Rna and protein synthesis
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Rna and protein synthesis

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Rna and protein synthesis Presentation Transcript

  • 1. RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS By Muhammad Asif Pu Pak Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 2. How your cell makes very important proteins
    • The production (synthesis) of proteins .
    • 3 phases :
    • 1. Transcription
    • 2. RNA processing
    • 3. Translation
    • DNA  RNA  Protein
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 3. DNA  RNA  Protein Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  • 4. Before making proteins, Your cell must first make RNA
    • Question:
    • How does RNA (ribonucleic acid) differ from DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) ?
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 5. RNA differs from DNA
    • 1. RNA has a sugar ribose
    • DNA has a sugar deoxyribose
    • 2. RNA contains uracil (U)
    • DNA has thymine (T)
    • 3. RNA molecule is single-stranded
    • DNA is double-stranded
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 6. Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 7. 1. Transcription Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  • 8. 1. Transcription OR RNA production
    • RNA molecules are produced by copying part of DNA into a complementary sequence of RNA
    • This process is started and controlled by an enzyme called RNA polymerase.
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 9. 1. Transcription Muhammad Asif Pu DNA pre-mRNA RNA Polymerase
  • 10. Question:
    • What would be the complementary RNA strand for the following DNA sequence?
    • DNA 5’-GCGTATG-3’
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 11. Types of RNA
    • Three types of RNA :
    • A. messenger RNA (mRNA)
    • B. transfer RNA (tRNA)
    • C. ribosome RNA (rRNA)
    • Remember: all produced in the nucleus !
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 12. mRNA
    • Carries instructions from DNA to the rest of the ribosome.
    • Tells the ribosome what kind of protein to make
    • Acts like an email from the principal to the cafeteria lady.
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 13. A. Messenger RNA (mRNA) Muhammad Asif Pu methionine glycine serine isoleucine glycine alanine stop codon protein A U G G G C U C C A U C G G C G C A U A A mRNA start codon Primary structure of a protein aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa6 peptide bonds codon 2 codon 3 codon 4 codon 5 codon 6 codon 7 codon 1
  • 14. If the cell is a school…
    • The Nucleus is the school office
    • The Nucleolus is the principal’s office
    • The DNA is the principal
    • Ribosomes are the cafeteria ladies
    • mRNA is the email from the principal to the cafeteria lady
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 15. rRNA
    • Part of the structure of a ribosome
    • Helps in protein production
    tRNA A go-getter. Gets the right parts to make the right protein according to mRNA instructions Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 16. B. Transfer RNA (tRNA) Muhammad Asif Pu amino acid attachment site U A C anticodon methionine amino acid
  • 17. 2. RNA Processing Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  • 18. 2. RNA Processing
    • Introns are pulled out and exons come together.
    • End product is a mature RNA molecule that leaves the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
    • Introns bad…… Exons good!
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 19. 2. RNA Processing Muhammad Asif Pu pre-RNA molecule intron intron exon exon exon exon exon exon Mature RNA molecule exon exon exon intron intron splicesome splicesome
  • 20. Ribosomes P Site A Site Large subunit Small subunit Muhammad Asif Pu mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G
  • 21. 3. Translation - making proteins Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  • 22. 3. Translation
    • Three parts:
    • 1. initiation : start codon (AUG)
    • 2. elongation :
    • 3. termination : stop codon (UAG)
    • Let’s make a PROTEIN!!!! .
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 23. 3. Translation P Site A Site Large subunit Small subunit Muhammad Asif Pu mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G
  • 24. Initiation mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G A anticodon hydrogen bonds codon Muhammad Asif Pu 2-tRNA G aa2 A U 1-tRNA U A C aa1
  • 25. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 1-tRNA 2-tRNA U A C G aa1 aa2 A U A anticodon hydrogen bonds codon peptide bond Elongation Muhammad Asif Pu 3-tRNA G A A aa3
  • 26. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 1-tRNA 2-tRNA U A C G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bond Ribosomes move over one codon (leaves) Muhammad Asif Pu 3-tRNA G A A aa3
  • 27. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 A C U Muhammad Asif Pu 4-tRNA G C U aa4
  • 28. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 A C U (leaves) Ribosomes move over one codon Muhammad Asif Pu 4-tRNA G C U aa4
  • 29. mRNA G C U A C U U C G aa1 aa2 A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U Muhammad Asif Pu U G A 5-tRNA aa5
  • 30. mRNA G C U A C U U C G aa1 aa2 A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U Ribosomes move over one codon Muhammad Asif Pu U G A 5-tRNA aa5
  • 31. mRNA A C A U G U aa1 aa2 U primary structure of a protein aa3 200-tRNA aa4 U A G aa5 C U aa200 aa199 terminator or stop codon Termination Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 32. End Product
    • The end products of protein synthesis is a primary structure of a protein .
    • A sequence of amino acid bonded together by peptide bonds .
    Muhammad Asif Pu aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa200 aa199
  • 33. Question:
    • The anticodon UAC belongs to a tRNA that recognizes and binds to a particular amino acid .
    • What would be the DNA base code for this amino acid?
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 34. Answer:
    • tRNA - UAC (anticodon)
    • mRNA - AUG (codon)
    • DNA - TAC
    Muhammad Asif Pu