Bacterial galls: In some cases, toxic materials are produced that cause plant tissues of roots, stems or leaves to grow abnormally as in crown gall.
Bacterial leaf spot disease: The bacteria usually enter through leaf stomata. Symptoms include water-soaking, slimy texture, fishy or rotten odor, confined initially between leaf veins resulting in discrete spots that have straight sides and appear angular .
Evolution of the plant–bacterial pathogen interaction. (a) Plants have evolved receptors that could recognize PAMPs and triggers basal defence. (b) Bacterium injects effector protein through type III secretion system (T3SS) to interfere with defence signalling or response. (c) Plant responds to infection by generation of immune receptors encoding for nucleotide-binding (NB), MAP kinase, leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) R-proteins that recognizes effector protein and triggers an acute defence response usually involving hypersensitive response (HR) and programmed cell death