new roles are adopted. In the task realm, intimate, personal opinions are expressed. Thus, we have the stage of norming.
Stage 4 - Performing Finally in stage 4 the team becomes effective. The team members work together to achieve the mission.The Performing stage. Finally, the group attains the fourth and final stage in whichinterpersonal structure becomes the tool of task activities. Roles become flexibleand functional, and group energy is channeled into the task. Structural issues havebeen resolved, and structure can now become supportive of task performance. Thisstage can be labeled as performing.
Stages of Team-development The team first comes together; discovering "Why? What? Who? When?". Conflicts have not begin to emerge yet
manager’s Role FormingUse socializing and team discussion to initiategroup work
Stages of Team-development Forming StormingDisagreements arise about what needs to be done and who will do it.People are annoyed byThe restrictions imposed by the team
manager’s Role Forming StormingAssert your authority to defuse conflict inthe team
Stages of Team-development Forming Storming Norming The goals, roles, and boundaries have been clarified and accepted by team members. They have taken ownership and accountability for getting the work done
manager’s Role Forming Storming NormingEncourage team members to establish a creativework pattern
Stages of Team-development Forming Storming Norming PerformingThe team becomes a true team, working in harmony, supporting one another. Theteam, not the leader, manages the project. Team members make adjustments tokeep the deliverables on track
manager’s Role Forming Storming Norming PerformingBuild-up team faith in their collective abilityand skills
Identify what stage of team development your team is in.My team is in the ______________________ stage.
What Will It Take To Make Your Team a Success?
manager’s Role in Team-building Process• Identifying purpose of forming team• Selecting team members• Identifying strengths and weaknesses• Setting objectives and clarifying issues• Allocating roles and responsibilities• Supporting team members
manager’s Role in Resolving Team Conflicts• Clarifying impact of conflict on performance• Identifying causes of conflict• Inviting parties to explain their points of view suggesting solutions• Selecting appropriate methods for solution• Agreement on roles to resolve the conflict• Developing a plan of implementation
Action Steps to SuccessStep 1Ensure That All Partners Have a Part in Developing the Shared Vision and Common Goals.A jointly developed shared vision thatincorporates all partners’ expectations for theproject and that accommodates individual andorganizational agendas is a good foundation forbuilding a functional team thatwill collaborateto reach a common goal.
Step 2Define Member Roles and Responsibilities.Defining and articulating roles and responsibilities demonstrates that the collaboration has carefully planned how partners can contribute to the success of the problem-solving initiative or other community policing project.Collaborations should define the roles and responsibilities of the lead agency, partners, committee chair, meeting facilitator, and members.For each of these roles,the collaboration should define:
• What does it mean to assume one of these roles?• What am I responsible for if I take on this role?• How long will I have to serve in that role?Developing a glossary of collaboration roles and responsibilities answers questions, defines relationships, and promotes individual and group accountability. Clear expectations allow members of the partnership to have the information they need to make informed decisions regarding participation. Moreover, clearly defined roles and responsibilities increase the likelihood that members will accept tasks that are reasonable and ensure that the action plan will be successfully implemented.
Step 3Involve All Partners in Project Activities, Meetings, and Discussions.Whenever possible, try to schedule meetings so that all partners can attend. Develop mechanisms to inform partners of meeting minutes and decisions, especially those partners who were absent from a particular meeting. Maintain open communication and share decision making through consensus. At times, core partners may be tempted to make unilateral decisions or undertake tasks without team input or assistance, especially if these partners feel that not enough progress has been made. Developinga pattern of operating single-handedly,however,is a sure way of alienatingpartners and losing resources.
Step 4Seek Commitment from Partners.Team leaders should seek commitment from partners to participate actively as a team in the collaboration. This commitment can be gained and sustained if core partners lead the team with consistency and integrity, respect the membership’s diversity without attempting to change individuals, and if core partners strive to generate equal participation and meaningful contribution by all collaboration members. Core partners who use their influence to compel other partners to participate or concedeto “team” decisions may achievecompliance, but they will notgenerate teamwork.
Step 5Acknowledge and Reward Team Members.Ensure that all team members know how their individual efforts contribute to the team’s effort and to the common goal. Acknowledge, credit, and support individual efforts as vital to the success of the collaborative initiative. Encourage all partners to continually share theirindividual contributionswith the entire team.
Team Cohesion Has A Great Effect on ProductivityCohesion Productivity
Time spent togetherChallenges Proximity ofFacing team Team members Previous Size of teamachievements
References• Teamwork and Team Building Student Manual CorporateTrainingMaterials.com• Teamwork Strategies Collaboration Toolkit• Section 6: Teamwork Strategies