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Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
Rna and protein synthesis
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Rna and protein synthesis

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  • 1. RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS By Muhammad Asif Pu Pak Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 2. How your cell makes very important proteins
    • The production (synthesis) of proteins .
    • 3 phases :
    • 1. Transcription
    • 2. RNA processing
    • 3. Translation
    • DNA  RNA  Protein
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 3. DNA  RNA  Protein Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  • 4. Before making proteins, Your cell must first make RNA
    • Question:
    • How does RNA (ribonucleic acid) differ from DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) ?
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 5. RNA differs from DNA
    • 1. RNA has a sugar ribose
    • DNA has a sugar deoxyribose
    • 2. RNA contains uracil (U)
    • DNA has thymine (T)
    • 3. RNA molecule is single-stranded
    • DNA is double-stranded
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 6. Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 7. 1. Transcription Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  • 8. 1. Transcription OR RNA production
    • RNA molecules are produced by copying part of DNA into a complementary sequence of RNA
    • This process is started and controlled by an enzyme called RNA polymerase.
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 9. 1. Transcription Muhammad Asif Pu DNA pre-mRNA RNA Polymerase
  • 10. Question:
    • What would be the complementary RNA strand for the following DNA sequence?
    • DNA 5’-GCGTATG-3’
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 11. Types of RNA
    • Three types of RNA :
    • A. messenger RNA (mRNA)
    • B. transfer RNA (tRNA)
    • C. ribosome RNA (rRNA)
    • Remember: all produced in the nucleus !
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 12. mRNA
    • Carries instructions from DNA to the rest of the ribosome.
    • Tells the ribosome what kind of protein to make
    • Acts like an email from the principal to the cafeteria lady.
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 13. A. Messenger RNA (mRNA) Muhammad Asif Pu methionine glycine serine isoleucine glycine alanine stop codon protein A U G G G C U C C A U C G G C G C A U A A mRNA start codon Primary structure of a protein aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa6 peptide bonds codon 2 codon 3 codon 4 codon 5 codon 6 codon 7 codon 1
  • 14. If the cell is a school…
    • The Nucleus is the school office
    • The Nucleolus is the principal’s office
    • The DNA is the principal
    • Ribosomes are the cafeteria ladies
    • mRNA is the email from the principal to the cafeteria lady
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 15. rRNA
    • Part of the structure of a ribosome
    • Helps in protein production
    tRNA A go-getter. Gets the right parts to make the right protein according to mRNA instructions Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 16. B. Transfer RNA (tRNA) Muhammad Asif Pu amino acid attachment site U A C anticodon methionine amino acid
  • 17. 2. RNA Processing Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  • 18. 2. RNA Processing
    • Introns are pulled out and exons come together.
    • End product is a mature RNA molecule that leaves the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
    • Introns bad…… Exons good!
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 19. 2. RNA Processing Muhammad Asif Pu pre-RNA molecule intron intron exon exon exon exon exon exon Mature RNA molecule exon exon exon intron intron splicesome splicesome
  • 20. Ribosomes P Site A Site Large subunit Small subunit Muhammad Asif Pu mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G
  • 21. 3. Translation - making proteins Eukaryotic Cell Muhammad Asif Pu Nuclear membrane Transcription RNA Processing Translation DNA Pre-mRNA mRNA Ribosome Protein
  • 22. 3. Translation
    • Three parts:
    • 1. initiation : start codon (AUG)
    • 2. elongation :
    • 3. termination : stop codon (UAG)
    • Let’s make a PROTEIN!!!! .
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 23. 3. Translation P Site A Site Large subunit Small subunit Muhammad Asif Pu mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G
  • 24. Initiation mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G A anticodon hydrogen bonds codon Muhammad Asif Pu 2-tRNA G aa2 A U 1-tRNA U A C aa1
  • 25. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 1-tRNA 2-tRNA U A C G aa1 aa2 A U A anticodon hydrogen bonds codon peptide bond Elongation Muhammad Asif Pu 3-tRNA G A A aa3
  • 26. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 1-tRNA 2-tRNA U A C G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bond Ribosomes move over one codon (leaves) Muhammad Asif Pu 3-tRNA G A A aa3
  • 27. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 A C U Muhammad Asif Pu 4-tRNA G C U aa4
  • 28. mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 A C U (leaves) Ribosomes move over one codon Muhammad Asif Pu 4-tRNA G C U aa4
  • 29. mRNA G C U A C U U C G aa1 aa2 A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U Muhammad Asif Pu U G A 5-tRNA aa5
  • 30. mRNA G C U A C U U C G aa1 aa2 A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U Ribosomes move over one codon Muhammad Asif Pu U G A 5-tRNA aa5
  • 31. mRNA A C A U G U aa1 aa2 U primary structure of a protein aa3 200-tRNA aa4 U A G aa5 C U aa200 aa199 terminator or stop codon Termination Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 32. End Product
    • The end products of protein synthesis is a primary structure of a protein .
    • A sequence of amino acid bonded together by peptide bonds .
    Muhammad Asif Pu aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa200 aa199
  • 33. Question:
    • The anticodon UAC belongs to a tRNA that recognizes and binds to a particular amino acid .
    • What would be the DNA base code for this amino acid?
    Muhammad Asif Pu
  • 34. Answer:
    • tRNA - UAC (anticodon)
    • mRNA - AUG (codon)
    • DNA - TAC
    Muhammad Asif Pu

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