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natural resources

  2. 2. introduction • • • • At present life is only known to exist on our planet earth. It, in fact, occurs in the region where the three component of earth, i.e., land or lithosphere, water or hydrosphere and air or atmosphere interact. Living organisms constitute the biotic component while soil (land), water and air form the a biotic components of the biosphere. Every organism regularly interacts with other organisms of its kind, with those of other species and also continuously makes adjustments to its physical environment. The materials present in the natural environment and useful to living organism are called natural resources. The natural resources may be physical resources (e.g., air, water, soil, minerals, coal, petroleum) or biological resources (e.g., microorganisms, protists, fungi, plants and animals. Some of these resources are found in abundance, while others are found limited quantities. Hence, natural resources have to be used carefully. In reality, man has been using natural resources indiscriminately. He is doing so because of the following three reasons: (a) Tremendous increase in human population (b) Urbanization, and (c) Industrial and technological advancement
  3. 3. What are Natural Resources? • The word resource is used for “means of supplying a material generally held in reserve.” the natural resources are the materials available in the normal environment and useful for life. • Natural resources occur naturally within environments • Natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity and geo diversity existent in various ecosystems. • Any material which is part of earth and satisfy human need and add value is called as resource. Example: rocks, minerals, soil, rivers, plants & animal. • Human is also a resource because developing his skill, he can develop other resource by adding value to the physical material .
  4. 4. Types of Natural Resources  Biotic : Resources which are living in nature. Example: Forests ,Animals etc.  A biotic : Resources which are nonliving in nature. Example: Air ,Water etc. OTHERS Renewable : Resources which can be replenished easily. Example: Sunlight
  5. 5. The breath of life: air Air (a mixture of gases) is called the breath of life as life cannot exit without it. Even the composition of air is largely the result of life on the planet earth. The envelope of air that surrounds our planet earth is called atmosphere.
  6. 6. COMPOSITION OF GASES 1% 21% 78%
  7. 7. Main layers of atmosphere Atmosphere shows four main concentric layers that differ in density, temperature, composition and properties. These layers are troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere is the lowest layer that extends from the surface of the earth to an altitude of about 16 kilometers. many climatic events such as clouds formation, thundering, lightening etc.
  8. 8. Atmosphere controls the temperature of planet. It generally makes the temperature constant. Different layers of atmosphere 1. Troposphere-10-20km 2. Stratosphere-20-50km 3. Mesosphere-50-100km 4. Ionosphere-100-200km 5. Exosphere –200-50km
  9. 9. The role of the atmosphere in climate control The air is a bad conductor of heat. The atmosphere (envelope of air that surrounds the earth) acts as a protective blanket for the living organisms to exist in the following ways:
  10. 10. (i) It acts as a temperature buffer. The atmosphere does so by preventing the sudden increase in temperature during the day light hours. Further, during the night, it slows down the escape of heat into the outer space thereby preventing excessive cooling during the night. In this way, the average temperature of the earth remains fairly steady during the day and night. Moon has no atmosphere and the temperature of the surface on the surface of the moon ranges from 190 degree Celsius to 110 degree. (ii) The ozone shield (high concentration of ozone layer about 18-50 km above the surface of earth) of the atmosphere absorbs most of the harmful UV radiations coming from the sun. the excessive heat and sun rays are reflected back into the outer space by dust particles, water vapours, clouds etc. this result in the earth receiving just the right amount of heat and sun rays. It helps in climate control and allows the living organisms to survive.
  11. 11. rain FORMATION OF RAIN Rain is formed by evaporation and condensation Of water through water cycle in which distribution of water takes place. Rain is a very important things because it carries out all the agriculture processes in the plants. Rain is formed by evaporation and condensation Of water through water cycle in which distribution of water takes place. Rain is a very important things because it carries out all the agriculture processes in the plants. So, we should conserve rain by contracting dams, pools etc.
  12. 12. Air pollution Presence of various toxic gases in the atmosphere like carbon dioxide, carbon, mono oxide, xides of sulphur, nitrogen, fluoride, lead,nickel,arse nic,cadmium, etc causes Air Pollution.
  13. 13. SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Heavy metals. Photochemical smog. Smokes. Ionising radiation. Automobile exhaust. Biocides elements. Radioactive elements. Industrial waste
  14. 14. water • Water- The most unusual natural compound found on earth and which fulfills almost various demands of different living things. • About three fourth of the earth surface that is • 75 are covered with water. • Now day’s water is also being polluted by human beings.
  15. 15. Water pollution • When water becomes unfit for drinking and other use then water is said to be polluted. CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION 1. Dumping of wastes from the industries into the water bodies. 2. Washing near water bodies. 3. Spraying chemical in water field. 4.conducting various radioactive tests in water. 5.dumping of cabbages and household wastes in to the water bodies.
  16. 16. SOURES OF WATER 1.River. 2.Pond. 3.Spring. 4.Well 5.Rainwases
  17. 17. soil • Soil is the portion of the earth surface consisting of disintegrated rock and decaying organic material. It provides support for many plants and animals.
  18. 18. HOW SOIL IS FORMED? • Soil is formed from the rock by under going the following two process1.Weathering 2.Paedogenesis • Over long periods of time, thousand and millions of year, the rock at or near the surface of the earth are broken down by various physical, chemical and some biological process. The end product of this • Breaking down in the fine particle of soil • Composition of soil1.Gravel. 2.Sand particle. 3.Clay particle.
  19. 19. Factors or processes that make soil • THE SUN::The sun heat up rocks during the day so that they expand. At night, these rocks cool down and contract. Since all parts of the rock do not expand and contract at the same rate, this results in the formation of cracks and ultimately the huge rocks break up into smaller pieces. • WATER: Water helps in the formation of soil in two ways. One water could get into the cracks in the rocks formed due to uneven heating by the sun. If this water later freezes, it would cause the cracks to widen. Two flowing water wears away even hard rock over long periods of time. Fast flowing water often carries big and small particles of rocks downstream. This rocks rub against other rocks and the resultant abrasion causes the rocks to wear down into smaller and smaller particles along with it and deposits it further downs its paths. Soil is thus found in places far away from its parent-rock.
  20. 20. • WIND: In a process similar to the way in which water rubs against rocks and wear them down. Strong winds also erode rocks down. The wind also carries sand from one place to the other like water does. • LIVING ORGANISMS also influence the formation of soil. The lichen that we read about earlier, also grows on the surface of rocks while growing, they release certain substances that cause the rock surface to powder down and form a thin layer of soil other small plants like moss, are able top grow on this surface now and they cause the rock to break up further. The roots of the big trees sometimes go into cracks the rocks and as the roots grow bigger, and the crack is forced bigger.
  21. 21. WATER CYCLE Water is a compound and includes two vital elements hydrogen and oxygen. It forms a very important components of the environment and survival of all living organism depends on it. Ocean is the biggest store house of water which on evaporation from clouds and which after condensation down as rain or snow. After rain it passes through puddles, ponds and rivers and get collect again in the ocean.
  22. 22. The circulation of water in this manner is known as HYDROLIC CYCLE or WATER CYCLE. This cycle is driven by solar power and also per performed through living organisms such as absorption and transpiration of water by plants and drinking by Animal.
  23. 23. Nitrogen cycle Nitrogen is another important chemical on earth and present in all the living organism in the form of protein, amino acids and nucleic acids. Further process going on in this cycle they areFirst nitrogen has to be converted into nitrates for the use of plants. This can be done either by industrial nitrogen fixation like by some nitrogen fixation bacteria such as azotobactor which convert the atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates which are soluble in water this process is called nitrogen fixation.
  24. 24. After an animal excretes urea or uric acid or after an animal Or plants dies, certain bacteria carry out ammonification : they produce ammonia ions, or still other bacteria can change it to nitrate[NO3-] by nitrification. Plants take in some of the nitrates produced in this way. The process of ammonia formation is called ammonification. Some microorganisms (nitrosomonas converted ammonia into nitrates) This process is called nitrification. Finally there are some (decomposer, e.g.…, pseudomonas) Which reduce nitrates back to nitrogen or to ammonia or to some other oxides. This process is called denitrification. Free nitrogen returns to atmospheric pool and oxides are taken up by plants.
  25. 25. Carbon cycle The carbon is an important constituent of organic compounds found in all living things beings in the form of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nuclei acids. Like the water cycle is linked to energy flow because producers – Including photosynthetic plants of forests and oceans and chemo synthetic bacteria of deepsea vents- require environmental energy (either sunlight or inorganic hydrogen compounds) to trap carbon into sugars (proteins and fats). The trapped carbon comes from carbon dioxide in surrounding air or water.
  26. 26. As the cycle proceeds, consumers devour the organic carbon compounds that producers manufacture. Then, via respiration, both consumers and producers return carbon to the nonliving environment in the form of carbon dioxide. Some carbon accumulates for many years in wood and is eventually returned to the atmosphere in fires or through consumption and respiration by fungi, bacteria and other detritibvores. Volcanic eruption also releases carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Thus, there is complete cycling of carbon in the environment by various living and nonliving beings.
  27. 27. The oxygen cycle Oxygen is one of the constituents of water and form about 21% of the air in the atmosphere. It is required for respiration for all living organisms. Oxygen cycle runs through the following processBy burning the materials to produce oxygen combining with nitrogen to produce oxides of nitrogen, proteins, etc. These compounds after breaking down releases oxygen in the atmosphere and maintain forever in the environment. These way oxygen cycle works
  28. 28. The green house effect Increase in temperature of earth due to increase in concentration of some gases like co2, methane, water vapour, dust particles which causes melting of the glaciers or ice on the mountains which increase water level of water bodies, this increase in water level causes, submerging
  29. 29. Ozone layer The oxygen in the atmosphere is the source of ozone co3. The ozone layer protects organisms By preventing most of the ultraviolet and X-ray from reaching the earth’s surface, otherwise it causes different disease like skin cancer, cataract and other skin problems. Today, a global problem revolving our head that is the hole in the ozone layer. This hole is in over the Antarctica and this has passed the threat of damages to inhabitants of earth from short-wave ultraviolet rays.
  30. 30. THANK YOU