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Linguistics

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  • 1. Anthropology Experience by Muhammad Asif UOL Pakistan Linguistics Muhammad Asif
  • 2. Design Features All Systems Share Muhammad Asif Mode of Communication Pragmatic Function Semanticity
  • 3. Design Features Some Systems Share Muhammad Asif Cultural Transmission Discreteness Arbitrariness Interchangeability
  • 4. Design Features Unique To Human Speech Muhammad Asif Displacement Stimulus Freedom Productivity
  • 5. Linguistic Competencies Muhammad Asif Phonetics Morphology Phonology Syntax
  • 6. Phonetics
    • Phones : Mouth sounds
    • Phonemes : Phones in a language
    • Acoustic Phonetics : Study of phonemes as soundwaves
    • Auditory Phonetics : Study of phoneme perception
    • Articulatory Phonetics : Study of the physical production of phonemes.
    Muhammad Asif
  • 7. Phonology Muhammad Asif Rules of Phoneme Combination Limits possible phoneme combinations
  • 8. Morphology
    • Bound Morphemes
      • Only have meaning in context
      • /s/
      • /z/
    • Free Morphemes
      • Have meaning out of context
      • Words
      • /bus/
    Muhammad Asif Assigning meaning to phonemes and phoneme combinations
  • 9. Syntax
    • The woman hit the man with the lamp
      • Did she hit with a lamp?
      • Was the man holding the lamp?
    Muhammad Asif The meaningful arrangement of morphemes and morpheme classes
  • 10. Language and the Brain
    • Wernicke’s Area
      • Manages morphemes, their phonemes, and their meanings
    • Broca’s Area
      • Applies syntax and sends information to the motor cortex.
    Muhammad Asif
  • 11. Language Acquisition
    • First Stage (Neonate – 6 mos.)
      • Involuntary, uncreative performance
      • Phonetic competency present
    • Babbling Stage (6 mos. – 1yr.)
      • Phoneme production
      • Focus on surrounding phonemes
    Muhammad Asif
  • 12. Language Acquisition
    • Holophrastic Stage (1yr. –2yrs.)
      • Morphemes produced
      • Generalized utterances
    • Two Word Stage (by 2 yrs.)
      • Two word sentences
      • Less generalization of morphemes
    Muhammad Asif
  • 13. Language Acquisition
    • Telegraphic Speech and Beyond
      • Utterances become longer but may lack function words (‘telegraphic speech’)
        • “ ball roll down hill”
      • Generalization continues to decrease
      • By 3 ½ years or so, child is more or less a fluent speaker
    Muhammad Asif
  • 14. Dialects
    • What varies?
      • Phonemes
      • Morphemes
      • Syntax
    • What determines dialect?
      • Geography
      • Subculture
      • Age
      • Class
      • Gender
    Muhammad Asif Mutually intelligible variations of the same language