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A microprocessor executes a collection of machine instructions that tell the processor what to do.
Based on the instructions, a microprocessor does three basic things :
Using its Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU), a microprocessor can perform mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Modern microprocessors contain complete floating point processors that can perform extremely sophisticated operations on large floating point numbers.
A microprocessor can move data from one memory location to another
A microprocessor can make decisions and jump to a new set of instructions based on those decisions.
It may seems that microprocessor does very sophisticated things, but those are its three basic activities . The Figure above shows an extremely simple microprocessor capable of doing those three things. This microprocessor has:
An address bus (that may be 8, 16 or 32 bits wide) that sends an address to memory
A data bus (that may be 8, 16 or 32 bits wide) that can send data to memory or receive data from memory
A RD (Read) and WR (Write) line to tell the memory whether it wants to set or get the addressed location
A clock line that lets a clock pulse sequence the processor
A reset line that resets the program counter to zero (or whatever) and restarts execution.
Intel Pentium 4 microprocessors were based on completely new NetBurst micro architecture, which differed significantly from P6 micro-architecture used in Pentium II/Pentium III microprocessor families.
The Pentium 4 processor runs at up to 3.8 GHz and has undergone several improvements since it was first introduced in 2000 .
One of key features of Pentium 4 processor was Hyper-Pipelined Technology - 20-stage pipeline, which was two times longer than in previous generation of Pentium processors. While longer pipelines are less efficient than shorter ones, they allow the CPU to reach higher frequencies, and thus increase CPU performance.
In April of 2005 , Intel announced the Intel Pentium processor Extreme Edition , featuring an Intel dual-core processor , which can provide immediate advantages for people looking to buy systems that boost multitasking computing power and improve the throughput of multithreaded applications.
An Intel dual-core processor consists of two complete execution cores in one physical processor , both running at the same frequency. Both cores share the same packaging and the same interface with the chipset/memory.
Overall, an Intel dual-core processor offers a way of delivering more capabilities while balancing energy-efficient performance, and is the first step in the multi-core processor future.
Intel Core Duo processor is available in Intel's premium laptop platform , Intel Centrino Duo mobile technology.
The Intel Core 2 Quad processor is the latest in cutting edge processor technology for the desktop PC.
Based on the new Intel Core micro-architecture , the Intel Core 2 Quad processor delivers four complete execution cores within a single processor , delivering unprecedented performance and responsiveness in multi-threaded and multi-tasking business and home use environments.
The AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual-Core processor is built for powerful desktop, enabling it for high performance.
It is essentially a processor consisting of two Athlon 64 cores joined together on one die with additional control logic.
Dual-core processors contain two processing cores, residing on one chip, that perform calculations on two streams of data, thereby increasing efficiency and speed while running multiple programs and the new generation of multi-threaded software. AMD officially started shipping the Athlon 64 X2 at in June 2005 . AMD also designed processor for notebooks include the Turion 64 Mobile , Mobile Athlon 64 , Athlon 64 for notebooks, Mobile Athlon XP-M and mobile Sempron.
Before installing a new processor, identify the processor slot on the motherboard.
Most of the processors have specific slot in which it can fits. Great thing about personal computer (PC) is that you can upgrade its CPU to make computer operate faster but at the end there is limitation on motherboard up to what extent it can support CPU upgrade.
Steps to install heat sink Every processor has heat sink attached on top it to make it cool. Processor normally becomes hot while it is in operation; therefore heat sink with fan is attached on top of processor. Note: Make sure you have the correct heat sink/fan for your type of CPU (it will specify which type of CPU it is for).
If you have a new heat sink and there is a plastic strip on the bottom of the new heat sink,
- OR -
If you have an old heat sink and a silicon-covered thermal pad came with the replacement processor kit, scrape the old thermal pad off and clean the heat sink with isopropyl alcohol. Then place the new thermal pad in the centre of the old heat sink.