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Introduction to error analysis

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  • 1. To ; Ma’am Mahwish
  • 2. Faiqa (group Leader) Slide #20-31 Naveed akhtar Slide #1-9 Aqsa habib Slide # 10-14 Adeena anwar Sliide # 15- 19
  • 3.  Error analysis, a branch of “applied linguistic”  Pit Corder is the father of Error Analysis  Error Analysis emerged in the 1960s by S.Pit Corder  Corder (1967) noted: “a learner’s errors are significant in that they provide to the researcher evidence of how language is learned or acquired, what strategies or procedures the learner is employing in the discovery of the language.”
  • 4.  Crystal (2003) defines EA as a “technique for identifying, classifying and systematically interpreting the unacceptable forms produced by someone learning a foreign language ,using any of the principles and procedures provided by linguistics”.
  • 5.  An error is a learner language form that deviates from, or violates, a target language rule.
  • 6.  Error analysis is a type of linguistic analysis that focus on the errors make learners.  Ea was emerged in the answer of contrastive analysis which aim to find the learners error due to native language.  It consists of a comparison between the errors made in the target language and second language  It is a technique to explain the learners language error.
  • 7.  Error analysis is the examination of those errors committed by the students in both the spoken and written medium.  Ea defines the reinforcement areas of learners.
  • 8.  According to linguist Corder,the following are the steps in any typical EA research:  collecting samples of learner language  identifying the errors  describing the errors  explaining the errors  evaluating/correcting the errors
  • 9.  CA is a technique used to define the learners errors that are occurred in his L2 due to the transfer of L1.  Transfer can be of two types 1. Negative; when structure of two languages is different and learner consider them as same. 2. Positive; when structure of two languages is same and learner consider them as same.
  • 10.  The distinction between learner’s errors and mistakes has always been problematic for both teachers and researchers
  • 11.  Errors are systematic and that can not be corrected by the learners.  Mistakes are occurred due to the lake of competence in the learners language.
  • 12.  Orthographic Errors  Sound/letter mismatch  Same spelling. Different pronunciation  Similar pronunciation. Different spelling  Ignorance of spelling rules  Phonological Errors  Lack of certain L2 phonemes in the learner’s L1  Differences in syllable structures in L1 and L2  Spelling pronunciation of words  The problem of silnt letters
  • 13.  Lexico-semantic Errors  (related to the semantic properties of lexical items)  * I am working 24 o’clock each week.  * English is alive language by which everyone can convey his ideas.  Morphological-syntactic Errors  Wrong use of plural morpheme  Wrong use of tenses  Wrong word order  Wrong use of prepositions  Errors in the use of articles
  • 14. interlingual errors vs. intralingual errors errors vs. mistakes semantic vs. syntactic vs. semantic
  • 15.  Omission; leaving out some required linguistic elements * My father is doctor.  Additions; redundant use of certain elements in a sentences * Please answer to my letter soon.  Substitutions; replacement of incorrect elements for correct ones *I am not afraid from dogs.
  • 16.  The idea made the researchers of applied linguistics devote their studies largely to the comparison of the native and the target language in order to make predictions and explanations about errors.  It is done to evaluate the learners error in their second language.
  • 17.  It checks for the voilation of rules  Tell the current status of the learning of the learner to both learner and teacher
  • 18.  Errors are ‘systematic”  Like; its occur repeatedly and not recognized by the learner.  Errors are of different types  Errors cannot be self corrected by learners
  • 19.  Collection of error  Identification of error  Classification of error types  Statement of relative frequency of error types  Identification of the areas of difficulty in the L2  Determination of the source of error  Determination of the seriousness of the error  Remedy by the teacher in the classroom
  • 20.  Error analysis helps to understand the process of SLA (second language acquisition)  Error analysis shows the troublesome linguistic areas or errors that L2 learners encounter in learning  It showed that Contrastive Analysis was unable to predict a great majority of errors.
  • 21.  The errors give valuable feedback to both teachers and learners regarding strategies and progress.  The error also provides research with insights into the nature of SLA process
  • 22.  Error analysis is useful in second language learning because it reveals to us.  Teaching strategies  Syllabus designing  Textbook writers of what the problems areas are.
  • 23. Error anaalysis is a useful technique to define the learners errors of second language. It is beneficial to the learner and the teacher both It is compulsory to evaluate the current status of the learner It also indicate the problem areas and the solutions of them It explores the reinforcement areas of the learners It helps to acquire linguistic rules of second language