RNA AND  PROTEIN SYNTHESIS By  Muhammad Asif Pu Pak Muhammad Asif Pu
How your cell makes very important proteins <ul><li>The production (synthesis) of  proteins . </li></ul><ul><li>3 phases :...
DNA     RNA     Protein Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA P...
Before making proteins, Your cell must first make RNA   <ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>How does  RNA   (ribonucleic a...
RNA  differs from  DNA <ul><li>1. RNA  has a  sugar ribose </li></ul><ul><li>DNA  has a  sugar deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><...
Muhammad Asif Pu
1.  Transcription Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA ...
1. Transcription OR  RNA production <ul><li>RNA molecules are produced by copying part of DNA into a complementary sequenc...
1.  Transcription Muhammad Asif Pu DNA pre-mRNA RNA Polymerase
Question: <ul><li>What would be the complementary  RNA  strand for the following  DNA  sequence? </li></ul><ul><li>DNA  5’...
Types of RNA <ul><li>Three types of   RNA : </li></ul><ul><li>A. messenger RNA (mRNA) </li></ul><ul><li>B. transfer RNA (t...
mRNA <ul><li>Carries instructions from DNA to the rest of the ribosome. </li></ul><ul><li>Tells the ribosome what kind of ...
A. Messenger RNA (mRNA) Muhammad Asif Pu methionine glycine serine isoleucine glycine alanine stop codon protein A U G G G...
If the cell is a school… <ul><li>The Nucleus is the school office </li></ul><ul><li>The Nucleolus is the principal’s offic...
rRNA <ul><li>Part of the structure of a ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in protein production </li></ul>tRNA A go-getter....
B. Transfer RNA (tRNA) Muhammad Asif Pu amino acid attachment site U A C anticodon methionine amino acid
2. RNA Processing Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA ...
2. RNA Processing <ul><li>Introns  are pulled out and  exons   come together. </li></ul><ul><li>End product is a  mature R...
2. RNA Processing Muhammad Asif Pu pre-RNA molecule intron intron exon exon exon exon exon exon Mature RNA molecule exon e...
Ribosomes P Site A Site Large subunit Small subunit Muhammad Asif Pu mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G
3. Translation - making proteins Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translatio...
3. Translation <ul><li>Three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. initiation :  start codon (AUG) </li></ul><ul><li>2. elongation :...
3. Translation P Site A Site Large subunit Small subunit Muhammad Asif Pu mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G
Initiation mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G A anticodon hydrogen bonds codon Muhammad Asif Pu 2-tRNA G aa2 A U 1-tRNA U A C aa1
mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 1-tRNA 2-tRNA U A C G aa1 aa2 A U A anticodon hydrogen bonds codon peptide bond Elongation Muha...
mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 1-tRNA 2-tRNA U A C G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bond Ribosomes move over one codon (leaves) Muhamma...
mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 A C U Muhammad Asif Pu 4-tRNA G C U aa4
mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 A C U (leaves) Ribosomes move over one co...
mRNA G C U A C U U C G aa1 aa2 A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U Muhammad Asif Pu U G A 5-tRNA aa5
mRNA G C U A C U U C G aa1 aa2 A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U Ribosomes move over one codon Muham...
mRNA A C A U G U aa1 aa2 U primary structure of a protein aa3 200-tRNA aa4 U A G aa5 C U aa200 aa199 terminator or stop co...
End Product <ul><li>The end products of protein synthesis is a  primary structure of a protein . </li></ul><ul><li>A seque...
Question: <ul><li>The anticodon  UAC  belongs to a  tRNA  that recognizes and binds to a particular  amino acid . </li></u...
Answer: <ul><li>tRNA  - UAC (anticodon) </li></ul><ul><li>mRNA - AUG (codon) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA  - TAC </li></ul>Muhamm...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Rna and protein synthesis

1,236

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,236
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
82
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Rna and protein synthesis

  1. 1. RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS By Muhammad Asif Pu Pak Muhammad Asif Pu
  2. 2. How your cell makes very important proteins <ul><li>The production (synthesis) of proteins . </li></ul><ul><li>3 phases : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Transcription </li></ul><ul><li>2. RNA processing </li></ul><ul><li>3. Translation </li></ul><ul><li>DNA  RNA  Protein </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  3. 3. DNA  RNA  Protein Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  4. 4. Before making proteins, Your cell must first make RNA <ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>How does RNA (ribonucleic acid) differ from DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) ? </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  5. 5. RNA differs from DNA <ul><li>1. RNA has a sugar ribose </li></ul><ul><li>DNA has a sugar deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>2. RNA contains uracil (U) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA has thymine (T) </li></ul><ul><li>3. RNA molecule is single-stranded </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is double-stranded </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  6. 6. Muhammad Asif Pu
  7. 7. 1. Transcription Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  8. 8. 1. Transcription OR RNA production <ul><li>RNA molecules are produced by copying part of DNA into a complementary sequence of RNA </li></ul><ul><li>This process is started and controlled by an enzyme called RNA polymerase. </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  9. 9. 1. Transcription Muhammad Asif Pu DNA pre-mRNA RNA Polymerase
  10. 10. Question: <ul><li>What would be the complementary RNA strand for the following DNA sequence? </li></ul><ul><li>DNA 5’-GCGTATG-3’ </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  11. 11. Types of RNA <ul><li>Three types of RNA : </li></ul><ul><li>A. messenger RNA (mRNA) </li></ul><ul><li>B. transfer RNA (tRNA) </li></ul><ul><li>C. ribosome RNA (rRNA) </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: all produced in the nucleus ! </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  12. 12. mRNA <ul><li>Carries instructions from DNA to the rest of the ribosome. </li></ul><ul><li>Tells the ribosome what kind of protein to make </li></ul><ul><li>Acts like an email from the principal to the cafeteria lady. </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  13. 13. A. Messenger RNA (mRNA) Muhammad Asif Pu methionine glycine serine isoleucine glycine alanine stop codon protein A U G G G C U C C A U C G G C G C A U A A mRNA start codon Primary structure of a protein aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa6 peptide bonds codon 2 codon 3 codon 4 codon 5 codon 6 codon 7 codon 1
  14. 14. If the cell is a school… <ul><li>The Nucleus is the school office </li></ul><ul><li>The Nucleolus is the principal’s office </li></ul><ul><li>The DNA is the principal </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are the cafeteria ladies </li></ul><ul><li>mRNA is the email from the principal to the cafeteria lady </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  15. 15. rRNA <ul><li>Part of the structure of a ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in protein production </li></ul>tRNA A go-getter. Gets the right parts to make the right protein according to mRNA instructions Muhammad Asif Pu
  16. 16. B. Transfer RNA (tRNA) Muhammad Asif Pu amino acid attachment site U A C anticodon methionine amino acid
  17. 17. 2. RNA Processing Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  18. 18. 2. RNA Processing <ul><li>Introns are pulled out and exons come together. </li></ul><ul><li>End product is a mature RNA molecule that leaves the nucleus to the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Introns bad…… Exons good! </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  19. 19. 2. RNA Processing Muhammad Asif Pu pre-RNA molecule intron intron exon exon exon exon exon exon Mature RNA molecule exon exon exon intron intron splicesome splicesome
  20. 20. Ribosomes P Site A Site Large subunit Small subunit Muhammad Asif Pu mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G
  21. 21. 3. Translation - making proteins Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  22. 22. 3. Translation <ul><li>Three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. initiation : start codon (AUG) </li></ul><ul><li>2. elongation : </li></ul><ul><li>3. termination : stop codon (UAG) </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s make a PROTEIN!!!! . </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  23. 23. 3. Translation P Site A Site Large subunit Small subunit Muhammad Asif Pu mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G
  24. 24. Initiation mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G A anticodon hydrogen bonds codon Muhammad Asif Pu 2-tRNA G aa2 A U 1-tRNA U A C aa1
  25. 25. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 1-tRNA 2-tRNA U A C G aa1 aa2 A U A anticodon hydrogen bonds codon peptide bond Elongation Muhammad Asif Pu 3-tRNA G A A aa3
  26. 26. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 1-tRNA 2-tRNA U A C G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bond Ribosomes move over one codon (leaves) Muhammad Asif Pu 3-tRNA G A A aa3
  27. 27. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 A C U Muhammad Asif Pu 4-tRNA G C U aa4
  28. 28. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 A C U (leaves) Ribosomes move over one codon Muhammad Asif Pu 4-tRNA G C U aa4
  29. 29. mRNA G C U A C U U C G aa1 aa2 A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U Muhammad Asif Pu U G A 5-tRNA aa5
  30. 30. mRNA G C U A C U U C G aa1 aa2 A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U Ribosomes move over one codon Muhammad Asif Pu U G A 5-tRNA aa5
  31. 31. mRNA A C A U G U aa1 aa2 U primary structure of a protein aa3 200-tRNA aa4 U A G aa5 C U aa200 aa199 terminator or stop codon Termination Muhammad Asif Pu
  32. 32. End Product <ul><li>The end products of protein synthesis is a primary structure of a protein . </li></ul><ul><li>A sequence of amino acid bonded together by peptide bonds . </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa200 aa199
  33. 33. Question: <ul><li>The anticodon UAC belongs to a tRNA that recognizes and binds to a particular amino acid . </li></ul><ul><li>What would be the DNA base code for this amino acid? </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  34. 34. Answer: <ul><li>tRNA - UAC (anticodon) </li></ul><ul><li>mRNA - AUG (codon) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA - TAC </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×