BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION
COMMUNICATIONESTABLISHES RELATIONSHIPSMAKES HUMAN ORGANIZATION AND COOPERATION POSSIBLE
KINDS OF RELATIONSHIPS•   HARMONIOUS RELATIONSHIPS•   COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIPS•   ADVERSARIAL RELATIONSHIPS•   HOSTILE RE...
BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS• BENEFITS OUTWEIGH THE COSTS• TIME AND EXPENSE
COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVENESS IN BUSINESS• WHO COMMUNICATES WITH WHOM  AND WHY• THE NEEDS OF THE ORGANIZATION• THE NEEDS AND...
COMMUNICATION PROCESS              Perception-1                               Perception-2         P1                     ...
MESSAGES• SIMPLE MESSAGES• COMPLEX MESSAGES
CHANNELS• NONVERBAL1)Spacea)Between people(proxemics)b)Allocated to people(territory)2)Timea)Amountb)Kind(exclusive or sha...
CHANNELSNONVERBAL3)Kinesicsa)Open postures and signals, inviting  communicationb)Closed postures and signals, discouraging...
ORAL COMMUNICATION• OPEN COMMUNICATION(HARMONIOUS AND COOPERATIVE  RELATIONSHIPS)• CLOSED COMMUNICATION(MUCH OF THE COMMUN...
WRITTEN COMMUNICATION• ADVANTAGEPERMANENT RECORD• DISADVANTAGEDOES NOT PERMIT RAPID FEEDBACK
ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION• TELETYPE• TV• E-MAIL
COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVESBUSINESS/PRACTICAL OBJECTIVE• TO INQUIRE• TO INFORM• TO PERSUADE• TO ENTERTAINHUMAN OBJECTIVE• MAI...
SUCESSFUL MESSAGESDO NOT ACCUSE PEOPLE OF SHORTCOMINGSDO NOT EXPRESS PERSONAL FRUSTRATION OR ANGERBUSINESS MESSAGES SHO...
SUCESSFUL MESSAGES• WORST:COMMUNICATION CAN  CREATE HOSTILITY WHERE NONE  EXISTED PREVIOUSLY
DEVELOPING BUSINESS       WRITING SKILLS• A)LANGUAGE• B)GRAMMAR• 1)NounsProper NounsCommon NounsAbstract/Concrete No...
WRITING SKILLS• 2)PronounsPersonal PronounsRelative PronounsInterrogative PronounsDemonstrative PronounsIndefini...
GRAMMARPronouns have different cases• a)Nominative CaseIYouHe/sheItWeYouThey
GRAMMAR•   b)Objective Case:•   Me•   You•   Him/her•   It•   Us•   You•   Them
GRAMMAR•   C)Reflexive Case•   Myself•   Yourself•   Himself/herself•   Itself•   Ourselves•   Yourselves•   Themselves
GRAMMAR•   D)Possessive case•   My/mine•   Your/yours•   His/her•   Its•   Our/ours•   Your/yours•   Their/theirs
GRAMMAR• 3)VERBS• A)Transitive• B)IntransitiveLinking verb4)Voice• Active/Passive Voice• 5)Tense(Use simple tenses!)
GRAMMAR• 6)AdjectivesPositive/Comparative/Superlative• 7)AdverbsLimiting adverbs• 8)ConjunctionsCoordinate/correlati...
GRAMMAR• 9)Prepositions• 10)Interjections
SENTENCES• 1)Subject and predicateA predicate adjective• 2)Complements (direct objects,indirect objects,  subject comple...
SENTENCES• 4)Clauses (Main clause,subordinate  clause)Restrictive Clauses/Phrases5)Kinds of Sentences(Simple, complex,co...
PROBLEMS OF USAGE•   1)Misspelling•   2)Subject and verb agreement•   3)Sentence fragment•   4)Run-on sentence•   5)Progre...
PUNCTUATION•   1)Period•   2)Comma•   3)Question Mark•   4)Exclamation Point•   5)Semicolon•   6)Colon•   7)Dash•   8)Para...
PUNCTUATION• 9)Underscore• 10)Question MarksCAPITALIZATION
WRITTEN COMMUNICATION•   Advantages of writing:•   1)Permanent record•   2)Proof of agreement•   3)Emphasis on logic•   4)...
COSTS OF ORAL         COMMUNICATION• Misunderstanding• Waste of time (missed phone calls,  interrupted meetings and person...
SUCESS OF A MESSAGE• 1)THE COMMUNICATION CONTEXT• 2)THE WRITING STYLE OR LANGUAGE  USAGEClarity(specific and concrete la...
SUCESS OF A MESSAGE• 3)THE PURPOSE OF THE MESSAGE• 4)THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR  MESSAGE
THE PROCESS OF WRITING1)PLANNING• PROBLEM SOLVINGTHE LETTER’S PURPOSEYOUR READER’S POINT OF VIEWTECHNIQUES OF EFFECTIVE...
THE PROCESS OF WRITING• COMBINING PURPOSE,PLAN AND  CONTENTEMPHASIS ON THE MAIN PURPOSESECONDARY PURPOSESTHE READER’S P...
THE PROCESS OF WRITING• MECHANICALLY,GRAMMATICALLY  AND FACTUALLY CORRECT• CONFIDENCE IN THE READER• PLEASANT, CONVERSATIO...
THE PROCESS OF WRITING• 2)ARRANGINGMESSAGE  STRUCTURES(INDUCTIVE/DEDUCTIVE,  DIRECT MESSAGES/INDIRECT  MESSAGES, THE PRIM...
THE PROCESS OF WRITING• 3)COMPOSING• GENERAL PREPARATION FOR  WRITING SHOULD INCLUDE:• BASIC WRITING SKILLS• THE COMMUNICA...
THE PROCESS OF WRITING• 4)REWRITINGADDINGDELETINGCHANGINGREARRANGING
POTENTIAL LEGAL PROBLEMS•   DEFAMATION•   FRAUD•   DISCRIMINATION•   COERCION•   UNMAILABLE AND UNORDERED ITEMS•   USE OF ...
LETTERS• PARTICULAR FORMAT:• NEATNESS• FREEDOM FROM TYPHOGRAPHICAL  ERRORS• STRIKEOVERS• SMUDGES• STATIONARY(QUALITY,  SIZ...
LETTERS• LETTER LAYOUT• PARTS OF THE  LETTER(LETTERHEAD,DATE,INSIDE  ADDRESS,ATTENTION LINE,  SALUTATION,SUBJECT  LINE,BOD...
LETTERS• PARTS OF THE LETTER(…MAILING OR  ADRESSEE  NOTATIONS,POSTSCRIPT,THE  SECOND PAGE)
LETTERS• PUNCTUATION STYLES(OPEN/MIXED  PUNCTUATION)• LETTER FORMATS(BLOCK,MODIFIED  BLOCK,SIMPLIFIED,PERSONALIZED  SPECIA...
ENVELOPES• MAILING ADDRESS• MAILING NOTATIONS
MEMOS• APPEARANCE• HEADINGS
PLACING ORDERS,ASKING        QUESTIONS• GENERAL STRUCTURE OF DIRECT  REQUESTS:• 1)DIRECT OPENING• 2)EXPLANATION• 3)SECONDA...
ORDERS• 1)BEST BEGINNING: “PLEASE SEND ME…”• 2)SPECIFY THE GOODS(QUANTITIY,  CATALOG NUMBER OR ISSUE, NAME OF  THE PRODUCT...
ORDERS• SPECIFY HOW YOU INTEND TO PAY• SPECIFY WHERE,WHEN AND HOW  YOU INTEND TO PAY
INQUIRIES• ASKING ABOUT GOODS AND SERVICESOPENING QUESTION SHOULD BE  SPECIFICIT MUST BE FOLLOWED BY ALL SPECIFIC  QUE...
INQUIRIES• EXPLANATION(NUMBERED  LIST/SEPARATE PARAGRAPHS)• DEADLINE• DO NOT THANK IN ADVANCE
ASKING ABOUT PEOPLE• STATE WHETHER THE PERSON BEING  INQUIRED ABOUT AUTHORIZED YOUR  REQUEST FOR INFORMATION• STATE WHETHE...
• SHOW YOUR READER THAT YOU ARE  ASKING FOR THE INFORMATION  BECAUSE YOU HAVE A LEGITIMATE  INTEREST TO PROTECT• IF YOUR I...
INVITATIONS• PERSUASIVE REQUEST/DIRECT  REQUEST• STATE THE MAIN IDEA, INVITATION  FIRST• BE SURE TO COVER FIVE W’s
DIRECT CLAIMS• REQUESTS FOR REFUNDS,  REPLACEMENTS AND ADJUSTMENTS  ON GOODS OR SERVICES ARE  USUALLY DIRECT MESSAGES• SHO...
CONVEYING POSITIVE        INFORMATION• HUMAN OBJECTIVE IS NOT CRITICAL  IN POSITIVE MESSAGES• CONVEY THE INFORMATION CLEAR...
POSITIVE INFORMATION• 3)SECONDARY MATTERS• 4)POSITIVE CLOSE(RESALE&NEW  SALES)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS• READER-INITIATED MESSAGES• ACKNOWLEDGE WITH A CAREFULLY  PREPARED FORM:• 1)LET THE READER KNOW THAT THE ...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS• 2)EXPRESS APPRECIATION FOR THE  READER’S BUSINESS• 3)SUGGEST POSSIBILITIES FOR  FUTURE BUSINESS TRANSACT...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF        REQUESTS• THOSE THAT GIVE YOU THE  OPPORTUNITY TO SELL YOUR GOODS  OR SERVICES TO YOUR READER• T...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS• GENERAL PROCEDURES:• A POSITIVE ANSWER PLACES THE  MESSAGE IN A SPECIFIC  COMMUNICATION CONTEXT AND  APP...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS• YOUR CLOSING SHOULD BE  FORWARD LOOKING AND POSITIVE
ANNOUNCEMENTS• THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN  ANNOUNCEMENT AND INVITATION:INVITATION ALWAYS CONTAINS AN  EXPLICIT PLEASE ATT...
ANNOUNCEMENTS• AVOID MESSAGE OVERLOADANNOUNCE ONLY TRULY  IMPORTANT EVENTSCOLOR-CODE YOUR  ANNOUNCEMENTS FOR INSTANT  ...
SPECIAL GOODWILL MESSAGES• MESSAGES OF CONGRATULATION• MESSAGES OF APPRECIATION• MESSAGES CONVEYING SEASON’S  GREETINGS• M...
APOLOGIES• IF YOU CAN NOT SOLVE THE  PROBLEM APOLOGIZEWHEN YOU HAVE TAKEN TOO LONG  TO ANSWER A LETTERWHEN YOU TRIED TO ...
APOLOGIESA DEFECT IN YOUR PRODUCT INJURED A CUSTOMER(FOR LEGAL REASONS AVOID ADMITTING GUILT)A REPRESENTATIVE OF YOUR ...
APOLOGIESA PROBLEM IN YOUR BUSINESS  OPERATIONS HAS COST SOMEONE ELSE  TIME, MONEY AND EXASPERATION• PUT THE APOLOGY FIR...
TRANSMITTALS• A REPORT, RESUME OR SOME OTHER  ENCLOSURE THAT TRANSMITS  MESSAGE
CONVEYING NEGATIVE        MESSAGES• READER’S RESPONSE DETERMINES  WHETHER A MESSAGE IS NEGATIVE• PLACE GREATER EMPHASIS ON...
NEGATIVE MESSAGES• GENERAL STRUCTURE:• 1)INDIRECT OPENING• 2)EXPLANATION• 3)SUBORDINATED  REFUSAL(REASONS FOR REFUSAL,  SU...
NEGATIVE     ACKNOWLEDGMENTSIF NEGATIVE REPLY IS THE ONLY  POSSIBLE REPLY, THEN:• 1)WORK TO MAINTAIN POSITIVE HUMAN  AND...
NEGATIVE     ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• DELAYED OR DECLINED ORDERS:• FOR E.G DELAYS IN SHIPMENT• 1)CAREFUL, POSITIVE WORDING OF A  R...
NEGATIVE     ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• LETTERS ANNOUNCING A DELAY  CAUSED BY THE WRITER’S COMPANY  SHOULD AIM TO KEEP THE ORDER IN ...
NEGATIVE     ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• LETTER TO REFUSE A CUSTOMER  WHO HAS ORDERED DIRECTLY  THROUGH MAIL:• 1)INDIRECT OPENING(FIN...
NEGATIVE      ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• DECLINING AN ORDER FROM A DEALER  MIGHT DERIVE BECAUSE:• 1)OF INSUFFICIENT CREDIT• 2)OF HAV...
NEGATIVE     ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• NEGATIVE REPLIES TO REQUESTS:• THE REFUSAL SHOULD BE  SUBORDINATED AS MUCH AS  POSSIBLE WITH...
NEGATIVE       ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• NE
NEGATIVE     ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• NEGATIVE REPLIES TO CLAIMS:• PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE:• TO RESELL THE PRODUCT OR  SERVICE IN QUES...
NEGATIVE     ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• CREDIT REFUSALS:• MORE A PERSUASIVE MESSAGE THAN  A NEGATIVE MESSAGE SINCE THE AIM  IS TO OB...
NEGATIVE       ACKNOWLEDGMENTS•   STRUCTURE OF CREDIT REFUSALS:•   1) INDIRECT OPENING•   2)EXPLANATION•   3)REFUSAL•   4)...
NEGATIVE ANNOUNCEMENTS• IF IT IS A REPLY TO STG. THE READER  HAS REQUESTED, START WITH A  LOGICAL POINT• PERSONALIZATION D...
NEGATIVE ANNOUNCEMENTS• THE STRUCTURE OF LETTERS OF  REPRIMAND:• 1)REVIEW THE FACTS• 2)STATE THE EXPECTED BEHAVIOR• 3)OFFE...
APOLOGIES• APOLOGIES FOR NEGATIVE  ANNOUNCEMENT SHOULD BE  DELAYED UNTIL AFTER THE REASON  HAS BEEN PRESENTEDINDIRECT  ST...
THE STRUCTURE OF APOLIGIES•   1)INDIRECT OPENING•   2)EXPLANATION•   3)NEGATIVE ASPECT•   4)APOLOGY•   5)POSITIVE ALTERNAT...
PERSUASION• INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR AND THINKING• INDIRECT STRUCTURE(FOCUS ON  THE HUMAN OBJECTIVE FIRST)• OFFER THE AUDIENCE R...
PERSUASION• CREDIBILTY:LONG-TERM CREDIBILTYSHORT-TERM CREDIBILTYCARRY-OVER CREDIBILTYOFFICIAL CREDIBILTY
PERSUASION• CREDIBILTYCHARACTER• IMPROVING CREDIBILTY:• 1)BE SURE THAT YOU ARE  AUTHORITATIVE• 2) YOU WILL BE PERCEIVED A...
PERSUASION• KEEP THE READER’S INTEREST IN  THE SUBJECT(YOU CAN NOT PERSUADE ALL THE  PEOPLE ALL THE TIME)• CHOOSE THE CON...
PERSUASION• ADOPT A YOU-ATTITUDE
PERSUASION• THE REASONS FOR RESISTANCE TO  PERSUASION :• 1)NEGATIVE PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE• 2)TIME• 3)MONEY• 4)BELIEF SYSTEMS
PERSUASION• APPEAL TO READER’S SELF-INTERESTMAKE YOUR APPEALS PRACTICAL AND  SPECIFICBASE YOUR APPEALS ON PEOPLE’S  NE...
PERSUASION• POSITIVE APPEALS AND NEGATIVE  APPEALS• EMOTIONAL APPEALS AND RATIONAL  APPEALS• EMOTIONAL APPEALS:• 1)USE EMO...
PERSUASION• 4)OMIT STEPS REQUIRED BY LOGIC• EMOTIONAL APPEALS TEND TO  MANIPULATE THE READER• THE BEST APPROACH IS TO COMB...
PERSUASION•   THE GENERAL STRUCTURE:•   1)ATTENTION•   2)INTEREST•   3)CONVICTION•   4)ACTION
MESSAGE DEVELOPMENT• SUCESSFUL PERSUASION REQUIRES:• VERY SKILFULL AUDIENCE  ANALYSIS,CAREFUL APPLICATION OF  THE PRINCIPL...
MESSAGE DEVELOPMENT• THE GENERAL STRUCTURE FOR  PERSUASIVE MESSAGES(ATTENTION,  INTEREST, CONVICTION, ACTION) AND  THE CAT...
MESSAGE DEVELOPMENT• TYPICAL BEGINNING IMAGES :• 1)A PROBLEM THAT NEEDS SOLVING• 2)A WELL-ESTABLISHED CULTURAL  IMAGE• 3)A...
MESSAGE DEVELOPMENT• MOVE THE READER FROM THE  STARTING POINT TO YOUR GOAL:• 1)MAKE SURE THAT THE OPENING  IMAGE IS APPROP...
MESSAGE DEVELOPMENT• 3)FOCUS ON ONE MAIN APPEAL AND  DEVELOP IT FULLY• SECURE ACTIONPUSH THE READER GENTLYUSE A LANGUA...
AUDIENCE AND APPEALS• PERONALIZE MESSAGES• IDENTIFY THE READER BY GROUP  MEMBERSHIP• ADDRESS YOUR READERS ONE AT A TIME• T...
AUDIENCE AND APPEALS• USE MECHANICAL TECHNIQUES SUCH  AS COLOR, NARROW COLUMNS OF  TYPE, PARAGRAPHS OF VARYING  WIDTHS AND...
AUDIENCE AND APPEALS• EACH COMMUNICATION SITUATION  (ESPECIALLY PERSUASIVE  MESSAGES) CALLS FOR AN  INDIVIDUAL APPROACH.
HOMEWORK I• You are the director of customer services  of Özdilek Towels. One of your customers  ordered 1000 pieces of to...
WRITING PERSUASIVE            MESSAGES•   TYPES OFPERSUASIVE REQUESTS:•   1)REQUESTS FOR FAVORS•   2)ADJUSTMENTS•   3)CRED...
PERSUASIVE REQUESTS FOR         FAVORSTHE REASON YOU ARE WRITING FORREADER BENEFIT(HEALTH,WEALTH, PLEASURE,OR CURIOSIT...
PERSUASIVE REQUESTS FOR         FAVORS• COMPONENTS OF PERSUASIVE  REQUESTS:• ATTENTION• INTEREST• CONVICTION• ACTION
PERSUASIVE REQUESTS FOR         ADJUSTMENTS•   DIRECT STRUCTURE•   APPEAL TO:•   1)SENSE OF FAIR PLAY•   2)DESIRE FOR CUST...
PERSUASIVE REQUESTS FOR      ADJUSTMENTS• PRESENT YOUR CASE IN A CALM,  LOGICAL MANNER• BUT YOU CAN PRESENT YOUR  DISAPPOI...
PERSUASIVE REQUESTS FOR          CREDIT• MUST BE BASED ON CIRCUMSTANCES  THAT WARRANT THE EXTENSION OF  CREDIT• COVER THE ...
PERSUASIVE REQUESTS FOR             FUNDS•   ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN:•   1)ACTION•   2)INTEREST•   3)CONVICTION•   4)ACTION
SALES LETTERS• 1)UNSOLICITED SALES LETTERS• 2)SOLICITED SALES LETTERS• 3)SOFT-SELL LETTERS
UNSOLICITED SALES LETTERSUSE AN ENVELEOPE TEASER ADDRESS WHO WILL HAVE A REAL  INTEREST IN YOUR PRODUCT OR  SERVICE TO...
SUCESSFUL SALES LETTERS•   3)FOCUS ON ONE MAIN APPEAL•   4)SUBORDINATE THE PRICE•   5)USE ENCLOSED BROCHURES•   6)ARE SPEC...
SOLICITED SALES LETTERSSHOULD BE PREPARED  INDIVIDUALLY• THE STRUCTURE:• 1)ATTENTION• 2)INTEREST• 3)CONVICTION• 4)ACTION
SOFT-SELL LETTERS• SPECIAL GOODWILL LETTERS  INTENDED TO REMIND THAT YOUR  FIRM PROVIDES A PARTICULAR  PRODUCT OR SERVICE
LETTERS THAT SELL IDEAS• STRUCTURE:• 1)ATTENTION• NOT ONLY BEGIN WITH A PROBLEM OF  INTEREST TO YOUR READER, BUT ALSO  MUS...
COLLECTION LETTERS• REMINDERS OF OVERDUE BILLS• CONSIST OF:• 1)DUPLICATE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL  BILL• 2)DUPLICATE COPIES ...
COLLECTION LETTERS• INQUIRIES:• SIMPLE INQUIRES• INQUIRES THAT CONTAIN AN APPEAL  FOR A PROMPT PARTIAL PAYMENT  AND SOME S...
COLLECTION LETTERS• APPEALS:• BEGIN WITH AT LEAST ONE POSITIVE  APPEAL SUCH AS AN APPEAL TO  COOPERATION, FAIR PLAY, OR PR...
COLLECTION LETTERS• THE READER SHOULD BE TOLD THAT,  BY NOT PAYING, SHE OR HE IS LIKELY  TO LOSE THE FOLLOWING:• 1)CREDIT ...
COLLECTION LETTERS• ULTIMATUM
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Business communication

  1. 1. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION
  2. 2. COMMUNICATIONESTABLISHES RELATIONSHIPSMAKES HUMAN ORGANIZATION AND COOPERATION POSSIBLE
  3. 3. KINDS OF RELATIONSHIPS• HARMONIOUS RELATIONSHIPS• COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIPS• ADVERSARIAL RELATIONSHIPS• HOSTILE RELATIONSHIPS
  4. 4. BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS• BENEFITS OUTWEIGH THE COSTS• TIME AND EXPENSE
  5. 5. COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVENESS IN BUSINESS• WHO COMMUNICATES WITH WHOM AND WHY• THE NEEDS OF THE ORGANIZATION• THE NEEDS AND ROLES OF ITS MEMBERS• EXTERNAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE ORGANIZATION
  6. 6. COMMUNICATION PROCESS Perception-1 Perception-2 P1 P2 Transfer of MeaningSender Encoding Decoding Receiver S E Message Channel D R Feedback Noise
  7. 7. MESSAGES• SIMPLE MESSAGES• COMPLEX MESSAGES
  8. 8. CHANNELS• NONVERBAL1)Spacea)Between people(proxemics)b)Allocated to people(territory)2)Timea)Amountb)Kind(exclusive or shared)c)Who waits for whom
  9. 9. CHANNELSNONVERBAL3)Kinesicsa)Open postures and signals, inviting communicationb)Closed postures and signals, discouraging communication4)Appearancea)Conformingb)Nonconforming
  10. 10. ORAL COMMUNICATION• OPEN COMMUNICATION(HARMONIOUS AND COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIPS)• CLOSED COMMUNICATION(MUCH OF THE COMMUNICATION IN ADVERSARIAL AND HOSTILE RELATIONSHIPS)
  11. 11. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION• ADVANTAGEPERMANENT RECORD• DISADVANTAGEDOES NOT PERMIT RAPID FEEDBACK
  12. 12. ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION• TELETYPE• TV• E-MAIL
  13. 13. COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVESBUSINESS/PRACTICAL OBJECTIVE• TO INQUIRE• TO INFORM• TO PERSUADE• TO ENTERTAINHUMAN OBJECTIVE• MAINTAIN AND IMPROVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SENDER AND THE RECEIVER
  14. 14. SUCESSFUL MESSAGESDO NOT ACCUSE PEOPLE OF SHORTCOMINGSDO NOT EXPRESS PERSONAL FRUSTRATION OR ANGERBUSINESS MESSAGES SHOULD IMPROVE BUSINESSBEST:COMMUNICATION CAN CONVERT AN ADVERSARIAL OR HOSTILE RELATIONSHIP INTO ONE OF HARMONY OR COOPERATION
  15. 15. SUCESSFUL MESSAGES• WORST:COMMUNICATION CAN CREATE HOSTILITY WHERE NONE EXISTED PREVIOUSLY
  16. 16. DEVELOPING BUSINESS WRITING SKILLS• A)LANGUAGE• B)GRAMMAR• 1)NounsProper NounsCommon NounsAbstract/Concrete Nouns
  17. 17. WRITING SKILLS• 2)PronounsPersonal PronounsRelative PronounsInterrogative PronounsDemonstrative PronounsIndefinite PronounsCompund Personal Pronouns
  18. 18. GRAMMARPronouns have different cases• a)Nominative CaseIYouHe/sheItWeYouThey
  19. 19. GRAMMAR• b)Objective Case:• Me• You• Him/her• It• Us• You• Them
  20. 20. GRAMMAR• C)Reflexive Case• Myself• Yourself• Himself/herself• Itself• Ourselves• Yourselves• Themselves
  21. 21. GRAMMAR• D)Possessive case• My/mine• Your/yours• His/her• Its• Our/ours• Your/yours• Their/theirs
  22. 22. GRAMMAR• 3)VERBS• A)Transitive• B)IntransitiveLinking verb4)Voice• Active/Passive Voice• 5)Tense(Use simple tenses!)
  23. 23. GRAMMAR• 6)AdjectivesPositive/Comparative/Superlative• 7)AdverbsLimiting adverbs• 8)ConjunctionsCoordinate/correlative/subordinate
  24. 24. GRAMMAR• 9)Prepositions• 10)Interjections
  25. 25. SENTENCES• 1)Subject and predicateA predicate adjective• 2)Complements (direct objects,indirect objects, subject complements)• 3)PhrasesPrepositional phraseVerbal Phrase (Gerund, infinitive,participial phrase)
  26. 26. SENTENCES• 4)Clauses (Main clause,subordinate clause)Restrictive Clauses/Phrases5)Kinds of Sentences(Simple, complex,compound,compund- complex sentence)
  27. 27. PROBLEMS OF USAGE• 1)Misspelling• 2)Subject and verb agreement• 3)Sentence fragment• 4)Run-on sentence• 5)Progression of verb tenses• 6)Parallelism• 7)Comma splice• 8)Pronoun and Antecedent Agreement• 9)Mismodification
  28. 28. PUNCTUATION• 1)Period• 2)Comma• 3)Question Mark• 4)Exclamation Point• 5)Semicolon• 6)Colon• 7)Dash• 8)Parantheses
  29. 29. PUNCTUATION• 9)Underscore• 10)Question MarksCAPITALIZATION
  30. 30. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION• Advantages of writing:• 1)Permanent record• 2)Proof of agreement• 3)Emphasis on logic• 4)Convenience• Disadvantages of writing:• Lack of warmth and clarity• No immediate feedback
  31. 31. COSTS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION• Misunderstanding• Waste of time (missed phone calls, interrupted meetings and personal conversations during business time)Letter is most cost-effective
  32. 32. SUCESS OF A MESSAGE• 1)THE COMMUNICATION CONTEXT• 2)THE WRITING STYLE OR LANGUAGE USAGEClarity(specific and concrete language, explicity, short and simple sentences with active voice,paragraphing, logical structure,unity, coherence, transition, timing,readability), courtesy(the you-attitude,cooperation of equals),conciseness(avoiding wordy expressions), positiveness, naturalness
  33. 33. SUCESS OF A MESSAGE• 3)THE PURPOSE OF THE MESSAGE• 4)THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR MESSAGE
  34. 34. THE PROCESS OF WRITING1)PLANNING• PROBLEM SOLVINGTHE LETTER’S PURPOSEYOUR READER’S POINT OF VIEWTECHNIQUES OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION(CLARITY, COURTESY, CONCISENESS, NATURALNESS,POSITIVE TONE)
  35. 35. THE PROCESS OF WRITING• COMBINING PURPOSE,PLAN AND CONTENTEMPHASIS ON THE MAIN PURPOSESECONDARY PURPOSESTHE READER’S POINT OF VIEWENOUGH INFORMATION FOR CLARITYCOURTEOUS TONECONCISE
  36. 36. THE PROCESS OF WRITING• MECHANICALLY,GRAMMATICALLY AND FACTUALLY CORRECT• CONFIDENCE IN THE READER• PLEASANT, CONVERSATIONAL TONE• READER’S BENEFIT FROM YOUR MESSAGE
  37. 37. THE PROCESS OF WRITING• 2)ARRANGINGMESSAGE STRUCTURES(INDUCTIVE/DEDUCTIVE, DIRECT MESSAGES/INDIRECT MESSAGES, THE PRIMARY ELEMENT, THE SECONDARY ELEMENTS, THE CLOSING ELEMENT, MULTIPURPOSE MESSAGES)
  38. 38. THE PROCESS OF WRITING• 3)COMPOSING• GENERAL PREPARATION FOR WRITING SHOULD INCLUDE:• BASIC WRITING SKILLS• THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS• THE TECHNIQUES OF EFFECTIVE BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
  39. 39. THE PROCESS OF WRITING• 4)REWRITINGADDINGDELETINGCHANGINGREARRANGING
  40. 40. POTENTIAL LEGAL PROBLEMS• DEFAMATION• FRAUD• DISCRIMINATION• COERCION• UNMAILABLE AND UNORDERED ITEMS• USE OF COPYRIGHTED MATERIALS
  41. 41. LETTERS• PARTICULAR FORMAT:• NEATNESS• FREEDOM FROM TYPHOGRAPHICAL ERRORS• STRIKEOVERS• SMUDGES• STATIONARY(QUALITY, SIZE,WATERMARK,WEIGHT,COLOR)
  42. 42. LETTERS• LETTER LAYOUT• PARTS OF THE LETTER(LETTERHEAD,DATE,INSIDE ADDRESS,ATTENTION LINE, SALUTATION,SUBJECT LINE,BODY,COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE,COMPANY SIGNATURE,WRITER’S SIGNATURE,TYPEWRITTEN SIGNATURE AND THE TITLE OF THE WRITER,REFERENCE INITALS,COPY NOTATIONS, BLIND COPY NOTATIONS
  43. 43. LETTERS• PARTS OF THE LETTER(…MAILING OR ADRESSEE NOTATIONS,POSTSCRIPT,THE SECOND PAGE)
  44. 44. LETTERS• PUNCTUATION STYLES(OPEN/MIXED PUNCTUATION)• LETTER FORMATS(BLOCK,MODIFIED BLOCK,SIMPLIFIED,PERSONALIZED SPECIALTY, AMS FORMAT)
  45. 45. ENVELOPES• MAILING ADDRESS• MAILING NOTATIONS
  46. 46. MEMOS• APPEARANCE• HEADINGS
  47. 47. PLACING ORDERS,ASKING QUESTIONS• GENERAL STRUCTURE OF DIRECT REQUESTS:• 1)DIRECT OPENING• 2)EXPLANATION• 3)SECONDARY MATTERS• 4)WHO DOES WHAT NEXT
  48. 48. ORDERS• 1)BEST BEGINNING: “PLEASE SEND ME…”• 2)SPECIFY THE GOODS(QUANTITIY, CATALOG NUMBER OR ISSUE, NAME OF THE PRODUCT, PRICE AND OTHER DETAILS FOR EACH PARTICULAR ITEM SUCH AS COLOR,SIZE,GRADE,MACHINE OR PART NUMBER, PATTERN, FINISH, STYLE, WEIGHT)
  49. 49. ORDERS• SPECIFY HOW YOU INTEND TO PAY• SPECIFY WHERE,WHEN AND HOW YOU INTEND TO PAY
  50. 50. INQUIRIES• ASKING ABOUT GOODS AND SERVICESOPENING QUESTION SHOULD BE SPECIFICIT MUST BE FOLLOWED BY ALL SPECIFIC QUESTIONS AND NECESSARY EXPLANATIONSTHE MOST IMPORTANT QUESTION IS NEVER COST(USE A QUESTION RELATED TO VALUE INSTEAD)
  51. 51. INQUIRIES• EXPLANATION(NUMBERED LIST/SEPARATE PARAGRAPHS)• DEADLINE• DO NOT THANK IN ADVANCE
  52. 52. ASKING ABOUT PEOPLE• STATE WHETHER THE PERSON BEING INQUIRED ABOUT AUTHORIZED YOUR REQUEST FOR INFORMATION• STATE WHETHER THE PERSON BEING INQUIRED HAS WAIVED THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO THE REPLY• STATE WHETHER YOU WILL KEEP THE INFORMATION CONFIDENTIAL
  53. 53. • SHOW YOUR READER THAT YOU ARE ASKING FOR THE INFORMATION BECAUSE YOU HAVE A LEGITIMATE INTEREST TO PROTECT• IF YOUR INQUIRY CONCERNS EMPLOYMENT, ASK QUESTIONS ONLY ABOUT THE PERSON’S ABILITY TO HANDLE THE JOB BEING APPLIED FOR
  54. 54. INVITATIONS• PERSUASIVE REQUEST/DIRECT REQUEST• STATE THE MAIN IDEA, INVITATION FIRST• BE SURE TO COVER FIVE W’s
  55. 55. DIRECT CLAIMS• REQUESTS FOR REFUNDS, REPLACEMENTS AND ADJUSTMENTS ON GOODS OR SERVICES ARE USUALLY DIRECT MESSAGES• SHOW CONFIDENCE IN THE READER• BE SPECIFIC
  56. 56. CONVEYING POSITIVE INFORMATION• HUMAN OBJECTIVE IS NOT CRITICAL IN POSITIVE MESSAGES• CONVEY THE INFORMATION CLEARLY,• CONCISELY AND COMPLETELY.• GENERAL STRUCTURE:• 1)DIRECT OPENING(SPECIFIC COMMUNICATION CONTEXT)• 2)EXPLANATION(SECONDARY)
  57. 57. POSITIVE INFORMATION• 3)SECONDARY MATTERS• 4)POSITIVE CLOSE(RESALE&NEW SALES)
  58. 58. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS• READER-INITIATED MESSAGES• ACKNOWLEDGE WITH A CAREFULLY PREPARED FORM:• 1)LET THE READER KNOW THAT THE CORRECT MERCHANDISE IS ON ITS WAY BY SPECIFYING THE ITEMS SHIPPED AND THE METHOD OF SHIPMENT
  59. 59. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS• 2)EXPRESS APPRECIATION FOR THE READER’S BUSINESS• 3)SUGGEST POSSIBILITIES FOR FUTURE BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS• YOU-ATTITUDE AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE
  60. 60. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF REQUESTS• THOSE THAT GIVE YOU THE OPPORTUNITY TO SELL YOUR GOODS OR SERVICES TO YOUR READER• THOSE THAT EMPHASIZE POSITIVE INFORMATION BUT MAY INCLUDE SOME SALES MATERIAL• THOSE THAT SHOULD CONTAIN NO SALES MATERIAL
  61. 61. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS• GENERAL PROCEDURES:• A POSITIVE ANSWER PLACES THE MESSAGE IN A SPECIFIC COMMUNICATION CONTEXT AND APPEAL TO THE READER• ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS• BE SPECIFIC IN SUPPLYING INFORMATION
  62. 62. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS• YOUR CLOSING SHOULD BE FORWARD LOOKING AND POSITIVE
  63. 63. ANNOUNCEMENTS• THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN ANNOUNCEMENT AND INVITATION:INVITATION ALWAYS CONTAINS AN EXPLICIT PLEASE ATTEND,ANNOUNCEMENT MERELY ANNOUNCES THE EVENT AND SUGGESTS THE READER SHOULD ATTEND BECAUSE OF THE BENEFITS SHE/HE WILL RECEIVE
  64. 64. ANNOUNCEMENTS• AVOID MESSAGE OVERLOADANNOUNCE ONLY TRULY IMPORTANT EVENTSCOLOR-CODE YOUR ANNOUNCEMENTS FOR INSTANT RECOGNITIONDO NOT SEND TOO MANY
  65. 65. SPECIAL GOODWILL MESSAGES• MESSAGES OF CONGRATULATION• MESSAGES OF APPRECIATION• MESSAGES CONVEYING SEASON’S GREETINGS• MESSAGES OF SYMPATHY
  66. 66. APOLOGIES• IF YOU CAN NOT SOLVE THE PROBLEM APOLOGIZEWHEN YOU HAVE TAKEN TOO LONG TO ANSWER A LETTERWHEN YOU TRIED TO SOLVE THE READER’S PROBLEM ONCE AND FAILED, THE READER HAD TO ASK A SECOND TIME
  67. 67. APOLOGIESA DEFECT IN YOUR PRODUCT INJURED A CUSTOMER(FOR LEGAL REASONS AVOID ADMITTING GUILT)A REPRESENTATIVE OF YOUR COMPANY WAS RUDE TO SOMEONEA DEFECT IN YOUR PRODUCT WAS OF SUCH A NATURE THAT THE CUSTOMER WILL NOT BE INTERESTED IN A CORRECTION
  68. 68. APOLOGIESA PROBLEM IN YOUR BUSINESS OPERATIONS HAS COST SOMEONE ELSE TIME, MONEY AND EXASPERATION• PUT THE APOLOGY FIRST IN THE MESSAGE• NEVER APOLIGIZE AT THE END OF THE MESSAGE• PROVIDE FULL, POSITIVE EXPLANATION OF THE PROBLEM(SECONDARY ELEMENTS)• THE CLOSING ELEMENT SHOULD LOOK FORWARD TO A POSITIVE, CONTINUING BUSINESS RELATIONSHIP
  69. 69. TRANSMITTALS• A REPORT, RESUME OR SOME OTHER ENCLOSURE THAT TRANSMITS MESSAGE
  70. 70. CONVEYING NEGATIVE MESSAGES• READER’S RESPONSE DETERMINES WHETHER A MESSAGE IS NEGATIVE• PLACE GREATER EMPHASIS ON THE HUMAN OBJECTIVE• NEVER APOLOGIZE AND IMPLY THAT YOU COULD HAVE DONE OTHERWISE
  71. 71. NEGATIVE MESSAGES• GENERAL STRUCTURE:• 1)INDIRECT OPENING• 2)EXPLANATION• 3)SUBORDINATED REFUSAL(REASONS FOR REFUSAL, SUGGEST ALTERNATIVES,OMIT AN EXPLICIT STATEMENT OF REFUSAL,PASSIVE VOICE)• 4)POSITIVE CLOSE
  72. 72. NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGMENTSIF NEGATIVE REPLY IS THE ONLY POSSIBLE REPLY, THEN:• 1)WORK TO MAINTAIN POSITIVE HUMAN AND BUSINESS RELATIONSHIP• 2)MAKE CERTAIN THAT THE READER UNDERSTANDS THE REASONS FOR YOUR DECISION AND KNOWS WHAT OTHER COURSES OF ACTION ARE POSSIBLE
  73. 73. NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• DELAYED OR DECLINED ORDERS:• FOR E.G DELAYS IN SHIPMENT• 1)CAREFUL, POSITIVE WORDING OF A REQUEST FOR THE MISSING INFORMATION• 2)INCLUSION OF RESALE MATERIAL• 3)A REQUEST FOR SPECIFIC, PROMPT ACTION ON THE PART OF THE READER
  74. 74. NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• LETTERS ANNOUNCING A DELAY CAUSED BY THE WRITER’S COMPANY SHOULD AIM TO KEEP THE ORDER IN SPITE OF THE NEGATIVE CONTENT OF THE MESSAGE
  75. 75. NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• LETTER TO REFUSE A CUSTOMER WHO HAS ORDERED DIRECTLY THROUGH MAIL:• 1)INDIRECT OPENING(FIND A POSITIVE OPENING)• 2)EXPLANATION(BENEFITS)• 3)RESALE• 4)POSITIVE CLOSE
  76. 76. NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• DECLINING AN ORDER FROM A DEALER MIGHT DERIVE BECAUSE:• 1)OF INSUFFICIENT CREDIT• 2)OF HAVING ALREADY AN EXCLUSIVE DEALER IN THE AREA(THEN, LIMIT POSITIVE CLOSE TO SIMPLE GOODWILL, AVOID RESALE,NEW SALES AND POSITIVE ALTERNATIVES)• 3)THE DEALER DOES NOT MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS
  77. 77. NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• NEGATIVE REPLIES TO REQUESTS:• THE REFUSAL SHOULD BE SUBORDINATED AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE WITHOUT SACRIFICING CLARITY• USUALLY MORE THAN ONE BUSINESS OBJECTIVE
  78. 78. NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• NE
  79. 79. NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• NEGATIVE REPLIES TO CLAIMS:• PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE:• TO RESELL THE PRODUCT OR SERVICE IN QUESTION AND TO SHOW CONFIDENCE, SELL A NEW SERVICE OR PRODUCT AT THE SAME TIME• HUMAN OBJECTIVE:RETAIN THE READER’S GOODWILL
  80. 80. NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• CREDIT REFUSALS:• MORE A PERSUASIVE MESSAGE THAN A NEGATIVE MESSAGE SINCE THE AIM IS TO OBTAIN THE CUSTOMER’S BUSINESS ON A CASH BASIS RATHER THAN REFUSAL OF CREDIT
  81. 81. NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• STRUCTURE OF CREDIT REFUSALS:• 1) INDIRECT OPENING• 2)EXPLANATION• 3)REFUSAL• 4)POSITIVE ALTERNATIVES• 5)POSITIVE CLOSE
  82. 82. NEGATIVE ANNOUNCEMENTS• IF IT IS A REPLY TO STG. THE READER HAS REQUESTED, START WITH A LOGICAL POINT• PERSONALIZATION DIFFICULT SINCE THEY ARE PREPARED AS FORM LETTERS• OFFER THE READER STG. OF VALUE
  83. 83. NEGATIVE ANNOUNCEMENTS• THE STRUCTURE OF LETTERS OF REPRIMAND:• 1)REVIEW THE FACTS• 2)STATE THE EXPECTED BEHAVIOR• 3)OFFER TO HELP
  84. 84. APOLOGIES• APOLOGIES FOR NEGATIVE ANNOUNCEMENT SHOULD BE DELAYED UNTIL AFTER THE REASON HAS BEEN PRESENTEDINDIRECT STRUCTURE• DO NOT BEGIN WITH I’M SORRY
  85. 85. THE STRUCTURE OF APOLIGIES• 1)INDIRECT OPENING• 2)EXPLANATION• 3)NEGATIVE ASPECT• 4)APOLOGY• 5)POSITIVE ALTERNATIVES• 6)GOODWILL CLOSE
  86. 86. PERSUASION• INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR AND THINKING• INDIRECT STRUCTURE(FOCUS ON THE HUMAN OBJECTIVE FIRST)• OFFER THE AUDIENCE REAL BENEFITS OR POSITIVE INFORMATION• YOUR ABILITY TO PERSUADE DEPENDS HEAVILY ON YOUR CERDIBILTY
  87. 87. PERSUASION• CREDIBILTY:LONG-TERM CREDIBILTYSHORT-TERM CREDIBILTYCARRY-OVER CREDIBILTYOFFICIAL CREDIBILTY
  88. 88. PERSUASION• CREDIBILTYCHARACTER• IMPROVING CREDIBILTY:• 1)BE SURE THAT YOU ARE AUTHORITATIVE• 2) YOU WILL BE PERCEIVED AS MORE CREDIBLE IF YOU ARE FRIENDLY, WARM AND OPEN
  89. 89. PERSUASION• KEEP THE READER’S INTEREST IN THE SUBJECT(YOU CAN NOT PERSUADE ALL THE PEOPLE ALL THE TIME)• CHOOSE THE CONTENT OF THE MESSAGE ACCORDING TO THE PERCEPTION OF YOUR READER’S WANTS AND NEEDS
  90. 90. PERSUASION• ADOPT A YOU-ATTITUDE
  91. 91. PERSUASION• THE REASONS FOR RESISTANCE TO PERSUASION :• 1)NEGATIVE PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE• 2)TIME• 3)MONEY• 4)BELIEF SYSTEMS
  92. 92. PERSUASION• APPEAL TO READER’S SELF-INTERESTMAKE YOUR APPEALS PRACTICAL AND SPECIFICBASE YOUR APPEALS ON PEOPLE’S NEEDS FOR HEALTH,WEALTH, PLEASURE, AND CURIOSITY• HUMAN NEEDS: PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS, SAFETY AND SECURITY NEEDS, SOCIAL NEEDS, EGO NEEDS, SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS)
  93. 93. PERSUASION• POSITIVE APPEALS AND NEGATIVE APPEALS• EMOTIONAL APPEALS AND RATIONAL APPEALS• EMOTIONAL APPEALS:• 1)USE EMOTIONALLY LADEN WORDS• 2)USE EXPLICIT AND IMPLIED ANALOGIES AS PROOF• 3)APPEAL TO PHYSICAL SENSES
  94. 94. PERSUASION• 4)OMIT STEPS REQUIRED BY LOGIC• EMOTIONAL APPEALS TEND TO MANIPULATE THE READER• THE BEST APPROACH IS TO COMBINE EMOTIONAL APPEALS WITH MORE LOGICAL ARGUMENTS
  95. 95. PERSUASION• THE GENERAL STRUCTURE:• 1)ATTENTION• 2)INTEREST• 3)CONVICTION• 4)ACTION
  96. 96. MESSAGE DEVELOPMENT• SUCESSFUL PERSUASION REQUIRES:• VERY SKILFULL AUDIENCE ANALYSIS,CAREFUL APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF PERSUASION IN AN ARTFULLY CONSTRUCTED MESSAGE• CONTROL READER’S PERCEPTION BY IMAGE BUILDING
  97. 97. MESSAGE DEVELOPMENT• THE GENERAL STRUCTURE FOR PERSUASIVE MESSAGES(ATTENTION, INTEREST, CONVICTION, ACTION) AND THE CATEGORIES OF APPEALS(HEALTH, WEALTH, PLEASURE,AND CURIOSITY)PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR IMAGE BUILDING• CHANGE YOUR IMAGE STEP BY STEP
  98. 98. MESSAGE DEVELOPMENT• TYPICAL BEGINNING IMAGES :• 1)A PROBLEM THAT NEEDS SOLVING• 2)A WELL-ESTABLISHED CULTURAL IMAGE• 3)A SPECIFIC BENEFIT• 4)A DESIRED BENEFIT
  99. 99. MESSAGE DEVELOPMENT• MOVE THE READER FROM THE STARTING POINT TO YOUR GOAL:• 1)MAKE SURE THAT THE OPENING IMAGE IS APPROPRIATE FOR YOUR MESSAGE• 2)SUBORDINATE PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION AND EXPLANATIONS TO THE ACCOMPANYING READER BENEFITS(FOCUS ON VALUE)
  100. 100. MESSAGE DEVELOPMENT• 3)FOCUS ON ONE MAIN APPEAL AND DEVELOP IT FULLY• SECURE ACTIONPUSH THE READER GENTLYUSE A LANGUAGE STRONG ENOUGH
  101. 101. AUDIENCE AND APPEALS• PERONALIZE MESSAGES• IDENTIFY THE READER BY GROUP MEMBERSHIP• ADDRESS YOUR READERS ONE AT A TIME• TO PREVENT YOUR MESSAGE FROM BEING PERCEIVED AS A FORM, DESIGN YOUR MESSAGE FOR EASY READABILTY AND MENTION YOUR BENEFIT EARLY
  102. 102. AUDIENCE AND APPEALS• USE MECHANICAL TECHNIQUES SUCH AS COLOR, NARROW COLUMNS OF TYPE, PARAGRAPHS OF VARYING WIDTHS AND LENGTHS, AND NUMBERED AND UNNUMBERED LISTS) TO INCREASE READER’S TTANETION WHEN NECESSARY
  103. 103. AUDIENCE AND APPEALS• EACH COMMUNICATION SITUATION (ESPECIALLY PERSUASIVE MESSAGES) CALLS FOR AN INDIVIDUAL APPROACH.
  104. 104. HOMEWORK I• You are the director of customer services of Özdilek Towels. One of your customers ordered 1000 pieces of towels but neglected to tell the color and the size. Write a letter indicating that the order will be delayed.
  105. 105. WRITING PERSUASIVE MESSAGES• TYPES OFPERSUASIVE REQUESTS:• 1)REQUESTS FOR FAVORS• 2)ADJUSTMENTS• 3)CREDIT• 4)FUND-RAISING LETTERS
  106. 106. PERSUASIVE REQUESTS FOR FAVORSTHE REASON YOU ARE WRITING FORREADER BENEFIT(HEALTH,WEALTH, PLEASURE,OR CURIOSITY)KEEP THE READER IN THE PICTURESPECIFIC COMMITMENT BY A SPECIFIC DATEDO NOT OVERDO THE PERSUASIVE CONTENT
  107. 107. PERSUASIVE REQUESTS FOR FAVORS• COMPONENTS OF PERSUASIVE REQUESTS:• ATTENTION• INTEREST• CONVICTION• ACTION
  108. 108. PERSUASIVE REQUESTS FOR ADJUSTMENTS• DIRECT STRUCTURE• APPEAL TO:• 1)SENSE OF FAIR PLAY• 2)DESIRE FOR CUSTOMER GOODWILL• 3)NEED FOR A GOOD REPUTATION• 4)SENSE OF LEGAL OR MORAL RESPONSIBILITY
  109. 109. PERSUASIVE REQUESTS FOR ADJUSTMENTS• PRESENT YOUR CASE IN A CALM, LOGICAL MANNER• BUT YOU CAN PRESENT YOUR DISAPPOINTMENT WITH THE PRODUCTS, POLICIES OR SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE READER
  110. 110. PERSUASIVE REQUESTS FOR CREDIT• MUST BE BASED ON CIRCUMSTANCES THAT WARRANT THE EXTENSION OF CREDIT• COVER THE FOLLOWING POINTS:• 1)ATTENTION• 2)INTEREST• 3)CONVICTION• 4)ACTION
  111. 111. PERSUASIVE REQUESTS FOR FUNDS• ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN:• 1)ACTION• 2)INTEREST• 3)CONVICTION• 4)ACTION
  112. 112. SALES LETTERS• 1)UNSOLICITED SALES LETTERS• 2)SOLICITED SALES LETTERS• 3)SOFT-SELL LETTERS
  113. 113. UNSOLICITED SALES LETTERSUSE AN ENVELEOPE TEASER ADDRESS WHO WILL HAVE A REAL INTEREST IN YOUR PRODUCT OR SERVICE TO BUY ITSUCESSFUL SALES LETTERS:• 1)EMPHASIZE THE BENEFITS• 2)USE ACTIVE VOICE AND PERSONALIZE
  114. 114. SUCESSFUL SALES LETTERS• 3)FOCUS ON ONE MAIN APPEAL• 4)SUBORDINATE THE PRICE• 5)USE ENCLOSED BROCHURES• 6)ARE SPECIFIC IN THEIR REQUEST FOR ACTION
  115. 115. SOLICITED SALES LETTERSSHOULD BE PREPARED INDIVIDUALLY• THE STRUCTURE:• 1)ATTENTION• 2)INTEREST• 3)CONVICTION• 4)ACTION
  116. 116. SOFT-SELL LETTERS• SPECIAL GOODWILL LETTERS INTENDED TO REMIND THAT YOUR FIRM PROVIDES A PARTICULAR PRODUCT OR SERVICE
  117. 117. LETTERS THAT SELL IDEAS• STRUCTURE:• 1)ATTENTION• NOT ONLY BEGIN WITH A PROBLEM OF INTEREST TO YOUR READER, BUT ALSO MUST BEGIN WITH A PREMISE YOUR READER READILY ACCEPTS• 2)INTEREST• 3)CONVICTION• RELY ON TRUTH AND LOGIC• 4)ACTION
  118. 118. COLLECTION LETTERS• REMINDERS OF OVERDUE BILLS• CONSIST OF:• 1)DUPLICATE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL BILL• 2)DUPLICATE COPIES OF THE BILL STAMPED REMINDER OR PAST DUE• 3)A SHORT NOTE(USUALLY A FORM) SPECIFIYING THE AMOUNT DUE, THE DUE DATE, LATE CHARGES, AND THE ACCOUNT NUMBER
  119. 119. COLLECTION LETTERS• INQUIRIES:• SIMPLE INQUIRES• INQUIRES THAT CONTAIN AN APPEAL FOR A PROMPT PARTIAL PAYMENT AND SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR TAKING CARE OF THE OBLIGATION IN WAYS OTHER THAN THE ORIGINAL AGREEMENT CALLED FOR.
  120. 120. COLLECTION LETTERS• APPEALS:• BEGIN WITH AT LEAST ONE POSITIVE APPEAL SUCH AS AN APPEAL TO COOPERATION, FAIR PLAY, OR PRIDE.• GIVE A GOOD REASON FOR PAYING• APPEAL DIRECTLY TO READER’S INTEREST
  121. 121. COLLECTION LETTERS• THE READER SHOULD BE TOLD THAT, BY NOT PAYING, SHE OR HE IS LIKELY TO LOSE THE FOLLOWING:• 1)CREDIT PRIVILEGES• 2)THE GOODS OR SERVICES NOT PAID FOR• 3)ADDITIONAL MONEY OR PROPERTY• 4)GOOD REPUTATION AND SELF- RESPECT
  122. 122. COLLECTION LETTERS• ULTIMATUM

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