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Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
Human factors & motivation
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Human factors & motivation

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  • 1. Human Factors & Motivation
  • 2. What is Managing? Managing requires the creation and maintenance of an environment in which individuals work together in groups toward the accomplishment of common objectives
  • 3. Importance of Personal Dignity The concept of individual dignity means that people must be treated with respect, no matter what their position in the organization
  • 4. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  • 5. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  • 6. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  • 7. WHAT MAKES THE DIFFERENCE?
  • 8. WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
  • 9. What is Motivation? • Derived from Latin word, ‘movere’, meaning “to move”. • Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes, and similar forces
  • 10. MOTIVATION IS…….. Why WE DO SOMETHING AND DON’T DO OTHERS
  • 11. •SOME THINGS IN LIFE ARE PURE BLACK AND WHITE. •MOST THINGS IN LIFE ARE IN VARIOUS SHADES OF GREY!!
  • 12. MAJOR TYPES OF MOTIVATION THEORIES • CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION • PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  • 13. CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION • Views motivation a result if INTERNAL DRIVES that force an individual to take ACTION. • Focuses on INNER FACTORS that boost and direct behavior.
  • 14. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  • 15. The Hierarchy of Needs Theory • Maslow concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator
  • 16. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • 17. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • 18. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: FOOD
  • 19. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: SHELTER
  • 20. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: CLOTHING
  • 21. SECURITY NEED
  • 22. BELONGING NEED
  • 23. ESTEEM NEED
  • 24. SELF ACTUALIZATION NEED
  • 25. MASLOWS HEIRACHY THEORY OF NEEDS Individuals needs live within a hierarchy of physiological needs. Physiological needs are necessity factors for SURVIVAL. Lower level needs like security and physiological needs required to be met before upper level needs.
  • 26. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  • 27. Alderfer's ERG Theory • ERG theory has three categories: existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs
  • 28. ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY Classification into 3 groups. Existence Relatedness Growth Does not suggest that lower level needs are to be met COMPLETELY in order for upper levels to become MOTIVATIONAL.
  • 29. MASLOW TO ALDERFER
  • 30. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  • 31. Theory X and Theory Y • Theory X and Theory Y : Assumptions about the nature of people Example of Theory X – Average human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can • Example of Theory Y – The expenditure of physical effort and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest
  • 32. Theory X and Theory Y
  • 33. Herzberg’s Motivation‑Hygiene Theory • According to Herzberg, dissatisfiers are not motivators. They are also called maintenance, hygiene, or job context factors • Satisfiers are motivators – related to job content
  • 34. HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
  • 35. HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
  • 36. HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
  • 37. The satisfiers and dissatisfiers identified by Herzberg are similar to the factors suggested by Maslow.
  • 38. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  • 39. McClelland's Needs Theory of Motivation • McClelland’s types of motivating needs are:
  • 40. NEED FOR POWER
  • 41. NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT
  • 42. PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION • Aimed at determining how behavior starts, is directed and maintained.. • Focuses on human decision process as an explanation for behavior.
  • 43. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  • 44. The Expectancy Theory of Motivation Vroom holds that people will be motivated to do things to reach a goal if they believe in the worth of that goal and if they can see that what they do will help them in achieving it
  • 45. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY Individuals choose work behaviour that they believe would lead to an OUTCOME which they VALUE. Force = Valence x Expectancy
  • 46. Force = Valence x Expectancy • Force is the strength of a person's motivation. • Valence is the strength of an individual's preference for an outcome. • Expectancy is the probability that a particular action will lead to a desired outcome
  • 47. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY VALENCE= The extent of attractiveness or unattractiveness of EXPECTED outcomes EXPECTANCY= The degree of effort .
  • 48. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  • 49. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
  • 50. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
  • 51. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
  • 52. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  • 53. Equity Theory • Equity theory refers to an individual's subjective judgments about the fairness of the reward she or he got, relative to the inputs in comparison with the rewards of others • Outcomes by a person person -----------------------------• Inputs by a person Outcomes by another = person ----------------------------Inputs by another
  • 54. EQUITY THEORY
  • 55. EQUITY THEORY
  • 56. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  • 57. The Porter and Lawler Motivation Model
  • 58. Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory • Positive reinforcement or behavior modification, holds that individuals can be motivated by proper design of their work environment and praise for their performance and that punishment for poor performance produces negative results
  • 59. Job enlargement & Job Enrichment • Job enlargement means enlarging the scope of the job by adding similar tasks without enhancing responsibility • Job enrichment attempts to build into jobs a higher sense of challenge and achievement
  • 60. THANK YOU

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