I'll continue in the vein of self-disclosure...
Aspiration is a tricky case – serves as announcement of “I'm trying to learn this, please help!” Organisational ID and membership are naturally dealt with by organisation belonged to (and that can't be opened up) Mozilla Open Badges are mainly about ability and achievement
“Credential”: “A credential is an attestation of qualification, competence, or authority issued to an individual by a third party with a relevant or de facto authority or assumed competence to do so. Examples of credentials include academic diplomas, academic degrees, certifications, security clearances, identification documents, badges, passwords, user names, keys, powers of attorney, and so on.” Wikipedia, 2012-02-17
Electronic is in some ways better than paper, but certificates, CVs and portfolios are already electronic. Badges need to offer something more. I point at three main potential advantages, each one relating to one of the identified systems.
Like T-shirts and supporter dress that you can simply buy: no checks possible on claims, but an electronic badge would allows others to search for e.g. (poor, misguided?) Manchester United fans, as long as everyone used the same badge or the badges were clearly marked as equivalent. Say some school issued a “responsible citizen” badge. What would that mean? It might be different in each school; some schools might set out precisely what is required, others might assess a self-directed e-portfolio. Traditional badges sometimes deliberately rely on inside knowledge (say Masonic symbols or regalia perhaps) and we could mimic that by having the claim page only visible given authentication with certain credentials. (Other badges?)
What kinds of related activities need to (or should possibly) happen for badges to be used effectively in practice?
The evidence of the claim itself, the evidence that the badge is what it says it is, and the evidence that the claim is true, may all need to be supported for the badge to be taken seriously, and therefore gain usage.
What kind of related activities need to happen for a single useful badge to be created, used well, and maintained in value?
Some quotes from the working paper: “ craft your own learning pathways at your own pace” “ across these learning environments, learners are offered multiple pathways” MIT, P2PU, etc. “provide paths to learning that are unbundled from the financial, social, geographical and cultural barriers of formal education.” “ we are working to provide [...] meaningful pathways for learners” “ provide the pathways and milestones to guide learners through to mastery”
What related activities need to happen if useful pathways are to be mapped out with individual badges as way-points?
Well, it's OK, it's a reasonable start, but this simply doesn't cover all the requirements of the three systems we have looked at.
1. Details of the claim relate to system of use overall details best through issuer site URL, normally public personal claim via portfolio 2. Badge quality details and evidence 3. Components, pre-requisites, and quality a framework-like structure
Slightly hesitant about the word “democratisation” Perhaps “disintermediation” Or just “opening up so that anyone can create them, and their value will be determined simply by demand”...
Some requirements for badge systems
Some requirementsfor badge systems Simon Grant JISC CETIS CETIS Conference, Nottingham 2012-02-23 1
Summary What is a badge? What else is like a badge? What are the issues with badges? Four requirements ... badges must add value over self-authored descriptions nature and extent of any claim must be clarified evidence and veracity must be checkable (where needed) steps on ladders and paths must be sound … for three interlocking badge systems personal badge use system badge quality system pathways quality system for composite badges 2
What is a badge, anyway? Wikipedia (2012-02-16)"A badge is a device or fashion accessory, often containingthe insignia of an organization, which is presented ordisplayed to indicate some feat of service, a specialaccomplishment, a symbol of authority granted by taking anoath (e.g., police and fire), a sign of legitimate employment orstudent status, or as a simple means of identification. Theyare also used in advertising, publicity, and for brandingpurposes." [emphasis added] So I include uniform, T-shirts, ties, colours as “etc.” 3
Badges etc. I may have worn ... Staff ID Swimming badges Conference attendee personal survival perhaps categorised lifesaving 1999 path of totality Cub Scout badges Conference helper PDSA Busy Bees Choir member I am ... Dysgwr (number of years old) (could have but I think not...) siaradwch yn araf Team supporter Old school tie NGO org member School uniform Religious symbol Team player 4
So, agreement with Doug … “visual representations of a skill or achievement” ability ability-related achievement responsibility undertaken (needs abilities) role (which is often “awarded” according to ability) also simply completion of a defined experience Also (but lets not focus on these): skill aspiration? identity membership support 5
… but issues remain For “display layer” to be worth anything, people must have confidence in the “assessment layer” particularly employers and the like who rely on them If badges are to be “credentials”, they have to be effective in giving clarity and trust (“credence”) How can we simultaneously open up the issuing process avoid hopeless over-proliferation allow people easy ways of verifying and checking to their satisfaction (thats the challenging part) 6
Requirement 1:make things better (than self-authored text and traditional certificates) We already have electronic certificates and CVs Badges can still add value in three basic ways by giving a unique identifier for a self-claim, making it global by having quality processes in place for something awarded by plotting out good pathways to something desirable These relate to three interrelated systems Lets consider each requirement and system in turn (The “looker” is the party wanting people with badge) 7
Requirement 2:clarify nature and extent of claim Self-awarded badges have value only if unambiguous URIs give clarity independent of human language then able to be searched for by machine Awards in general vary in their detail some are generic or broad, and imprecise some are highly specific, detailing exactly what is entailed Needs to be scope for claim to link to further detail either terms from controlled vocabularies or free text explanations Badges may also be private and effective credentials needed to view claim 8
The personal badge use system Person claims a badge Badge has an identifier (URI) linking to overall description – many languages possible Detail by further identifiers or free text (e-portfolio?) E-portfolio claim includes link to issuer site similarly to electronic certificate, maybe with “transcript” maybe “issuer” is self or peer – OK if that is clear Looker goes to issuer site to see claim detail directly, or linked from badge or claim text Ties in with systems supporting personal learning, action planning, goal setting and achievement, matching 9
Requirement 3:able to check evidence and truth Lookers want to check credentials they have seen the claim, but they still want a good basis for trusting the claim confidence in the assessment and awarding processes to assess the badge claims value for them Portfolios can give particular personal evidence Further evidence from site of awarding body body may be well known with good reputation or look for more information about the body including the bodys membership of wider bodies bodys credentials may include badges (meta-badges?) … evidence of badge assessment (etc.) process quality 10
The badge quality system Designing Specifying and managing assessment Providing information about significance Ensuring award quality Confirming awards and holders to third parties Expiry or retraction for time-limited or revoked badges Gathering statistics of use including employer use Managing versions and revision Protection against misuse Managing badge reputation with employers and others 11
Requirement 4:steps on paths must be sound Open Badges white paper talks a lot about paths an analogy: you cant trust a path with slippery stones another: you cant trust a ladder with weak rungs A badge may define pre-requisite badges Pathways quality management means ensuring each step is right to fit in with the other steps select appropriate pre-requisites, not too strict or too lax check and monitor quality of pre-requisite badges Composite badges are useful for employers who look the degree itself is a kind of composite badge, but losing support time to create better ones 12
The pathways quality system Devising new ways of reaching objectives giving up reinventing wheels adding value by putting together existing badges Effective goal decomposition mirroring personal action planning Investigating providers of each step Checking and matching quality of each step Promoting composite badge to employers and others Managing composite badge reputation 13
Open Badges metadata spec Badge Title Badge Image URL Short Badge Description (plain text) Badge Criteria (URL, required) Issuer (Organization name or just individual name) Issuer Contact (email address) Issue Date Badge Expiration Date (optional; default none) Badge Evidence URL (optional)signed within an Authentication/Verification Framework 14
Missing useful information Short badge description OK, but distinctions needed: overall badge significance true of all instances of the badge individual personal claim giving further specific details (evidence on which the award or claim is based is OK) authentication / verification PKI signing is less than ideal for several reasons instead, could have a link to verification on issuer site Quality confirmation for specific badges would be useful distinct from the overall significance of the badge Definition of composite badge components + links and specify quality criteria for component badge selection 15
Conclusions / open questions Badges can cover every sector school, HE, vocational, professional, voluntary, hobby Democratisation of ability credentials for education, recruitment, training, advancement, matching but is this the best solution for a common language? Mozilla Open Badges is a good start what extra metadata is needed to make badges work well? Ive proposed some ideas – needs to move towards consensus Exercise envision more detailed scenarios consider SWOT 16
Reference resources http://www.openbadges.org/ spec is in http://www.openbadges.org/infrastructure-tech-docs/ (seems more stable than https://wiki.mozilla.org/Badges ) http://wiki.cetis.ac.uk/Are_open_badges_the_future_for_recognition_of_skills%3F (this session) Scott wrote a very useful page for electronic certificates http://wiki.cetis.ac.uk/Technical_architecture_considerations_for_implementing_the_HEAR most of this could be applied to badges InLOC project will be taking badges into account Integrating Learning Outcomes and Competences http://wiki.teria.no/display/inloc/Home 17
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