Production of biofertilizer(anabaena and nostoc) using co2
PRODUCTION OFBIOFERTILIZER(ANABAENAAND NOSTOC) USING CO2Submitted by:Roll : DURJ BT No: 2011/2Regn.No.: 660 of 2010-11.Under the guidence of Mr. Kaushik Dey
BIOFERTILIZER A biofertilizer (also bio-fertilizer) is a substance which containsliving microorganisms which, when applied to seed, plant surfaces, orsoil, colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant andpromotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primarynutrients to the host plant. Bio-fertilizers add nutrients through thenatural processes of nitrogen fixation, solubilizing phosphorus, andstimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth-promotingsubstances. Bio-fertilizers can be expected to reduce the useof chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The microorganisms in bio-fertilizers restore the soils natural nutrient cycle and build soilorganic matter. Through the use of bio-fertilizers, healthy plants canbe grown, while enhancing the sustainability and the health of thesoil. Since they play several roles, a preferred scientific term for suchbeneficial bacteria is "plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria" (PGPR).Therefore, they are extremely advantageous in enriching soilfertility and fulfilling plant nutrient requirements by supplying theorganic nutrients through microorganism and their byproducts.Hence, bio-fertilizers do not contain any chemicals which are harmfulto the living soil.
BENEFITS OF BIOFERTILIZER A bio-fertilizer provides the following benefits: Since a bio-fertilizer is technically living, itcan symbiotically associate with plant roots. Involvedmicroorganisms could readily and safely convert complex organicmaterial in simple compounds, so that plants are easily taken up.Microorganism function is in long duration, causing improvementof the soil fertility. It maintains the natural habitat of the soil. Itincreases crop yield by 20-30%, replaceschemical nitrogen and phosphorus by 25%, and stimulates plantgrowth. It can also provide protection against drought and somesoil-borne diseases. Bio-fertilizers are cost-effective relative to chemical fertilizers.They have lower manufacturing costs, especially regardingnitrogen and phosphorus use. Production of bio-fertilizers by using microalgae helps to reducecarbon dioxide as well as help to increase crop yield.
WHY BIOFERTILIZER SHOULD BEPREPARE BY USING CO2 ?The global carbon cycle has altered significantly due to extensive use of fossilfuels, coal etc. This lead to increase in the emission of Green House Gases suchas CO2, CH4, NO2 and Fluorocarbon. In order to achieve environmental andeconomic sustainability, a renewable, carbon neutral fuels are required thatare also capable of sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide. In this both macroand microalgae appear to be a major source that can sequester high level of CO2and can replace fossil fuels. Algae use CO2 as well as water and convert theminto carbohydrates and other useful products such as biofertilizer, biofuels, etc.
SOLUTION Increase in carbon dioxide is the major cause of global warming.So it should be reduced for protecting our climate. Here ,myproject is one the new approaches to reduce co2 gas in atmosphere.By this project, we can use this carbon dioxide gas to produceAnabaena and Nostoc, which is a Cyanobacteria. We use thisbacterium as a biofertilizer.
ANABAENA CLASSIFICATON: Domain: Prokaryote Anabaena is in the prokaryote domain because its has no true nucleus and no membrancebound organelles . Kingdom:Bacteria Phylum: Cyanobacteria This is the phylum of bacteria that acquire their energy through photosynthesis, and areoften called Blue Green Algae . Order:Nostocales Anabaena falls into this categories because they have trichome and lack endospores andexospores Family: Nostocaceae This is the categories of Blue Green Algae that form heterocyst and have unbranchedtrachoma.
NOSTOC Properties: Human pathogen: NoInteraction: Plant symbioticNumber of membrances: 2Number of inteins: 1 presence of flagella :No Classification: Domain:Bacteria Phylum: Cyanobacteria Order: Nostocales Family: Nostacaceae Genus: Nostoc Species: punctiforme
METHODS At first cow dung and pond water is needed for producing cow dungwater(slurry) before two days from the project starting and wash the kippsapparatus clearly and carefully. 3 set of 100ml slurry prepared containing soil and cowdung. Then 100ml of slurry is added in 250ml of conical flask. After sometimes,calcium carbonate and dilute HCL are used for the reaction in kipp’sapparatus. Here the calcium carbonate react with dilute HCL to producecarbon dioxide which is transferred to conical flask by a pipe which ispresent on the magnetic stirrer with cow dung(slurry). Now we add algae inthe conical flask. Then start this magnetic stirrer . This process should beminimum for two days .On the other hand, make a medium of slurry andalgae in a conical flask and preserve it in a incubator(shaker) for two days.In the same time, another medium of only slurry should be made andpreserve it in a refrigerator for two days. Now take three aluminium foilsand measure the weight. After two days, take this three medium in the three aluminium foils.Thisthree mediums are:-1. Slurry+algae +carbon dioxide,2. Only slurry,3.Slurry+algae. Then dry this three medium in a laboratory oven. It’s takingseveral times. Then measure their weight in a spectrophotometer.
RESULT PETRI DISH 1 PETRI DISH 2 PETRI DISH 3 (Slurry+algae+co2) (only slurry) (slurry+algae) Reading of aluminium foil: 147.2mg 120.2mg 107.7mg Reading of aluminium foil + Reading of aluminium foil+(only slurry) A.F.+slurry+Algae (slurry+Algae+CO2) 211.1mg 131mg129.1mg Net=(211.1-147.2mg) (131-120.2mg) (129.1-107.7mg) =63.9 =10.8=21.4 Algae (63.9-10.8)(21.4-10.4) =53.1=10.6 CO2 absorption is five times more.
CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION CONCLUSION By using this technology we are able to produce biofertilizers( Anabena andNostoc).This biofertizers can be use in the agricultural fields to increase thecrop production .it may strengthen our economy and our social economy andatmosphere will be free from carbon dioxides then environment will be cleanand clear .DISCUSSION From this experiment ,it has been observed that in Petridish1 containingslurry, algae and co2 absorption of co2 is five time more than thePetridish2(only slurry) and Petridish3 (slurry+algae) so it can be concludedthat the growth of algae in presence of carbon dioxide and slurry is morewhich is beneficial for a bio-fertilizer and thus more the growth of algae morethe absorption of co2 So, this technology can be used for production of cyanobacterial biofertilizerswhich is eco frienfdly without any harmful products produces in thistechnology ,but more is required for more production of biofertilizers by usingunused carbon dioxides .
SOME PHOTOGRAPHS OF THISPROJECT Slurry containing algae in which co2 is provided by kipp’s apparatus
PHOTOGRAPHSKipps apparatus containing calciumcarbonate and dilute HCl(Slurry+algae+magnet+co2 ) in aconical flask on the magneticstirrer