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Chapter 2 Power Supply
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  • 1. DIT 411 PC HARDWARE 1 CHAPTER 2: POWER SUPPLY AND COMPUTER CASE
  • 2. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY
    • Electricity is a basic part of nature and it is one of our most widely used forms of energy.
    • Electricity is about charge . Charge is a property of electrons and protons which are part of an atom . Electrons have negative charge and are mobile because they have 1/1830 of the mass of the positive proton.
    • Neutrons have the same mass as a proton , but no any charge.
  • 3.  
  • 4. Electron
    • Electron in motion is called electric current which we use every day in our homes . In other words, Electricity is simply a flow of negative charged particles, called electrons through conductors like copper wire.
    • In most metals, the nuclei of atoms (protons & neutrons) are bonded together.
    • The pressure the electrons in the wire is called voltage and is measured in units called volts (V) .
    • The amount of electrons moving past a certain point on a wire is called the current, which is measured in units called amperes (Amps or A).
  • 5. Type of electric current
    • Alternating current (AC)
      • electrons flow in one direction around a continuous path
    • Direct current (DC)
      • electrons alternates direction back and forth
  • 6. Power Supply
    • Designed to convert 110 volt or 230 volt AC power from the mains to usable low-voltage DC power (12 volt, 5 volt and 3.3volt) for the internal components of the computer.
    • It provides the necessary electrical power to make the computer work. A power supply is rated by the number of watts it generates.
    • Because motherboards, power supplies and computer cases are often sold together and must be compatible with each other.
    • Personal Computer (PC) power supply consists of single box with lots of wires coming out of it to connect various internal components and motherboard of a computer.
    • Understanding power supply units of a PC is very important because any problem in power supply can crash your computer and can corrupt your valuable information (data).
  • 7.
    • Power Supply In a personal computer (PC), the power supply is the metal box usually found in a corner of the case. The power supply is visible from the back of many systems because it contains the power-cord receptacle and the cooling fan
  • 8.  
  • 9. The interior of a power supply.
  • 10. WARNING: Do not open the power supply, it contains capacitors which can hold Electricity (WHICH CAN KILL) even if the computer is power off for a week, if not longer
  • 11. Power Supply Form Factors
    • Form Factor : industry term for the size, shape, type and external connector.
    • There are approximately eight industry standard
    • Form factors for power supplies. They are:
    • Personal Computer / Extended Technology (PC/XT)
    • Advanced Technology (AT) Desktop type
    • AT Tower Type
    • Baby AT
    • LPX
    • Advanced Technology Extended (ATX)/NLX
    • SFX
    • WTX
  • 12. Power Supply Form Factors – PC/XT
    • first used in IBM desktop in 1983.
    • Called as extended technology.
    • placed into the rear of the case – right hand side
    • controlled by an up/down toggle switch
  • 13. Power Supply Form Factors – AT (Desk Type)
    • “ AT” – advanced technology
    • introduced by IBM in 1984
    • increased in size.
    • The original AT power supply provided 192 Watts ,
  • 14. Power Supply Form Factors –AT (Tower)
    • Introduce tower style cases
    • Introduced the first remote power switch.
    • The control wires for the switch were passed through the same hole in the front of the power supply case that was used for the motherboard and drive connector bundle.
  • 15. Older AT Style Power Supply
  • 16. Power Supply Form Factors – BABY - AT
    • smaller version of the original AT form.
    • It has the same height and
    • length, but is about 2" less in width.
    • It has the same motherboard connectors and drive connectors as the AT
    • introduced around the time PCs began to grow.
    • The Baby AT power supply was made in both a tower and desktop configuration,
    • the most popular design over a decade.
  • 17.  
  • 18. Power Supply Form Factors – LPX
    • The LP in LPX stands for low profile .
    • They are also often called slimline power supplies because LPX cases are often called slimline cases .
    • size reduction. The height in particular of the power supply is significantly reduced, facilitating the design of much smaller, consumer-oriented PCs.
    • The connectors of the LPX form factor power supply are the same as that of any AT families.
    • use remote power switches.
    • made in large quantity and millions of these power supplies are still in use.
  • 19.  
  • 20. Power Supply Form Factors – ATX/NLX
    • Introduction by Intel in 1995 .
    • The Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) form factor was the most significant change in system design
    • Now standard in the marketplace.
    • The NLX motherboard and case form factor designed to replace LPX.
    • The ATX power supply appears virtually identical to an LPX power supply in terms of its dimensions and component placement.
  • 21.
    • The ATX power supply design consist:
    • True Standard
    • Soft Power
    • Additional Signals
    • Changed Motherboard Connectors
    • Modified Fan Direction and Placement
  • 22. Power Supply Form Factors – ATX/NLX Rear view
  • 23. Power Supply Form Factors – SFX
    • In 1997 Intel introduced the new microATX form factor, based upon the original ATX form factor.
    • In 1999, Intel produced the FlexATX addition to the microATX specification, detailing plans for an even smaller motherboard and case standard.
    • Later, Intel created the SFX power supply form factor, which they may optionally use.
    • “ S” stand for small
    • The specified output rating of the SFX power supply is 90 W. This is sufficient to run rather small systems with low-powered CPUs and few peripherals
  • 24. View of the top and side of an SFX power supply, showing the top-mounted cooling fan.
  • 25. Power Supply Form Factors – WTX
    • WTX was introduced by Intel in 1998 , and revised in 1999.
    • designed specifically for workstations. W in WTX stands for Workstation.
    • WTX defines a standard for motherboards, cases, and power supplies.
    • It is designed in a modular way from the ground up to allow it to meet the needs of large, multiple-CPU systems now and in the future .
  • 26.
    • The motherboard is mounted on a special mounting plate
    • which gives motherboard makers the flexibility to design boards
    • suit the needs of larger system
    • supplies large power
  • 27. AT POWER SUPPLY CONNECTORS
    • Industry standard PC/XT, AT, Baby AT, and LPX motherboards all use the same type of main power supply connectors. These supplies feature two main power connectors (P8 and
    • P9) , each with 6 pins that attach the power supply to the motherboard.
  • 28.  
  • 29. ATX POWER SUPPLY CONNECTOR
    • Modern motherboard uses a 20 or 24 pin P1 power connector . Some motherboards may require special 4-, 6- or 8-pin connectors to supply extra power . The ATX, NLX and SFX power supplies have 20-pin connectors that attach to the motherboard.
  • 30. Power Supply Connections to Peripheral Hardware - MOLEX
    • the most commonly used
    • provides both 12 volt and 5 volt
    • hard disk drives, CD Rom drives
  • 31. Power Supply Connectors to Peripheral Hardware - Mini Connectors
    • supply power to floppy drive
    • standard connector for 3.5 inch floppy disk
    • four pins out and usually four wires
  • 32. Power Supply Connectors - SATA Connectors
    • Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) designed for transfer data to and from hard disks and optical drives.
    • SATA hard drives
    • need a special 15 pin SATA power connector .
  • 33. Power Supply Connectors - Splitters
    • using splitters to create more connections
  • 34. Power Supply Connectors - Mini Adapter
    • most systems come with a single mini connector
    • for an additional mini connector use mini adapter
  • 35. Computer Cases
    • Usually made of metals
    • Holds all the primary electronics
    • Three general rules to consider:
      • the bigger the box, the more component it can hold
      • the more compact the box, the less expansion potential it has
      • smaller cases that come with a power supply usually have lower wattage
  • 36. DESKTOP
    • Desktop computer cases are for the models of PC that sit on the desk horizontally .
    • As far as computer cases go, desktops have the least amount of choice available on the market.
    • Although the majority of new PC's come with towers or mini towers, some are still built using desktops case.
  • 37.  
  • 38. MINI TOWER
  • 39. Full Tower
  • 40.
    • Following factors need to be considered while choosing a computer case:
    • Size
    • Cooling
    • Installation features
    • Power supply
    • Convenience Items
    • Style