Foundations of Individual Behavior

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Define the key biographical characteristics. …

Define the key biographical characteristics.
Identify two types of ability.
Shape the behavior of others.
Distinguish between the four schedules of reinforcement.
Clarify the role of punishment in learning.
Practice self-management

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  • 1. Foundations ofIndividual BehaviorChapter 2
  • 2. 2–2After studying this chapter,you should be able to:1. Define the key biographical characteristics.2. Identify two types of ability.3. Shape the behavior of others.4. Distinguish between the four schedules ofreinforcement.5. Clarify the role of punishment in learning.6. Practice self-managementLEARNINGOBJECTIVES
  • 3. 2–3Biographical CharacteristicsBiographical CharacteristicsBiographical CharacteristicsPersonal characteristics—such as age,gender, and marital status—that are objectiveand easily obtained from personnel records.
  • 4. 2–4Ability, Intellect, and IntelligenceAbility, Intellect, and IntelligenceAbilityAn individual’s capacity to performthe various tasks in a job.Intellectual AbilityThe capacity to do mental activities.Multiple IntelligencesIntelligence contains four subparts:cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.
  • 5. 2–5• Number aptitude• Verbal comprehension• Perceptual speed• Inductive reasoning• Deductive reasoning• Spatial visualization• Memory• Number aptitude• Verbal comprehension• Perceptual speed• Inductive reasoning• Deductive reasoning• Spatial visualization• MemoryDimensions ofIntellectual AbilityDimensions ofIntellectual AbilityE X H I B I T 2–1E X H I B I T 2–1
  • 6. 2–6Physical AbilitiesPhysical AbilitiesPhysical AbilitiesThe capacity to do tasksdemanding stamina, dexterity,strength, and similarcharacteristics.
  • 7. 2–7Other Factors7. Body coordination8. Balance9. StaminaOther Factors7. Body coordination8. Balance9. StaminaNine Physical AbilitiesNine Physical AbilitiesStrength Factors1. Dynamic strength2. Trunk strength3. Static strength4. Explosive strengthStrength Factors1. Dynamic strength2. Trunk strength3. Static strength4. Explosive strengthFlexibility Factors5. Extent flexibility6. Dynamic flexibilityFlexibility Factors5. Extent flexibility6. Dynamic flexibilityE X H I B I T 2–2E X H I B I T 2–2Source: Adapted fromHRMagazine publishedby the Society for HumanResource Management,Alexandria, VA.
  • 8. 2–8Ability-JobFitThe Ability-Job FitThe Ability-Job FitEmployee’sEmployee’sAbilitiesAbilitiesJob’s AbilityJob’s AbilityRequirementsRequirements
  • 9. 2–9LearningLearningLearning• Involves change• Is relatively permanent• Is acquired through experienceLearning• Involves change• Is relatively permanent• Is acquired through experienceLearningAny relatively permanent change in behaviorthat occurs as a result of experience.
  • 10. 2–10Theories of LearningTheories of LearningKey Concepts• Unconditioned stimulus• Unconditioned response• Conditioned stimulus• Conditioned responseKey Concepts• Unconditioned stimulus• Unconditioned response• Conditioned stimulus• Conditioned responseClassical ConditioningA type of conditioning in which an individualresponds to some stimulus that would notordinarily produce such a response.
  • 11. 2–11E X H I B I T 2–3E X H I B I T 2–3Source: The Far Side ®by Gary Larson © 1993Far Works, Inc. All rightsreserved. Used withpermission.
  • 12. 2–12Theories of Learning (cont’d)Theories of Learning (cont’d)Key Concepts• Reflexive (unlearned) behavior• Conditioned (learned) behavior• ReinforcementKey Concepts• Reflexive (unlearned) behavior• Conditioned (learned) behavior• ReinforcementOperant ConditioningA type of conditioning in which desired voluntarybehavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.
  • 13. 2–13Theories of Learning (cont’d)Theories of Learning (cont’d)Key Concepts• Attentional processes• Retention processes• Motor reproduction processes• Reinforcement processesKey Concepts• Attentional processes• Retention processes• Motor reproduction processes• Reinforcement processesSocial-Learning TheoryPeople can learn through observationand direct experience.
  • 14. 2–14Theories of Learning (cont’d)Theories of Learning (cont’d)Key Concepts• Reinforcement is required to change behavior.• Some rewards are more effective than others.• The timing of reinforcement affects learningspeed and permanence.Key Concepts• Reinforcement is required to change behavior.• Some rewards are more effective than others.• The timing of reinforcement affects learningspeed and permanence.Shaping BehaviorSystematically reinforcing each successive step thatmoves an individual closer to the desired response.
  • 15. 2–15Types of ReinforcementTypes of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement– Providing a reward for a desired behavior. Negative reinforcement– Removing an unpleasant consequence when thedesired behavior occurs. Punishment– Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate anundesirable behavior. Extinction– Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause itscessation.
  • 16. 2–16Schedules of ReinforcementSchedules of ReinforcementContinuous ReinforcementA desired behavior is reinforcedeach time it is demonstrated.Intermittent ReinforcementA desired behavior is reinforcedoften enough to make thebehavior worth repeating but notevery time it is demonstrated.
  • 17. 2–17Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)Fixed-Interval ScheduleRewards are spaced atuniform time intervals.Variable-Interval ScheduleRewards are initiated after afixed or constant number ofresponses.
  • 18. 2–18Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)Fixed-ratioE X H I B I T 2–4E X H I B I T 2–4
  • 19. 2–19Intermittent Schedules of ReinforcementIntermittent Schedules of ReinforcementE X H I B I T 2–5E X H I B I T 2–5
  • 20. 2–20Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)E X H I B I T 2–5 (cont’d)E X H I B I T 2–5 (cont’d)
  • 21. 2–21Behavior ModificationBehavior ModificationFive Step Problem-Solving Model1. Identify critical behaviors2. Develop baseline data3. Identify behavioral consequences4. Develop and apply intervention5. Evaluate performance improvementFive Step Problem-Solving Model1. Identify critical behaviors2. Develop baseline data3. Identify behavioral consequences4. Develop and apply intervention5. Evaluate performance improvementOB ModThe application of reinforcement conceptsto individuals in the work setting.
  • 22. 2–22OB MOD Organizational ApplicationsOB MOD Organizational Applications Well Pay versus Sick Pay– Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, notabsence. Employee Discipline– The use of punishment can be counter-productive. Developing Training Programs– OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness. Self-management– Reduces the need for external management control.