Digestive System Medical Terminology

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  • 1. MedicalTerminology of the Digestive SystemBiology 120: Medical Terminology By: Amy Slaight 10/08/2012
  • 2. Focus on Digestive TermsIn this presentation, we will focuson 4 terms pertaining to theDigestive System: Colonoscopy Cachexia Anastomosis Lavage
  • 3. Colonoscopy- OverviewTest that allows doctor toexamine inner lining ofrectum and colonHelps spot ulcers, tumors,inflammation, and bleedingAlso used as a pre-screening measure tocheck for pre-cancerousgrowths, or polyps Is one of the main tests used to determine presence of colon cancer
  • 4. Colonoscopy- Prep & Procedure1 – 3 days before test, colon prep begins (cleaning out colon) It is advised to stay at home during this time, as the likelihood of diarrhea and abdominal cramping is common Colon prep also requires a clear, liquid diet during this periodPatients are sedated during surgery, and laid on their left sideDuring procedure, a thin, flexible tube known as colonoscope isinserted into large intestine Tube ranges between 48 inches to 72 inches longColonoscopy takes between 30 and 60 minutesFull recovery is expected by next day
  • 5. Cachexia - Overview Defined as the loss of body mass that cannot be reversed nutritionally Known as a positive risk factor of death Seen in patients suffering with: Cancer Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Tuberculosis Congestive Heart Failure And other infectious diseases
  • 6. Cachexia - Additional DetailsOften involves full body wasting, which affects the skeletalmuscle (resulting in muscle atrophy)Commonly seen at the end stages of cancer, and is known asCancer Cachexia 50% of all cancer patients are afflicted 80% of cancer patients that are terminally ill are susceptibleWidely misunderstood how these diseases cause Cachexia, whichhas halted plans for a treatment cure Steroids may be administered to help prevent weight loss and increase appetite, though muscle atrophy is not reversed
  • 7. Anastomosis- OverviewDefined as the connecting of 2 or more separated parts Commonly refers to the joining of blood vessels or loops of intestinesIntestinal Anastomosis is administered due to one of the following: Severe Infections Surgery Ex: To connect healthy parts of the colon or rectum, after diseased or cancerous sections have been removed Traumatic Perforations Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Constipation Crohn’s Disease and more…
  • 8. Anastomosis – Surgical DetailsOne of the most commonly performed surgical procedures Especially in emergency settingsContraindicated in these conditions, for fear of anastomotic leak: Severe sepsis Very poor nutritional status Fecal contamination and other factorsPost surgery, this can be expected: A certain amount pain, accompanied by pain-killers to tolerate A special diet to prevent further bowel irritation Normal bowel movements returning from 24 hours, to the next several days
  • 9. Lavage- OverviewLavage is the washing out of ahollow organ, such as thestomach or lower bowelGastric lavage is also known asstomach pumping or gastricirritationNormally used on a person whohas ingested a poison or hasoverdosed on a drug or alcoholCan also be used as a coolingtechnique for hypothermicpatients, or to confirm levels ofbleeding from upper GI tract
  • 10. Lavage- ProcedureInvolves passing tube through nose (nasogastric lavage) into thearea in needNot much preparation is needed, since this procedure is typicallydone due to an emergencyThis is followed by the repeated administration and removal ofsmall amounts of water (flushing)Repeated until fluid shows no sign of contaminated contentsA suction device is on hand due to increased risk of aspiration
  • 11. SourcesContent:http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/colonoscopy/http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/sym/cachexia.htmhttp://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1892319-overviewhttp://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-gastric-lavage.htmPearson Prentice Hall – Medical Terminology, 4th Edition , 2009Photos:http://gastriclavage.net/http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/diagnostic-peritoneal-lavage-series-3.htmlhttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cachexiahttp://chadlewismd.com/userfiles/image/ColonoscopyImage1.jpghttp://www.childrenscolorado.org/imgs/KidsHealth/kid/body/images_55926/1079619327186.GI_system275.gifhttp://science.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/Science/Images/Content/digestive-system-23974146-ga.jpg