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How Semantic Web ideas connect to e-portfolio interoperability

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  • 1. How Semantic Web ideas connect to e-portfolio interoperability
      • Simon Grant
      • JISC CETIS & independent
      • Personalised Technologies for Lifelong Learning
      • London 2008-11-18
  • 2. What is e-portfolio information?
    • Includes:
      • Personal and contact details
      • Records of experiences / activities / events / meetings
      • Skills/competencies/abilities/qualities
        • claimed (the claim really needs to be stated)
        • desired and being worked towards
      • Evidence for individuals having skills etc.
        • including artefacts and other resources
      • Plans for developing their skills etc.
      • Personal reflections as integral to process
      • Dialogue with or feedback from others
  • 3. Portfolio and Semantic Web
    • Portfolio information is inter-related, e.g.:
      • achievement – has evidence – resource (dissertation)
      • activity (course) – supports – achievement (good grade)
      • achievement – is evidence of – assertion (my statement)
      • assertion – claims – ability (learning outcome of course)
      • meeting – attended by – person
    • Maps very well onto Semantic Web
      • vertices (blobs) and edges (arrows)
    • LEAP 2.0 allows recording of these vital connections
      • but the patterns are changeable
      • different structures for different purposes and views
      • so better not in large fixed structures like IMS LIP
  • 4. A small corner of vertices and edges course (activity) outcome (ability) achievement (good grade) assertion is evidence of has outcome supports claims personally defined resource (essay) has evidence
  • 5. Vocabularies for interoperability
    • Each resource needs to have a URI
      • do NOT need to be common domain or structure
    • Each resource will need a meaningful type
      • those DO need agreed common URIs
    • Meaningful predicates / properties necessary
      • they also need agreed common URIs
    • So, someone needs to
      • define the types in a way which will be agreeable
      • give them URIs
    • That's the essence of LEAP 2.0 and LEAP2A
  • 6. LEAP2A uses Atom
    • atom:entry ↔ a single portfolio item ↔ RDF resource
      • 9 types of entry so far agreed
    • atom:link ↔ relationship ↔ some RDF predicates
      • 11 relationships so far agreed (plus inverses)
    • atom:category ↔ tag ↔ some RDF predicates
      • 6 category schemes so far
    • new elements ↔ metadata ↔ RDF predicates & literals
      • dc:spatial from Dublin Core for place of activity
      • rdf:type from RDF for item type
      • date and status newly defined for LEAP
    • LEAP2A represents agreed core
      • LEAP 2.0 includes many forward-looking possibilities
  • 7.
    • These are the vertices
    • Based on established usage within partner portfolio systems
    • More have been sketched out in LEAP 2.0 for future consideration
    • Entry is used as itself for any general pieces of writing
    • Graceful degradation
    • “ plan” includes goal
    LEAP2A types of information
    • entry
      • ability
      • achievement
      • activity
        • meeting
      • person
      • resource
      • selection
        • plan
  • 8. LEAP2A relationships & inverses
    • relation
      • reflects on
      • has part
      • has ordered part
      • supports
      • has evidence
      • has agenda
      • has outcome
      • attended by
      • has reply
      • author (no inverse)
    • (inverse ones)
      • reflected on by
      • is part of
      • is ordered part of
      • supported by
      • is evidence of
      • is agenda of
      • is outcome of
      • attends
      • in reply to
    • more mapped out in LEAP 2.0 for future consideration
  • 9. About entries: metadata etc.
    • Entries have authors
      • Atom allows plain text name, e-mail, URI
      • in LEAP2A, URI can relate to separate person entry
      • but we haven't yet decided how to cover personal details
    • Records created, modified at certain times
    • Achievements each have one date of achievement
    • Plans each have one target date of completion
    • Activities, meetings have start and end dates
    • Things happen in locations
    • These things are recorded “literally”
      • rather than by a relationship to another item “blob”
  • 10. Example of LEAP2A Atom
    • <entry>
    • <title>Change of Semester Meeting</title>
    • <id>portfolio:meeting/1512</id>
    • <published>2007-10-16T12:59:30Z</published>
    • <updated>2007-11-19T01:00:00Z</updated>
    • <content type=&quot;text&quot;>Please take a little time to give the School some feedback on the maths modules you took in the Autumn Semester.
    • This can be done on-line via the link &quot;Evaluation of Modules&quot; on the School SSCC web page.</content>
    • <rdf:type rdf:resource=&quot;leaptype:meeting&quot; />
    • <leap:date leap:point=&quot;start&quot;>2009-02-06T10:00:00Z</leap:date>
    • <leap:date leap:point=&quot;end&quot;>2009-02-06T11:00:00Z&quot;</leap:date>
    • <dc:spatial>Maths Room C307<dc:spatial/>
    • <link rel=&quot;leap:has_agenda&quot; href=&quot;portfolio:meeting/3347&quot; />
    • <link rel=&quot;leap:has_agenda&quot; href=&quot;portfolio:meeting/3366&quot; />
    • <link rel=&quot;leap:has_agenda&quot; href=&quot;portfolio:meeting/3385&quot; />
    • <link rel=&quot;leap:attended_by&quot; href=&quot;portfolio:people/0001&quot; />
    • <link rel=&quot;leap:attended_by&quot; href=&quot;portfolio:people/0226&quot; />
    • </entry>
  • 11. Easy to see how to map to triples
    • Each entry is its own resource
    • URIs for types, relationships, literal elements
      • (URIs need a long-term home domain)
      • literal values remain literal
    • Use of “CURIEs” makes human reading easier
    • Just a couple of slightly tricky bits
      • Ordered parts
      • Categories
      • Blank nodes possible if they had defined type
    • All this remains to be tested
  • 12. Other XML formats
    • For any other XML format dealing with portfolio information
      • Define a transform to RDF
      • Compare the triples
      • If this works OK, should also be able to transform straight between XML formats
    • XHTML / RDFa is a special case
      • with predefined transform to RDF
  • 13.
    • Now a W3C Recommendation (2008-10-14)
      • http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-syntax
    • XHTML does the layout
    • Designed for human reading on browser, so can use for e-portfolio presentations
    • RDFa attributes within XHTML tags define RDF content
      • ideally reusing all the content visible in the XHTML
    • Should be quite straightforward to take RDFa, extract RDF, and put into e-portfolio database accurately
      • as accurately as LEAP2A, anyway
    RDFa
  • 14. Summary
    • Portfolio information is easily represented by Semantic Web structures
    • LEAP 2.0 maps out agreed and possible vocabulary terms for item types and for predicates
    • LEAP2A defines Atom serialisation and formulates agreement on established practice
    • Other XML formats could be mapped to LEAP 2.0
    • RDFa would allow use by human and machine
    • Thanks for your attention
    • If there is time, questions and discussion?