Human Factors
&
Motivation
What is Managing?
Managing requires the creation and
maintenance of an environment in
which individuals work together in
g...
Importance of Personal
Dignity
The concept of individual dignity
means that people must be treated
with respect, no matter...
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES?

GROUP ‘A’

GROUP ‘B’
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES?

GROUP ‘A’

GROUP ‘B’
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES?

GROUP ‘A’

GROUP ‘B’
WHAT MAKES THE
DIFFERENCE?
WHAT IS
MOTIVATION?
What is Motivation?
• Derived from Latin word, ‘movere’,
meaning “to move”.
• Motivation is a general term
applying to the...
MOTIVATION IS……..

Why

WE

DO SOMETHING AND DON’T
DO OTHERS
•SOME THINGS IN LIFE ARE
PURE BLACK AND WHITE.
•MOST THINGS IN LIFE ARE IN
VARIOUS SHADES OF GREY!!
MAJOR TYPES OF MOTIVATION THEORIES

• CONTENT THEORIES OF
MOTIVATION
• PROCESS THEORIES OF
MOTIVATION
CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
• Views motivation a result if INTERNAL
DRIVES that force an individual to take
ACTION.
• F...
MAJOR CONTENT THEORIES
• MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs.
• ALDERFER’s ERG Theory
• HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory
• McC...
The Hierarchy of Needs Theory
• Maslow concluded that when one set of needs is
satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: FOOD
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: SHELTER
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: CLOTHING
SECURITY NEED
BELONGING NEED
ESTEEM NEED
SELF ACTUALIZATION NEED
MASLOWS HEIRACHY THEORY OF NEEDS
Individuals needs live within a
hierarchy of physiological needs.
Physiological needs a...
MAJOR CONTENT THEORIES
• MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs.
• ALDERFER’s ERG Theory
• HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory
• McC...
Alderfer's ERG Theory
• ERG theory has three categories: existence
needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs
ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY
Classification into 3 groups.
Existence
Relatedness
Growth

Does not suggest that lower level n...
MASLOW TO ALDERFER
MAJOR CONTENT THEORIES
• MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs.
• ALDERFER’s ERG Theory
• HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory
• McC...
Theory X and Theory Y
• Theory X and Theory Y : Assumptions
about the nature of people Example of
Theory X
– Average human...
Theory X and Theory Y
Herzberg’s Motivation‑Hygiene
Theory
• According to Herzberg, dissatisfiers are
not motivators. They are also called
maint...
HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
The satisfiers and dissatisfiers identified by Herzberg
are similar to the factors suggested by Maslow.
MAJOR CONTENT THEORIES
• MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs.
• ALDERFER’s ERG Theory
• HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory
• McC...
McClelland's Needs Theory of Motivation

• McClelland’s types of
motivating needs are:
NEED FOR POWER
NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT
PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
• Aimed at determining how
behavior starts, is directed and
maintained..
• Focuses on human...
MAJOR PROCESS THEORIES
• EXPECTANCY Theory
• EQUITY Theory
• GOAL SETTING Theory
• REINFORCEMENT Theory
The Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Vroom holds that people will be motivated to do
things to reach a goal if they believe...
VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
Individuals choose work behaviour that
they believe would lead to an OUTCOME
which they VALUE.
...
Force = Valence x Expectancy
• Force is the strength of a person's motivation.
• Valence is the strength of an individual'...
VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
VALENCE= The extent of attractiveness
or unattractiveness of EXPECTED
outcomes
EXPECTANCY= The...
MAJOR PROCESS THEORIES

• EXPECTANCY Theory
• EQUITY Theory
• GOAL SETTING Theory
• REINFORCEMENT Theory
VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
MAJOR PROCESS THEORIES
• EXPECTANCY Theory
• EQUITY Theory
• GOAL SETTING Theory
• REINFORCEMENT Theory
Equity Theory
•

Equity theory refers to an individual's subjective judgments about the fairness
of the reward she or he g...
EQUITY THEORY
EQUITY THEORY
MAJOR PROCESS THEORIES
• EXPECTANCY Theory
• EQUITY Theory
• GOAL SETTING Theory
• REINFORCEMENT Theory
The Porter and Lawler Motivation Model
Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory
• Positive reinforcement or behavior
modification, holds that individuals can be
motivated ...
Job enlargement & Job Enrichment
• Job enlargement means enlarging the scope
of the job by adding similar tasks without
en...
THANK YOU
Human factors & motivation
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Human factors & motivation

  1. 1. Human Factors & Motivation
  2. 2. What is Managing? Managing requires the creation and maintenance of an environment in which individuals work together in groups toward the accomplishment of common objectives
  3. 3. Importance of Personal Dignity The concept of individual dignity means that people must be treated with respect, no matter what their position in the organization
  4. 4. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  5. 5. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  6. 6. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  7. 7. WHAT MAKES THE DIFFERENCE?
  8. 8. WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
  9. 9. What is Motivation? • Derived from Latin word, ‘movere’, meaning “to move”. • Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes, and similar forces
  10. 10. MOTIVATION IS…….. Why WE DO SOMETHING AND DON’T DO OTHERS
  11. 11. •SOME THINGS IN LIFE ARE PURE BLACK AND WHITE. •MOST THINGS IN LIFE ARE IN VARIOUS SHADES OF GREY!!
  12. 12. MAJOR TYPES OF MOTIVATION THEORIES • CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION • PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  13. 13. CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION • Views motivation a result if INTERNAL DRIVES that force an individual to take ACTION. • Focuses on INNER FACTORS that boost and direct behavior.
  14. 14. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  15. 15. The Hierarchy of Needs Theory • Maslow concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator
  16. 16. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  17. 17. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  18. 18. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: FOOD
  19. 19. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: SHELTER
  20. 20. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: CLOTHING
  21. 21. SECURITY NEED
  22. 22. BELONGING NEED
  23. 23. ESTEEM NEED
  24. 24. SELF ACTUALIZATION NEED
  25. 25. MASLOWS HEIRACHY THEORY OF NEEDS Individuals needs live within a hierarchy of physiological needs. Physiological needs are necessity factors for SURVIVAL. Lower level needs like security and physiological needs required to be met before upper level needs.
  26. 26. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  27. 27. Alderfer's ERG Theory • ERG theory has three categories: existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs
  28. 28. ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY Classification into 3 groups. Existence Relatedness Growth Does not suggest that lower level needs are to be met COMPLETELY in order for upper levels to become MOTIVATIONAL.
  29. 29. MASLOW TO ALDERFER
  30. 30. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  31. 31. Theory X and Theory Y • Theory X and Theory Y : Assumptions about the nature of people Example of Theory X – Average human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can • Example of Theory Y – The expenditure of physical effort and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest
  32. 32. Theory X and Theory Y
  33. 33. Herzberg’s Motivation‑Hygiene Theory • According to Herzberg, dissatisfiers are not motivators. They are also called maintenance, hygiene, or job context factors • Satisfiers are motivators – related to job content
  34. 34. HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
  35. 35. HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
  36. 36. HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
  37. 37. The satisfiers and dissatisfiers identified by Herzberg are similar to the factors suggested by Maslow.
  38. 38. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  39. 39. McClelland's Needs Theory of Motivation • McClelland’s types of motivating needs are:
  40. 40. NEED FOR POWER
  41. 41. NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT
  42. 42. PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION • Aimed at determining how behavior starts, is directed and maintained.. • Focuses on human decision process as an explanation for behavior.
  43. 43. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  44. 44. The Expectancy Theory of Motivation Vroom holds that people will be motivated to do things to reach a goal if they believe in the worth of that goal and if they can see that what they do will help them in achieving it
  45. 45. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY Individuals choose work behaviour that they believe would lead to an OUTCOME which they VALUE. Force = Valence x Expectancy
  46. 46. Force = Valence x Expectancy • Force is the strength of a person's motivation. • Valence is the strength of an individual's preference for an outcome. • Expectancy is the probability that a particular action will lead to a desired outcome
  47. 47. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY VALENCE= The extent of attractiveness or unattractiveness of EXPECTED outcomes EXPECTANCY= The degree of effort .
  48. 48. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  49. 49. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
  50. 50. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
  51. 51. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
  52. 52. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  53. 53. Equity Theory • Equity theory refers to an individual's subjective judgments about the fairness of the reward she or he got, relative to the inputs in comparison with the rewards of others • Outcomes by a person person -----------------------------• Inputs by a person Outcomes by another = person ----------------------------Inputs by another
  54. 54. EQUITY THEORY
  55. 55. EQUITY THEORY
  56. 56. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  57. 57. The Porter and Lawler Motivation Model
  58. 58. Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory • Positive reinforcement or behavior modification, holds that individuals can be motivated by proper design of their work environment and praise for their performance and that punishment for poor performance produces negative results
  59. 59. Job enlargement & Job Enrichment • Job enlargement means enlarging the scope of the job by adding similar tasks without enhancing responsibility • Job enrichment attempts to build into jobs a higher sense of challenge and achievement
  60. 60. THANK YOU
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