Forfar is a parish,town andformer royalburgh of about 13,500peoplein Angus, Scotland.Forfar is the countytown of Angus,which was officiallyknown as Forfarshirefrom the 18thcentury until 1929,when the ancientname was reinstated,and today serves asthe administrativecentre for AngusCouncil.
Lowson MemorialChurch, off MontroseRoad. This isa category Alisted church in lateScots Gothic stylebuilt in 1914 by AMarshall Mackenzie,who also designedCrathie Kirk. Thechurch containsnotable stained glasswindows by DouglasStrachan. The churchserves the east side ofForfar, and provides amix of traditional andcontemporary stylesof worship.
The town liesin Strathmore and issituated just off themain A90road between Perth and Aberdeen, with Dundee (thenearest city) being 13 miles(21 km) away. It isapproximately five miles(8 km) from Glamis Castle,seat of the Bowes-Lyonfamily and ancestral homeof Her Majesty QueenElizabeth the QueenMother, and where the latePrincess Margaret, youngersister of Queen ElizabethII, was born in 1930.
Another feature ofthe town is theForfar LochCountry Park,which is popularamongst locals as awalking venue. It issaid that the ForfarLoch extended overmuch more ofForfar in the 1800s,going as far up asOrchardbank andWellbrae.
A drainageproject broughtthe water leveldown. In aboutthe same timeperiod the lochwas used todump rawsewage;thankfully thispractice is nolongercontinued: it isnow treatedsewage.
The town isnear to theAngus Glens,including GlenDoll, Glen Clovaand GlenProsen, that arepopular withskiers and hillwalkers. Thearea is notablefor the beautifulscenery of themountains andStrathmore.
Agriculture andtourism aresome of thetowns majorindustries. Italso acts as anadministrativecentre for AngusCouncil, with anew multi-million poundoffice complexcurrently on theoutskirts of thetown.
The town is home tothe renownedForfar bridie,popular with localsand visitors. TheForfar bridie hasbeen featured onmany TVprogrammes. Arecipe for the Forfarbridie was alsofeatured in "MawBroons Cookbook".
During the first warof independence, thecastle of Forfar washeld by the English.After Robert Brucesvictory over the Earlof Buchanan, Philip,the Forester ofPlatane, togetherwith some of hisfriends raised laddersagainst the wall and,climbing over,surprised the garrisonand slew them. Hethen yielded thecastle to Bruce, whorewarded him andgave instructions forits demolition
Berwick-upon-Tweed isa town in the county ofNorthumberland and isthe northernmost townin England, on the eastcoast at the mouth ofthe River Tweed. It issituated 2.5 miles (4 km)South of the Scottishborder. It is roughly 56miles East-South East ofEdinburgh, 65 miles northof Newcastle upon Tyneand 345 miles north ofLondon.
Berwick-upon-Tweed had apopulation of11,665 at thetime ofthe UnitedKingdomCensus 2001.A civilparish andtown councilwere created in2008
Founded as an Anglo-Saxon settlement duringthe time of the kingdomofNorthumbria, the areawas for over 400 yearscentral to historic borderwar between theKingdomsof England and Scotland. The last time itchanged hands was whenEngland retook it in 1482.Berwick remains atraditional markettown and also has somenotable architecturalfeatures, in particularits defense ramparts andbarrack buildings.
The name“Berwick” is of OldEnglish origin, andis derived from theterm bere-wīc,combining bere,meaning “barley”,and wīc, referringto a farm orsettlement.“Berwick” thusmeans “barleyvillage” or “barleyfarm
In the post-Romanperiod, the area mayhave been inhabitedbythe Brythons of Bryneich. Later, theregion became partofthe Angliankingdomof Bernicia. Bernicialater united with thekingdom of Deira toform Northumbria,which in the mid-10th century enteredtheKingdom ofEngland under Eadred
In 1551, the town was madea county corporate. Duringthe reign ofQueen Elizabeth I ofEngland, vast sums – onesource reports "£128,648,the most expensiveundertaking of theElizabethan period"– werespent on its fortifications,in a new Italian style (traceitalienne), designed both towithstand artillery and tofacilitate its use from withinthe fortifications. Thesefortifications have beendescribed as "the onlysurviving walls of theirkind"
The RoyalBorderBridge onthe EastCoast MainLine
York is a walled city,situated at theconfluence of theRivers Ouseand Foss in NorthYorkshire, England.The city has a richheritage and hasprovided thebackdrop to majorpolitical eventsthroughout much ofits two millennia ofexistence. The cityoffers a wealth ofhistoric attractions,of which YorkMinster is the mostprominent, and avariety of culturaland sportingactivities.
The city was foundedby the Romans in71 AD, under thename of Eboracum. Itbecame in turn thecapital of the Romanprovince of BritanniaInferior, and of thekingdomsof Northumbria and Jorvik. In the MiddleAges, York grew as amajor wool tradingcentre and becamethe capital of thenorthern ecclesiastical province oftheChurch ofEngland, a role it hasretained
York Minster isa cathedral in York, England and isone of the largest ofits kind in NorthernEurope. The minsteris the seat ofthe Archbishop ofYork, the second-highest office ofthe Church ofEngland and is thecathedral forthe Diocese of York;it is run by a deanand chapter underthe Dean of York.
The minster has a verywide DecoratedGothic nave and chapterhouse, a PerpendicularGothic choir and eastend and EarlyEnglish north andsouth transepts. Thenave contains the WestWindow, constructed in1338, and over the LadyChapel in the east end isthe Great East Window,(finished in 1408), thelargest expanse ofmedieval stained glass inthe world. In the northtransept is the FiveSisters Window,each lancet being over 16metres (52 ft) high. Thesouth transept containsa famous rose window.
The Gothic style incathedrals had arrived inthe mid 12thcentury. Walter de Graywas made archbishop in1215 and ordered theconstruction of a Gothicstructure to compareto Canterbury; buildingbegan in 1220. The northand south transeptswere the first newstructures; completed inthe 1250s, both werebuilt in the Early EnglishGothic style but hadmarkedly different wallelevations. Asubstantial centraltower was alsocompleted, with awooden spire. Buildingcontinued into the 15thcentury.
The EnglishReformation led to thelooting of much of thecathedrals treasures andthe loss of much of thechurch lands.Under Elizabeth I therewas a concerted effort toremove all tracesof RomanCatholicism from thecathedral; there wasmuch destruction oftombs, windows andaltars. In the EnglishCivil War the city wasbesieged and fell to theforces of Cromwell in1644, but ThomasFairfax prevented anyfurther damage to thecathedral.
York Minster isthe secondlargest Gothic cathedral ofNorthernEurope andclearly chartsthedevelopment ofEnglish Gothicarchitecturefrom EarlyEnglish throughtothePerpendicular Period
The present building wasbegun in about 1230 andcompleted in 1472. It hasa cruciform plan with anoctagonal chapterhouse attached to thenorth transept, a centraltower and two towers atthe west front. The stoneused for the buildingis magnesian limestone,a creamy-white colouredrock that was quarried innearby Tadcaster. TheMinster is 158 metres(518 ft) long and each ofits three towers are 60metres (200 ft) high. Thechoir has an interiorheight of 31 metres(102 ft).
The North andSouth transepts were thefirst parts of the newchurch to be built. Theyhave simple lancetwindows, the mostfamous being the FiveSisters in the northtransept. In the southtransept is thefamous RoseWindow whose glass datesfrom about 1500 andcommemorates the unionof the royal housesof York and Lancaster. Theroofs of the transepts areof wood, that of the southtransept was burnt in thefire of 1984 and wasreplaced in the restorationwork which wascompleted in 1988.
York as a whole andparticularly theMinster have a longtradition of creatingbeautiful stained glass.Some of the stainedglass in York Minsterdates back to thetwelfth century. The76-foot (23 m) tallGreat East Window,created by JohnThornton in the earlyfifteenth century, isthe largest exampleof medieval stainedglass in the world.
Other spectacularwindows in the Minsterinclude an ornate rosewindow and the 50-foot(15 m) tall fivesisters window. Because ofthe extended time periodsduring which the glasswas installed, differenttypes ofglazing andpainting techniques thatevolved over hundreds ofyears are visible in thedifferent windows.Approximately 2 millionindividual pieces of glassmake up the cathedrals128 stained glass windows.
Coventry isa city andmetropolitanborough inthe county of WestMidlands in England.Coventry is the 21stlargest English districtby population. It isalso the second largestcity in the Midlands,after Birmingham,with a population of316,900
Historically within Warwickshire, Coventry issituated 95 miles (153 km)northwest ofcentralLondon and 19 miles(31 km) east-southeastof Birmingham, and isfurther from the coastthan any other city inBritain. Althoughharbouring a populationof almost a third of amillion inhabitants,Coventry is not amongstthe English Core CitiesGroupdue to its proximityto Birmingham.
Coventry was theworlds first twincity when it formed atwinning relationshipwith theRussian cityof Stalingrad (now Volgograd) during WorldWar II. Therelationship developedthrough ordinarypeople in Coventrywho wanted to showtheir support fortheSoviet RedArmy during the Battleof Stalingrad.
CoventryCathedral, alsoknown as StMichaels Cathedral, is the seat oftheBishop ofCoventry andthe Diocese ofCoventry,in Coventry, WestMidlands,England.The current (9th)bishop is the RightRevd ChristopherCocksworth.
The city has hadthree cathedrals. Thefirst was St. Marys,a monastic building,only a few ruins of whichremain. The second wasSt Michaels, a 14thcentury Gothicchurchlater designatedCathedral, that remainsa ruined shell after itsbombing duringthe Second World War.The third is the new StMichaels Cathedral,built after thedestruction of theformer and a celebrationof 20th centuryarchitecture.
The Cathedral has astrong emphasis on theBible andaims to be a centre forgood preaching andtraining for the diocese.It runs regular missionevents such as theinnovative Spirit of Lifedays where over 2000local residents areencouraged to exploretheir faith in Godthrough Christianspirituality.
St MichaelsVictory overthe Devil, asculpture bySir JacobEpstein
The new StMichaelsCathedral,built next tothe remainsof the old,was designedby BasilSpence and Arup, builtby JohnLaing and is aGrade I listedbuilding
The selectionof BasilSpence for thework was a resultof a competitionheld in 1950 tofind an architectfor the newCoventryCathedral; hisdesign waschosen from overtwo hundredsubmitted.
Another major visitorattraction in Coventry citycentre is the free-to-enter Coventry TransportMuseum, which has thelargest collection of British-made road vehicles in theworld. The most notableexhibits are the world speedrecord-breakingcars, Thrust2 and ThrustSSC. The museum received amajor refurbishment in 2004which included the creationof a striking new entrance aspart of the citys PhoenixInitiative project. Therevamp saw the museumexceed its projected five-yearvisitor numbers within thefirst year alone, and it was afinalist for the2005 Gulbenkian Prize.