Error analysis, a branch of “applied linguistic”
Pit Corder is the father of Error Analysis
Error Analysis emerged in the 1960s by S.Pit Corder
Corder (1967) noted: “a learner’s errors are
significant in that they provide to the researcher
evidence of how language is learned or acquired,
what strategies or procedures the learner is
employing in the discovery of the language.”
Crystal (2003) defines EA as a “technique for
identifying, classifying and systematically
interpreting the unacceptable forms produced by
someone learning a foreign language ,using any of
the principles and procedures provided by
An error is a learner language form that deviates
from, or violates, a target language rule.
Error analysis is a type of linguistic analysis that focus on
the errors make learners.
Ea was emerged in the answer of contrastive analysis
which aim to find the learners error due to native
It consists of a comparison between the errors made in
the target language and second language
It is a technique to explain the learners language error.
Error analysis is the examination of those errors
committed by the students in both the spoken and
Ea defines the reinforcement areas of learners.
According to linguist Corder,the following are
the steps in any typical EA research:
collecting samples of learner language
identifying the errors
describing the errors
explaining the errors
evaluating/correcting the errors
CA is a technique used to define the learners
errors that are occurred in his L2 due to the
transfer of L1.
Transfer can be of two types
1. Negative; when structure of two languages
is different and learner consider them as
2. Positive; when structure of two languages
is same and learner consider them as same.
The distinction between learner’s errors and
mistakes has always been problematic for both
teachers and researchers
Errors are systematic and that can not be
corrected by the learners.
Mistakes are occurred due to the lake of
competence in the learners language.
Same spelling. Different pronunciation
Similar pronunciation. Different spelling
Ignorance of spelling rules
Lack of certain L2 phonemes in the learner’s L1
Differences in syllable structures in L1 and L2
Spelling pronunciation of words
The problem of silnt letters
(related to the semantic properties of lexical items)
* I am working 24 o’clock each week.
* English is alive language by which everyone can
convey his ideas.
Wrong use of plural morpheme
Wrong use of tenses
Wrong word order
Wrong use of prepositions
Errors in the use of articles
interlingual errors vs. intralingual errors
errors vs. mistakes
semantic vs. syntactic vs. semantic
Omission; leaving out some required linguistic
* My father is doctor.
Additions; redundant use of certain elements in a
* Please answer to my letter soon.
Substitutions; replacement of incorrect
elements for correct ones
*I am not afraid from dogs.
The idea made the researchers of applied
linguistics devote their studies largely to the
comparison of the native and the target
language in order to make predictions and
explanations about errors.
It is done to evaluate the learners error in
their second language.
It checks for the voilation of rules
Tell the current status of the learning of the
learner to both learner and teacher
Errors are ‘systematic”
Like; its occur repeatedly and not recognized
by the learner.
Errors are of different types
Errors cannot be self corrected by learners
Collection of error
Identification of error
Classification of error types
Statement of relative frequency of error
Identification of the areas of difficulty in the
Determination of the source of error
Determination of the seriousness of the error
Remedy by the teacher in the classroom
Error analysis helps to understand the
process of SLA (second language acquisition)
Error analysis shows the troublesome
linguistic areas or errors that L2 learners
encounter in learning
It showed that Contrastive Analysis was unable to
predict a great majority of errors.
The errors give valuable feedback to both
teachers and learners regarding strategies
The error also provides research with insights
into the nature of SLA process
Error analysis is useful in second language
learning because it reveals to us.
Textbook writers of what the problems areas
Error anaalysis is a useful technique to define the
learners errors of second language.
It is beneficial to the learner and the teacher both
It is compulsory to evaluate the current status of
It also indicate the problem areas and the solutions
It explores the reinforcement areas of the learners
It helps to acquire linguistic rules of second