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Chapter 11: Printers and Scanners
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Chapter 11: Printers and Scanners


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  • 2. Objectives
    • At the end of this chapter students should be able to:
    • Define the role of printer as an output device
    • List and describe different types of printers
    • List down different criteria’s that are used while choosing a good printer
    • Install and share a printer
    • Recognize the role played by scanning and reading devices
    • list down different types of scanners
    • Install a scanner
  • 3.
  • 4. Introduction
    • Printers have virtually replaced the typewriter in the modern office.
    • The simplest printers are designed for the home user, while the most complex are designed for production use, producing over 60 pages per minute and offering features like collating, stapling, and internal two-sided printing.
    • There are three basic types of printer technologies used with PCs, which are defined by the method in which the image is produced on the paper. These different types of printers are as follows:
    • Laser Printer
    • Inkjet Printer
    • Dot-matrix Printer
  • 6.
    • Laser Printer
    • Laser printers function by creating an electrostatic image of an entire page on a photosensitive drum with a laser beam.
    • When an ultra-fine coloured plastic powder called toner is applied to the drum, it sticks only to the sensitized areas corresponding to the letters or images on the page.
    • The drum spins and is pressed against a sheet of paper, transferring the toner to the page and creating the image. This is the same basic technology used by copiers.
  • 8. Hewlett Packard LaserJet 4050T
    • The laser printer uses a technology similar to that used in a photocopying machine.
    • Laser printers use a laser light beam to produce images with excellent letter and graphics quality.
    • Laser printers are more expensive than ink-jet or dot-matrix printers and they are used in applications requiring high- quality output .
  • 10.
    • There are two categories of laser printers:
    • Personal Laser Printer
    • Shared Laser Printer
    Categories of laser printers
  • 11. typically support colour; and are used (shared) by a group of users. Shared laser printers typically print over 50 pages a minute. typically do not support colour; are less expensive and are used by many single users. They typically can print 15 to 17 pages a minute. Shared laser printers Personal laser printers
    • The laser printer is considered a non-impact printer , and because it creates printouts one page at a time (rather than one line at a time)
    • It is also considered as a page printer.
    • Laser printers use very small dots, so they are able to provide excellent resolution.
    • They are also able to blend colours into practically any shade.
    • Like inkjet printers, laser printers use friction feed to move the paper through the printer. However, there is more than one set of rollers within the laser printer, to keep the page moving smoothly until it is ejected.
    • Laser printer are the quietest and fastest printers, but they are also the most expensive to purchase.
  • 13. Primary Components of a Laser Printer
    • Paper Transports
    • Logic Circuits
    • User Interface
    • Toner and Toner Cartridges
    • Photosensitive Drum
    • The Laser
    • Primary Corona
    • Transfer Corona
    • Fuser Rollers
    • Erase Lamp
    • The paper path for laser printers ranges from a simple, straight path to complicated turns in devices with options such as duplexers, mailboxes, and finishing tools like collators and staplers.
    • All these devices have the same goal: to move the paper from a supply bin to the engine where the image is laid on the paper and fixed to it, and then to a hopper for delivery to the user.
    The path of a piece of paper through a laser printer
  • 15. Logic Circuits
    • Laser printers usually have a motherboard much like that of a PC, complete the CPU, memory, BIOS (Basic input / output system), and ROM (read-only memory) modules containing printer language and fonts.
    • When upgrading a printer, check for any updates to the BIOS, additional memory requirements for new options, and firmware revisions.
  • 16. User Interface
    • The basic laser printer often offers little more than a “power on” LED and a second light to indicate an error condition.
    • Advanced models have LED panels with menus, control buttons, and array of status LEDs.
  • 17. Toner and Toner Cartridges
    • To reduce maintenance cost, laser printers use disposable cartridges and other parts that need periodic replacement.
    • The primary consumable is toner, a very fine plastic powder bonded to iron particles. The printer cartridge also holds the toner cylinder, and often the photosensitive drum. The cartridge requires replacement when the level of toner is too low to produce a uniform, dark print.
  • 18. Photosensitive Drum
    • The drum is an aluminium cylinder coated with a photosensitive compound and electrically charged. It captures the image to be printed on the page and also attracts the toner to be placed on the page.
    The laser "writes" on a photosensitive revolving drum
  • 19. The Laser
    • The laser beam paints the image of the printed page on the drum. Before the laser is fired, the entire surface of the photosensitive drum and the paper are given an electrical charge carried by a pair of fine wires.
    Image formation by Laser on Photoreceptor Drum
  • 20. The Laser
    • The laser doesn't actually move the beam itself. It bounces the beam off a movable mirror instead. As the mirror moves, it shines the beam through a series of lenses.
  • 21. Primary Corona
    • The primary corona charges the photosensitive particles on the surface of the drum.
  • 22. Transfer Corona
    • The transfer corona charges the surface of the paper just before it reaches the toner area.
  • 23. Fuser Rollers
    • The fuser rollers- a heated roller and an opposing pressure roller fuse toner onto the page.
  • 24. Erase Lamp
    • The erase lamp bathes the drum in light to neutralize the electrical charges on the drum, allowing any remaining particles to be removed before the next print is made.
  • 25.  
  • 26.
    • Inkjet Printer or Bubblejet
    • Inkjet printers, as their name implies, have tiny nozzles that spray ink onto a page in the proper pattern to form letters and images.
  • 28. Step 6
    • Inkjet printers use ink in cartridges, rather than ribbons, to create text or graphic printouts.
    • The ink cartridge in an inkjet printer contains a small pump, which forces ink out of the reservoir, through a nozzle, and onto the page.
    • Inkjet printers create printouts line by line, so they are considered line printers, but their print mechanisms do not make contact with the page, so they are considered non-impact printers.
    • Inkjet printers provide much better resolution than dot matrix printers and are capable of using coloured ink. Unlike dot matrix printers, inkjet can combine basic colours to produce a wide range of colours.
    • Inkjet printers are not nearly as loud as dot matrix printers and are much faster.
  • 29. Step 7-8
    • A variant of the inkjet printer is the bubblejet printer.
    • Bubblejets resemble inkjets, but their ink cartridges contain heating elements rather than pumps.
    • When the element is heated, the ink expands and forms a bubble of ink on the nozzle. When the bubble becomes large enough, it “bursts” onto the paper and creates a dot of colour.
    • Today, generally, the term inkjet is used to refer to all printer that use ink, including inkjets, and bubblejets.
  • 30.
    • Inkjet printers use friction-feed rollers to move the paper through the printer.
    • In friction feed, a stack of pages is kept in a feeder tray. A rubber or plastic roller uses friction to grab the top page and pull it into the printer.
  • 31. An Inkjet Printer A HP Colour Inkjet Printer
  • 32. Components Inkjet Printer
    • Print head
    • Ink cartridges
    • Print head stepper motor
    • Belt
    • Stabilizer bar
    • Paper tray/feeder
    • Rollers
    • Paper feed stepper motor
    • Power supply
    • Control circuitry
    • Interface port(s)
    • Differences types of ink
  • 33. PRINT HEAD
    • The core of an inkjet printer, the print head contains a series of nozzles that are used to spray drops of ink.
    Inkjet Printer Head
  • 34. Ink cartridges
    • Depending on the manufacturer and model of the printer, ink cartridges come in various combinations, such as separate black and colour cartridges, colour and black in a single cartridge or even a cartridge for each ink colour. The cartridges of some inkjet printers include the print head itself.
  • 35. Print head stepper motor
    • A stepper motor moves the print head assembly (print head and ink cartridges) back and forth across the paper..
    Stepper Motor to Control the Movement of Print Head
  • 36. Belt
    • A belt is used to attach the print head assembly to the stepper motor.
  • 37. Stabilizer bar
    • The print head assembly uses a stabilizer bar to ensure that movement is precise and controlled.
    The Stabilizer Bar and the Belt is Located Close Together
  • 38. Paper tray/feeder
    • Most inkjet printers have a tray that you load the paper into. Some printers dispense with the standard tray for a feeder instead. The feeder typically snaps open at an angle on the back of the printer, allowing you to place paper in it. Feeders generally do not hold as much paper as a traditional paper tray.
  • 39. Rollers
    • A set of rollers pull the paper in from the tray or feeder and advance the paper when the print head assembly is ready for another pass.
    The rollers move the paper through the printer
  • 40. Paper feed stepper motor
    • These stepper motor powers the rollers to move the paper in the exact increment needed to ensure a continuous image is printed.
  • 41. Power supply
    • While earlier printers often had an external transformer, most printers sold today use a standard power supply that is incorporated into the printer itself.
  • 42. Control circuitry
    • A small but sophisticated amount of circuitry is built into the printer to control all the mechanical aspects of operation, as well as decode the information sent to the printer from the computer.
    The mechanical operation of the printer is controlled by a small circuit board containing a microprocessor and memory
  • 43. Interface port(s)
    • The parallel port is still used by many printers, but most newer printers use the USB port. A few printers connect using a serial port or small computer system interface (SCSI) port.
    Many Printers Still use a Parallel Port even if USB is more Common these days
  • 44. Differences types of ink
    • Different types of inkjet printers form their droplets of ink in different ways. There are two main inkjet technologies currently used by printer manufacturers:
    • Thermal bubble
    • Piezoelectric
  • 45. Thermal bubble
    • Used by manufacturers such as Canon and Hewlett Packard
    • this method is commonly referred to as bubble jet.
    • In a thermal inkjet printer, tiny resistors create heat, and this heat vaporizes ink to create a bubble. As the bubble expands, some of the ink is pushed out of a nozzle onto the paper. When the bubble "pops" (collapses), a vacuum is created. This pulls more ink into the print head from the cartridge. A typical bubble jet print head has 300 or 600 tiny nozzles, and all of them can fire a droplet simultaneously.
  • 46. View of the nozzles on a thermal bubble inkjet print head
  • 47. Piezoelectric
    • Patented by Epson
    • this technology uses piezo crystals.
    • A crystal is located at the back of the ink reservoir of each nozzle. The crystal receives a tiny electric charge that causes it to vibrate. When the crystal vibrates inward, it forces a tiny amount of ink out of the nozzle. When it vibrates out, it pulls some more ink into the reservoir to replace the ink sprayed out.
  • 48. Step 2
  • 49.
    • The matrix printers are the “original” type of printer used with PCs; they have been around for a long time.
    • Dot matrix printers are so named because they use a matrix of pins to create dots on the paper.
    • Each pin is attached to a solenoid, which, when activated, force the pin toward the paper. As the print head (which contains the pins) moves across the page, different pins are forced forward to strike a printer ribbon against the paper.
    • Because of this action, dot matrix printers fall into the impact printer category. This process of the print head or pins physically striking the paper often makes loud sound. Furthermore, because the printouts are created line by line, dot matrix printers are also considered line printers .
  • 51. Step 4 Dot Matrix Printers
  • 52.
    • Dot matrix printers use a continuous form feed to move special paper through the printer. A continuous form feed (also called a tractor feed) comprises two wheels, one on either side of the paper.
  • 53. disadvantages
    • Because of the print process they use, dot matrix printers do not provide very good resolution. That is, text and images usually appear grainy, and if you look closely at a dot matrix printout, you will be able to see each individual printed dot. Furthermore, dot matrix printers are limited in their ability to use colour.
  • 54. Dot Matrix Letters Formed from Dots.
  • 55. Step 5 Typical output from a dot matrix printer operating in draft mode. This entire image represents an area of printer output approximately 4.5 cm x 1.5cm (1.75 x 0.6 inches) in size.
  • 56. Troubleshooting Dot-Matrix Printer Problems
    • Maintaining and troubleshooting a dot-matrix printer is very simple:-
    • Change the ribbon
    • Keep the printer clean
    • Keep the print head clean
    • Replace the print head if it fails
  • 57.
  • 58.
    • Printer resolution
    • Speed
    • Graphics and printer-language support
    • Paper capacity
    • Duty Cycle
    • Printer Memory
    • Cost of Paper
    • Cost of Consumables
  • 59.
  • 60. STEP 1
    • Click Start , click Control Panel , click Printers and Other Hardware , and then click Add a Printer .
  • 61. STEP 2
    • Add Printer Wizard will appear and then click Next .
  • 62. STEP 3
    • Click Local printer attached to this computer , tick the Automatically detect and install my plug and Play printer check box, and then click Next .
  • 63. STEP 4
    • Windows XP will try to detect the attached printer, if it will ask for manual installation if detection fails. Click Create a new port , and then click Local Port in the Port type section.
  • 64. STEP 5
    • In the Port Name box, type the path to the printer in the following format, where server is the name of the print server and printer is the name of the printer: erverprinter or you can also type any name (eg myPrinter ) to install new printer driver. Install Printer Software dialog box appears, select Printer Manufacturer and Printer model
  • 65. STEP 6
    • Click Next to install printer driver. You can also click Have Disk to install driver from CD-ROM or floppy disk where printer driver is located. Click Next
  • 66. STEP 7
    • Click Next , if you want to share this printer over network then select Share name and provide sharing name, click Do not share this printer , and then click Next
  • 67. STEP 8
    • Click Next , follow the instruction and finish the wizard
  • 68.
    • Some input devices save users time by eliminating manual data entry. With these devices, users do not type, speak, or write into the computer. Instead, these devices capture data from a sources document, which is the original form of the data. Examples of sources documents include time cards, order forms, invoices, pay-checks, advertisements, brochures, photographs, inventory tags, or any other document that contains data be processed.
    • Devices that can capture data directly from a source document include optical scanners, optical readers, and magnetic strip. Scanners move across text and images. Scanning devices convert scanned text and images into a form that the system unit can process. There are three types of scanning devices: optical scanners, bar code readers, and character and mark recognition devices.
  • 70.
  • 71.
    • There are many types of scanners, some basic types of scanners are mentioned below:
    • Flatbed Scanner
    • Portable Scanner
    • Optical Scanner
    • Barcode Scanner
  • 72. Flatbed Scanner
    • A Flatbed Scanner works in a manner similar to a copy machine except it creates a file of document in memory instead of a paper copy.
    Canon CanoScan 3000 ex Flatbed Scanner - 9760A001
  • 73. Portable Scanner
    • Portable Scanner is typically a handheld device that slides across the image, making direct contact.
  • 74. Optical Scanners
    • An optical scanner, also known simply as scanner, accepts documents consisting of text and / or images and converts them to machine readable form. These devices do not recognize individual letters or images. Rather, they recognize light, dark, and coloured areas that make up individual letters or images. Typically, scanned documents are saved in files that can be further processed, displayed, printed, or stored for later use.
    • Optical Scanners are powerful tools for a wide variety of end users including graphics and advertising professionals who scan images and combine them with text. Lawyers and students use portable scanners as a valuable research tool to record information.
  • 75. Bar Code Readers
    • You are probably familiar with bar code readers or scanners from grocery stores. These devices are either handheld wand readers or platform scanners. They contain photoelectric cells that scan or read bar codes, or the vertical zebra-striped marks printed on product containers.
  • 76. Bar Code Scanner
  • 77.
    • Character and Mark Recognition Devices
    • Character and mark recognition devices are scanners that are able to recognize special characters and marks. They are specialty devices that are essential tools for certain applications.
    • Three types are:
    • Magnetic-ink character recognition (MICR)
    • Optical-Character Recognition (OCR)
    • Optical-mark recognition (OMR)
  • 79. Magnetic-ink character recognition (MICR)
    • It is used by banks to automatically read those unusual numbers on the bottom of checks and deposit slips. A special-purpose machine known as a read/ sorter reads these numbers and provides input that allows bank to efficiently maintain customer account balances.
    Magnetic-ink character recognition (MICR)
  • 80. Optical-Character Recognition (OCR)
    • It uses special pre-printed characters that can be read by a light source and changed into machine-readable code. These are used in department stores to read retail price tags by reflecting light on the printed characters.
  • 81. Optical-mark recognition (OMR)
    • It is also called marks sensing. An OMR device senses the presence or absence of a mark, such as a pencil mark. OMR is often used to score multiple –choice tests such as the Collage Board’s Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Examination (GRE).
  • 82.
    • Installing a Scanner
  • 83.
    • After you verify that the computer has the correct port for the scanner, connect the scanner to the computer, and then install the scanner driver. To do this, follow these steps:
    • After you install the scanner driver, you need to install the software and utility programs that come with your scanner. Please refer your scanner manual to use all features of your scanner.