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  1. 1. BUITEMS RESEARCH PAPER December 2012 TO DETERMINE AND DESCRIBE THE IMPORTANCE OF SONET TO THE WORLD AND TO DEVELOPE FURTHER TECHNOLOGIES By Asim Hassan Balouchistan University of information technology and engineering sciences Department of electronics engineering This research paper is used as a guild line for all networking students. All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. BUITEMS RESEARCH PAPER December 2012 ABSTRACT This dissertation of papers recalls the importance of Synchronous optical network SONET, its applications in the telecommunication spread and its features. The paper also elaborates further advancements to the SONET so that it can be utilized efficiently while expending low cost. SONET is a rapid growing technology now a day in the world of telecommunicationindustry. SONET stands for synchronous optical network. Basically SONET is an optical [1]transmission and transportation standard formulated by (ECSA) . Exchange and carrier [2].standard association for (ANSI) American national standard institute The technologybasic`s for which it was developed is synchronous networking, efficient and enhancedoperations, administrations maintenance as well as provisions. Efficient add and dropmultiplexing (ADM) as well as new services transportation. In the last few decades a significant growth in synchronous optical network is seen.The SONET was designed for voice traffic over optical fiber link and the services such asinterconnection of globally linked telephones transformed it as a global demand fortelecom industry. INTRODUCTION Performance decades of SONET proved it self as a significant deployment in telecom sector. The sonnet was basically designed for voice traffic but currently the technology is a backbone for internet data traffic, with extended variance. it has been observed by the survey that traffic, cost and data rate demand consistently
  3. 3. BUITEMS RESEARCH PAPER December 2012 increases day by day and it is being a havoc to maintain and extract enormous utilization from existing infrastructure. In this paper my priorities are to decrease cost of voice and internet traffic, further I will suggest methods to improve security, and data rate by using SONET.As we all know that both the technologies are standards for Synchronous data transmissionusing optical fiber and both technologies have similar speeds. But according to IEEE, SDHis an international standard while SONET is an American limited standard. the versus ofboth the technologies are below in the table 1. [3]*STS (synchronous transport signal) [4]*STM (synchronous Transport module) [5]*OC (optical carrier) [6]Table 1. Optical Signal Hierarchy between SDH, SONET, OCx
  4. 4. BUITEMS RESEARCH PAPER December 2012 [7]Table 2. Comparisons of data rates of three technologiesBASIC SONET PRINCIPLE before further advancement`s to the technology it isappropriate to describe its basic working principles. SONET multiplex signals by usingbyte interpolation. The most initial step by SONET multiplexing is that it generates lowerlevel signals. These initial signals are referred to as STS-1 (synchronous transport signals 1level) each synchronous transport signals consists of 810 bytes distribution in nine rows ofninety bytes each. This information is transmitted over optical link each 125 ms whichcontributes its data rate to 51.84 Mbps.In the Synchronous transport module 1, signal is divided in to two mechanisms. The(RSOH) [8] regenerator section overhead and the (MSOH) [9] multiplex section overhead. Theoverheads conveys the information of system itself, the information is further utilized forseveral management purposes, i.e. the observations of transmission quality, management offailures, alarms and channel distributions. The synchronous module uses frames that are
  5. 5. BUITEMS RESEARCH PAPER December 2012continuous in nature and are transmitted byte to byte, row to row. the diagram below showspictorial view of the processDiagram 1. Pictorial view of STM1SONET NECCESITIES SONET has its own components to complete its processes. Touse SONET effectively we have to fulfill all the necessities and that should be concreted TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER: 1. it focuses basically on the streams of DS-1 signals, and its other derivative signals. It transduces the electrical signal to optical signal and optical signal to electrical signals. SIGNAL REGENERATOR: 2. regenerates signals in an appropriate form that are attenuated during transmission over vast distances.
  6. 6. BUITEMS RESEARCH PAPER December 2012 ADD/DROP MULTIPLEXERS (ADM) 3. as the name suggests the new traffic is injected at a specified point. By using ADM we can also extract desired data or signals without effecting the main line data throughput. CONNECTION CONFIGURATIONS: 1. P2P (point to point connection configuration): configured by using two terminal multiplexers, connected to the optical fiber point to point 2. P2M (point to multipoint connection configuration): contributions of ADM network elements consistently on the network allow point to multipoint connection configuration. ADM are used to permit the access to network channel in an arbitrary several points. 3. Hub network connection configuration: it’s an inexpensive and simpler technique then point to point networking. a HUB serves as a central part and distributes the signals to the several sub circuitsWHY SONET SHOULD BE IMPLEMENTED The SONET implementation issimpler as it allows diverse interaction with asynchronous systems. by using this featurecurrent systems and machines can serve as a substitute by new machines and supported bySONET networks. This method of transition can be an inexpensive and effective waywithout disturbing continuous data traffic round the globe. o the versatile flexibility of SONET on the Bandwidth availability empowers SONET over other previous Optical telecom systems
  7. 7. BUITEMS RESEARCH PAPER December 2012 o reduced instrumentations for multiplexing and traffic add/drop in intermediates points decreases the operational and salvage cost of SONET networks o As low systems are required for the operations and approximately no check points are needed hence the network is reliable and efficient. o Header bytes provided by SONET provides management of data bytes and maintenance of machines. o Flexible architecture allows future applications and consumer demands with a high data rate. ADVANCED ADVANTAGES o Centralized control over multiplexing machines using remote interface o Error prediction and isolation o Extendable to new high speed demands and services o Virtual private network support and securityCONCLUSION Advancements in communication and telecom industry newinfrastructure was demanded to support extensive amount of data traffic, security,efficiency and reliability. PDH was considered to be a good standard uptil then but thesystem was ineffective to compete the demand of telecommunicational mix. And then
  8. 8. BUITEMS RESEARCH PAPER December 2012SONET came into being with great throughput, efficiency, accuracy, inexpensive, andeasily applicable.the technology can be further improved by using parallel to parallel SONET`s Which canbe joined to a central point, by using this method double data rate can be achievedtheoretically.[1] www.ecsa.co.za/[2] American National Standards Institute - ANSI www.ansi.org/[3] WIKIPEDIA[4] WIKIPEDIA
  9. 9. BUITEMS RESEARCH PAPER December 2012[5] WIKIPEDIA[6] Google images[7] Google images[8] William Stelling book[9] William Stelling bookDiagram 1. Pictorial view of STM1

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