Photosynthesisand cellularrespiration
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  • 1. By Muhammad Asif Pu Pak Muhammad Asif
  • 2.
    • I can explain in detail the flow of energy through living systems
    • I can compare the chemical processes of autotrophs and heterotrophs
    • I can describe the role of ATP in metabolism
    • I can describe how energy is released by ATP.
    Muhammad Asif
  • 3.
    • Metabolism: all of the chemical reactions that take place within an organism
    • Metabolic pathways alter molecules in a series of steps.
    • Enzymes selectively accelerate each step.
      • enzymes are regulated to maintain a balance of supply and demand.
    Muhammad Asif
  • 4.
    • Catabolic reactions give off energy by breaking down complicated molecules to simpler compounds.
    • Anabolic reactions use energy to build complicated molecules from simpler compounds.
    • The energy released by catabolic pathways is used to drive anabolic pathways.
    Muhammad Asif
  • 5. Muhammad Asif
  • 6.
    • Autotrophs make their own food through anabolic reactions
      • Many autotrophs carry out photosynthesis
    • Heterotrophs can not make their own food
      • Heterotrophs must eat other organisms to obtain energy from food through catabolic reactions
      • Heterotrophs utilize cellular respiration
    Muhammad Asif
  • 7.
    • ATP powers cellular work
    • A cell does three main kinds of work:
      • Mechanical work, beating of cilia, contraction of muscle cells, and movement of chromosomes
      • Transport work, pumping substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement
      • Chemical work, driving endergonic reactions such as the synthesis of polymers from monomers
    Muhammad Asif
  • 8.
    • ATP ( adenosine triphosphate ) is a type of nucleotide consisting of the nitrogenous base adenine, the sugar ribose, and a chain of three phosphate groups.
    Muhammad Asif
  • 9.
    • The bonds between phosphate groups can be broken by hydrolysis.
    Muhammad Asif
  • 10.
    • Energy is stored in these bonds.
    • So?
    • The breaking of the chemical bond releases the energy
    • ATP + H 2 O -> ADP + P + ENERGY
    Muhammad Asif
  • 11.
    • The process by which mitochondria break down glucose to make ATP
    • In order for our bodies to use the energy, the food must be broken down into a usable form
      • What is the usable form of energy?
      • What type of process breaks down molecules?
    Muhammad Asif
  • 12.
    • I can summarize how glucose is broken down in glycolysis.
    • I can describe how ATP is made in cellular respiration.
    • I can identify the role of fermentation in cellular respiration.
    • I can evaluate the importance of oxygen in aerobic respiration.
    Muhammad Asif
  • 13.
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 -> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 38 ATP
    • Overall this is a three stage process
    • Glycolysis:
      • Occurs in the cytoplasm
      • Glucose is broken down
    • Krebs Cycle
      • Breaks down pyruvate into CO2
      • Occurs in mitochondrial matrix
    • E lectron T ransport C hain
      • ATP is synthesized
    Muhammad Asif
  • 14.
    • Glyco = glucose Lysis = break down
    • Occurs in the cytoplasm
    • This stage occurs in BOTH aerobic and anaerobic respiration
    • Glucose breaks down into 2 pyruvate (2 ATP are also made)
      • Glucose is a 6-carbon sugar
      • Pyruvate is a 3-carbon molecule (there are two of them)
      • See diagram on simple explanation handout
    Muhammad Asif
  • 15.
    • Reactants
    • 1 glucose
    • Enzymes are needed
    • 2 ATP are needed to start
    • Products
    • 2 Pyruvates (go to next step)
    • 4 ATP (2 are gained)
    • 2 NADH (go to ETC)
    Muhammad Asif
  • 16.
    • Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA
    • Occurs in the cytoplasm
    • See diagram on simple explanation handout
    Muhammad Asif
  • 17.
    • Reactants
    • 2 pyruvate (from glycolysis)
    • Products
    • 2 Acetyl CoA (go to next step)
    • 2 CO 2 (given off as waste)
    • 2 NADH (go to ETC)
    Muhammad Asif
  • 18.
    • Occurs in the matrix of mitochondria
    • A series of reactions occur (this is not just one step)
    • Main purpose is to generate electrons for use in ETC
    • 2 ATP is given off
    • See diagram on simple explanation handout
    Muhammad Asif
  • 19.
    • Reactants
    • 2 Acetyl CoA
    • Products
    • 2 ATP
    • 6 NADH (go to ETC)
    • 2 FADH 2 (go to ETC)
    • 4 CO 2 (given off as waste)
    Muhammad Asif
  • 20.
    • Occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria
    • Series (chain) of coupled redox reactions (electrons are transported through the chain)
    • Electrons carried to this step by NADH and FADH 2 (produced in previous steps)
    • Oxygen is used in this step
    • Water is given off
    Muhammad Asif
  • 21.
    • Reactants
    • 10 NADH
    • 2 FADH 2
    • Oxygen
    • Products
    • 34 ATP
    • H 2 O
    Muhammad Asif
  • 22.
    • 2 ATP made in glycolysis
    • 2 ATP made in Krebs Cycle
    • 34 ATP made in ETC
      • 1 NADH = 3 ATP
        • 10 X 3 = 30
      • 1 FADH 2 = 2 ATP
        • 2 X 2 = 4
    Muhammad Asif
  • 23.
    • Glycolysis
    • Yields 2 pyruvate and 2 ATP
    • With no oxygen present, cellular respiration does not occur
    • ONLY 2 ATP ARE PRODUCED (compare to aerobic respiration)
    Muhammad Asif
  • 24.
    • Alcoholic Fermentation
    • Pyruvate converted to ethyl alcohol and CO 2
    • Carried out by yeast and some bacteria
    • Used in producing alcohol (both consumable and for ethanol), and for baking
    • Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • Pyruvate converted to lactic acid
    • Carried out by muscles when working hard (muscles need ATP but can’t get O 2 )
    • Causes muscle soreness and cramps
    Muhammad Asif
  • 25.
    • Carried out by most (not all) autotrophs
    • 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light energy-> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
    • Basically this reaction is the OPPOSITE of cellular respiration
    • See simple explanation handout and text
    Muhammad Asif
  • 26.
    • Light reaction (depends on light)
      • Traps sunlight
      • Produces electrons and ATP required to power the dark reaction
      • Oxygen given off here
    • Dark reaction, aka Calvin Cycle (does not directly depend on light)
      • Uses ATP and electrons from light reaction and CO2 to make glucose
      • See diagram on simple explanation handout
    Muhammad Asif