Rna and protein synthesis

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Rna and protein synthesis

  1. 1. RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS By Muhammad Asif Pu Pak Muhammad Asif Pu
  2. 2. How your cell makes very important proteins <ul><li>The production (synthesis) of proteins . </li></ul><ul><li>3 phases : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Transcription </li></ul><ul><li>2. RNA processing </li></ul><ul><li>3. Translation </li></ul><ul><li>DNA  RNA  Protein </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  3. 3. DNA  RNA  Protein Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  4. 4. Before making proteins, Your cell must first make RNA <ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>How does RNA (ribonucleic acid) differ from DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) ? </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  5. 5. RNA differs from DNA <ul><li>1. RNA has a sugar ribose </li></ul><ul><li>DNA has a sugar deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>2. RNA contains uracil (U) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA has thymine (T) </li></ul><ul><li>3. RNA molecule is single-stranded </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is double-stranded </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  6. 6. Muhammad Asif Pu
  7. 7. 1. Transcription Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  8. 8. 1. Transcription OR RNA production <ul><li>RNA molecules are produced by copying part of DNA into a complementary sequence of RNA </li></ul><ul><li>This process is started and controlled by an enzyme called RNA polymerase. </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  9. 9. 1. Transcription Muhammad Asif Pu DNA pre-mRNA RNA Polymerase
  10. 10. Question: <ul><li>What would be the complementary RNA strand for the following DNA sequence? </li></ul><ul><li>DNA 5’-GCGTATG-3’ </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  11. 11. Types of RNA <ul><li>Three types of RNA : </li></ul><ul><li>A. messenger RNA (mRNA) </li></ul><ul><li>B. transfer RNA (tRNA) </li></ul><ul><li>C. ribosome RNA (rRNA) </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: all produced in the nucleus ! </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  12. 12. mRNA <ul><li>Carries instructions from DNA to the rest of the ribosome. </li></ul><ul><li>Tells the ribosome what kind of protein to make </li></ul><ul><li>Acts like an email from the principal to the cafeteria lady. </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  13. 13. A. Messenger RNA (mRNA) Muhammad Asif Pu methionine glycine serine isoleucine glycine alanine stop codon protein A U G G G C U C C A U C G G C G C A U A A mRNA start codon Primary structure of a protein aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa6 peptide bonds codon 2 codon 3 codon 4 codon 5 codon 6 codon 7 codon 1
  14. 14. If the cell is a school… <ul><li>The Nucleus is the school office </li></ul><ul><li>The Nucleolus is the principal’s office </li></ul><ul><li>The DNA is the principal </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are the cafeteria ladies </li></ul><ul><li>mRNA is the email from the principal to the cafeteria lady </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  15. 15. rRNA <ul><li>Part of the structure of a ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in protein production </li></ul>tRNA A go-getter. Gets the right parts to make the right protein according to mRNA instructions Muhammad Asif Pu
  16. 16. B. Transfer RNA (tRNA) Muhammad Asif Pu amino acid attachment site U A C anticodon methionine amino acid
  17. 17. 2. RNA Processing Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  18. 18. 2. RNA Processing <ul><li>Introns are pulled out and exons come together. </li></ul><ul><li>End product is a mature RNA molecule that leaves the nucleus to the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Introns bad…… Exons good! </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  19. 19. 2. RNA Processing Muhammad Asif Pu pre-RNA molecule intron intron exon exon exon exon exon exon Mature RNA molecule exon exon exon intron intron splicesome splicesome
  20. 20. Ribosomes P Site A Site Large subunit Small subunit Muhammad Asif Pu mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G
  21. 21. 3. Translation - making proteins Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  22. 22. 3. Translation <ul><li>Three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. initiation : start codon (AUG) </li></ul><ul><li>2. elongation : </li></ul><ul><li>3. termination : stop codon (UAG) </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s make a PROTEIN!!!! . </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  23. 23. 3. Translation P Site A Site Large subunit Small subunit Muhammad Asif Pu mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G
  24. 24. Initiation mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G A anticodon hydrogen bonds codon Muhammad Asif Pu 2-tRNA G aa2 A U 1-tRNA U A C aa1
  25. 25. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 1-tRNA 2-tRNA U A C G aa1 aa2 A U A anticodon hydrogen bonds codon peptide bond Elongation Muhammad Asif Pu 3-tRNA G A A aa3
  26. 26. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 1-tRNA 2-tRNA U A C G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bond Ribosomes move over one codon (leaves) Muhammad Asif Pu 3-tRNA G A A aa3
  27. 27. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 A C U Muhammad Asif Pu 4-tRNA G C U aa4
  28. 28. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 A C U (leaves) Ribosomes move over one codon Muhammad Asif Pu 4-tRNA G C U aa4
  29. 29. mRNA G C U A C U U C G aa1 aa2 A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U Muhammad Asif Pu U G A 5-tRNA aa5
  30. 30. mRNA G C U A C U U C G aa1 aa2 A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U Ribosomes move over one codon Muhammad Asif Pu U G A 5-tRNA aa5
  31. 31. mRNA A C A U G U aa1 aa2 U primary structure of a protein aa3 200-tRNA aa4 U A G aa5 C U aa200 aa199 terminator or stop codon Termination Muhammad Asif Pu
  32. 32. End Product <ul><li>The end products of protein synthesis is a primary structure of a protein . </li></ul><ul><li>A sequence of amino acid bonded together by peptide bonds . </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa200 aa199
  33. 33. Question: <ul><li>The anticodon UAC belongs to a tRNA that recognizes and binds to a particular amino acid . </li></ul><ul><li>What would be the DNA base code for this amino acid? </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  34. 34. Answer: <ul><li>tRNA - UAC (anticodon) </li></ul><ul><li>mRNA - AUG (codon) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA - TAC </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu

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