NarcoticThis Presentation is regarding the drug classification, and to aware all of youregarding the hazards as well as effect’s of drugs.Basically Narcotic strictly refers to any psychoactive compound withmorphine-like effects.It is believed to have been coined by the Greek physician Galen to refer toagents that numb or deaden, causing loss of feeling or paralysis. It is basedon the Greek word (narcosis), the term used by Hippocrates for the processof numbing or the numbed state. Galen listed mandrake root, altercus (eclataseeds, and poppy juice (opium) as the chief examplesA looser usage of the word “narcotic” to refer to any illegal or unlawfullypossessed drug including marijuana and cocaine is common worldwide,although these substances are not considered narcotics in a medical context.The central drug policy making body within the United Nations, forinstance, is the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, although the United Nationsofficially defines a narcotic drug to be “any of the substances, natural orsynthetic, in Schedules I and II of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs,1961, and that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending theSingle Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961”Because the term is often used so broadly or pejoratively outside of medicalcontexts, most medical professionals advocate the use of more precise termssuch as “opioids” and “opioid analgesics” to refer to the natural, semi-synthetic, and synthetic substances that behave pharmacologically likemorphine and are used primarily for their pain-relieving qualities. HazardsAmong the hazards of careless or excessive drug use are the increasing risksof infection, disease and overdose. Medical complications are commonamong recreational narcotic users and arise primarily from the non-sterilepractices of injecting. Skin, lung and brain abscesses, endocarditic, hepatitisand HIV/AIDS are commonly found among persons with narcoticdependencies who share syringes or inhale the drug. There has been muchdiscussion about the dangers related to the adulterants/dilatants found instreet drugs, such as heroin, where rumors abound about what is used to“cut” street drugs, e.g., ground glass, talcum powder, rat poison, domesticcleaning powders, and other cutting agents. Recent evidence shows that thiskind of “dangerous adulteration” is largely mythical and that far less cuttingof drugs than is normally assumed actually takes place However, since thereis no simple way to determine the purity of a drug that is sold on the street,the effects of using street narcotics are unpredictable. It remains the case that
the greatest risk presented by most illicit drugs relates to the drugsthemselves and how they are used, ex., in conjunction with other drugs(alcohol is a particularly risky drug to use whilst also using other streetdrugs) EffectsDrug effects depend heavily on the dose, route of administration andprevious exposure to the drug. Long-term use leads to physical dependencebecause of various adaptations of brain physiology to the continuouspresence of the drug.With repeated use of narcotics, tolerance and dependence may develop. Thedevelopment of tolerance is characterized by a shortened duration and adecreased intensity of all drug effects (positive as well as undesired), withthe exception of constipation (which never subsides). Tolerance creates theneed to administer progressively larger doses to attain the desired effect.Although the lethal dose is increased significantly in tolerant users,overdosing is always possible, because there always will be a dose highenough to cause death by respiratory depression.Physical dependence refers to an alteration of normal bodily functions thatnecessitates the continued presence of a drug in order to prevent withdrawalor abstinence syndrome. The intensity and character of the physicalsymptoms experienced during withdrawal are directly related to theparticular drug in use, the total daily dose, the interval between doses, theduration of use and the health and personality of the user. In general,narcotics with shorter durations of action tend to produce shorter, moreintense withdrawal symptoms, while drugs that produce longer narcoticeffects have prolonged symptoms that tend to be less severe.The withdrawal symptoms experienced from opioid addiction are usuallyfirst felt shortly before the time of the next scheduled dose. Early symptomsinclude watery eyes, runny nose, yawning and sweating. Restlessness,irritability, loss of appetite, tremors and severe sneezing appear as thesyndrome progresses. Severe depression and vomiting are not uncommon.The heart rate and blood pressure are elevated. Chills alternating withflushing and excessive sweating are also characteristic symptoms. Pains inthe bones and muscles of the back and extremities occur as do musclespasms and kicking movements, which may be the source of the expression“kicking the habit.” At any point during this process, a suitable dose of anyopioid can be administered that will dramatically reverse the withdrawalsymptoms. Without intervention, the syndrome will run its course and mostof the overt physical symptoms will disappear within 5 to 15 days,
depending on the opioid used. Opioid withdrawal is never life-threatening,even if it’s extremely unpleasant.The psychological dependence that is associated with narcotic addiction iscomplex and protracted. Long after the physical need for the drug haspassed, the addict may continue to think and talk about the use of drugs.There is a high probability that relapse will occur after narcotic withdrawalwhen neither the physical environment nor the behavioral motivators thatcontributed to the abuse have been altered.ExamplesOpium and opium preparations such as laudanum and paregoric.Natural Opiates such as morphine and codeine.Semi-Synthetic Opiates such as diacetylmorphine (heroin), hydrocodone,and oxycodone.Synthetic Opioids such as fentanyl, and methadone QUESTION Anti Narcotics Force (ANF) Anti Narcotics Force (ANF) is a government controlled organization inPakistan which targets the eradication of drug supply, drug dealing andorganizing rehabilitation programmes.Pakistan’s Anti-Narcotics Force is currently headed by Director GeneralMajor General Syed Shakeel Hussain. The Pakistan Narcotics Board (PNB) was established in the RevenueDivision in 1957 to fulfil Pakistan s obligations under the InternationalOpium Convention of 1925. The Pakistan Narcotics Board consisted ofrepresentatives from the provincial governments and some federal ministriesand divisions. Pakistan ratified the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs1961 on August 15, 1965. To meet its obligations under the saidConvention, the government, through a declaration dated March 8, 1973,renamed Pakistan Narcotics Board as the Pakistan Narcotics Control Board(PNCB).The Anti Narcotics Task Force (ANTF) was established in December 1991.In February 1995, PNCB and Anti Narcotics Task Force were merged toconstitute the Anti Narcotics Force (ANF), which is now the Premier LawEnforcement Agency in the field of narcotics control. The ANF is assignedto: Streamline coordination procedures among law enforcement agencies forthe implementation of international obligations.At present, ANF is operating with around 1,500 personnel as against anauthorized strength of 2,552. Other organizations associated with narcotics
control are: Airports Security Force, Pakistan Coast Guards, Customs,Provincial Excise and Taxation, Frontier Corps (NWFP and Balochistan),Frontier Constabulary, Pakistan Rangers (Punjab and Sindh), PoliticalLevies/Khasadar Force, Provincial Police (NWFP Punjab, Sindh andBalochistan) and Pakistan Railways Police.