Integrated Pest Management in Watermelon <ul><li>Presented by: </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad Asif </li></ul><ul><li>Pu. Pak <...
Integrated Pest Management in Watermelon Muhammad Asif Pakistan
Watermelon Pests <ul><li>Insects & Mites </li></ul><ul><li>Weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Nematodes </...
Common Insect  Pests Cutworms Aphids Rindworms Sweetpotato  whitefly Muhammad Asif Pakistan
Aphids & Whiteflies <ul><li>Downward curling & crumpling of leaves (aphids) </li></ul><ul><li>Honeydew excreted by both in...
Cutworms & Rindworms <ul><li>Cutworms: reduce young watermelon stands </li></ul><ul><li>May feed on leaves of young seedli...
Occasional Insect Pests <ul><li>Cucumber beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Mites </li></ul><ul><li>Mole crickets </li></ul><ul><li>...
Occasional Insect Pests <ul><li>Root maggots </li></ul><ul><li>Flea beetles & fleahoppers </li></ul><ul><li>Leafhoppers </...
Insect Damage <ul><li>Foliar damage (holes) </li></ul><ul><li>Stem damage </li></ul><ul><li>Root damage (wilting, stunting...
Insect & Mite Management <ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Establish ETL </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize & identify beneficia...
Aphid Control <ul><li>Biocontrol   </li></ul><ul><li>lady beetles, syphrid fly  </li></ul><ul><li>larvae,lacewings & tiny ...
Sweetpotato Whitefly Control <ul><li>Monitoring  use of traps </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural control   </li></ul><ul><li>plant...
Cutworm & Rindworm Control <ul><li>Mechanical control  (cutworm): thorough soil prep </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical control (c...
Control of Other Insect Pests <ul><li>Chemical control </li></ul><ul><li>insecticide sprays for flea </li></ul><ul><li>bee...
Control of Other Insect Pests <ul><li>Cultural control   </li></ul><ul><li>avoidance (white-fringed  </li></ul><ul><li>bee...
Insect & Mite Management <ul><li>Reflective mulch </li></ul><ul><li>Planting location/timing </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation ...
Diseases <ul><li>Reduce crop yield & quality </li></ul><ul><li>Poor disease control due to delayed accurate diagnosis & de...
Root & Stem  Diseases <ul><li>Anthracnose </li></ul><ul><li>Damping-off </li></ul><ul><li>Fusarium wilt </li></ul><ul><li>...
Root & Stem  Disease Management <ul><li>Gummy stem blight   postharvest plow-down of debris, crop rotation, fungicidal spr...
Foliar Diseases Anthracnose Downy mildew Cercospora  leaf spot Muhammad Asif Pakistan
Other Foliar Diseases <ul><li>Alternaria leaf spot </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial leaf spot </li></ul><ul><li>Watermelon mosa...
Foliar Disease Management <ul><li>Cercospora leaf spot  sanitation (removal of crop debris, diseased vines & weed hosts), ...
Foliar Disease Management <ul><li>Alternaria leaf spot   </li></ul><ul><li>protectant fungicides  </li></ul><ul><li>Bacter...
Foliar Disease Management <ul><li>Watermelon mosaic   </li></ul><ul><li>stylet oil application to  </li></ul><ul><li>inter...
Fruit Diseases Bacterial fruit blotch Anthracnose Bacterial rind  necrosis Muhammad Asif Pakistan
Other Fruit Diseases <ul><li>Bacterial leaf spot </li></ul><ul><li>Blossom-end rot </li></ul><ul><li>Speckle </li></ul><ul...
Fruit Disease Management <ul><li>Bacterial fruit blotch   </li></ul><ul><li>plowing infested soil,  </li></ul><ul><li>elim...
Fruit Disease Management <ul><li>Anthracnose   </li></ul><ul><li>resistant varieties,  </li></ul><ul><li>fungicides, use c...
Fruit Disease Management <ul><li>Blossom end-rot </li></ul><ul><li>soil testing & liming, </li></ul><ul><li>irrigation dur...
Disease Management <ul><li>Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy transplants </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant varieties </li></u...
Disease Management <ul><li>Fungicide sprays </li></ul><ul><li>Soil fumigation </li></ul><ul><li>Fungicide seed treatment <...
Weeds <ul><li>Compete with the crop for nutrients, sunlight, water and space </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as alternate hosts of...
Weed Management <ul><li>Polyethylene mulch </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Soil fumigant </li></ul><ul><li...
Economically Important Nematodes <ul><li>Root-knot nematodes  ( Meloidogyne  spp.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sting nematode  ( Bel...
Nematode Damage <ul><li>Root galls interfere with normal water & nutrient uptake </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced size of root sy...
Nematode Management <ul><li>Planting location </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Crop rotation </li><...
Nematode Management <ul><li>Fumigants </li></ul><ul><li>Non-fumigants </li></ul><ul><li>Chemigation </li></ul>Chemical Con...
A Grower’s Pest Management Tactics: <ul><li>Insect control : chemical insecticides </li></ul><ul><li>Weed control : mechan...
What Growers Do in the Field… <ul><li>Scout for presence of insects and diseases (major pest problem) </li></ul><ul><li>Wa...
What Growers Do in the Field.. <ul><li>May spray 1 or 2x a season for aphid control, some never spray because insect probl...
What Growers do in the Field <ul><li>Fusarium Wilt control : crop rotation, use of resistant varieties, scouting for disea...
References <ul><li>Zitter, A.T., D.L. Hopkins, and C.E. Thomas (eds.). 1996.  Compendium of Cucurbits Diseases. APS Press....
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Integrated pest management in watermelon

  1. 1. Integrated Pest Management in Watermelon <ul><li>Presented by: </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad Asif </li></ul><ul><li>Pu. Pak </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  2. 2. Integrated Pest Management in Watermelon Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  3. 3. Watermelon Pests <ul><li>Insects & Mites </li></ul><ul><li>Weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Nematodes </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  4. 4. Common Insect Pests Cutworms Aphids Rindworms Sweetpotato whitefly Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  5. 5. Aphids & Whiteflies <ul><li>Downward curling & crumpling of leaves (aphids) </li></ul><ul><li>Honeydew excreted by both insects attracts sooty molds </li></ul><ul><li>Both are efficient vectors of plant viruses </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  6. 6. Cutworms & Rindworms <ul><li>Cutworms: reduce young watermelon stands </li></ul><ul><li>May feed on leaves of young seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>Rindworms: general term for worms that feed on rind (fall armyworms, corn earworm, cutwroms and loopers </li></ul><ul><li>Foliage & stem damage </li></ul><ul><li>Eat away irregular patterns of the rind </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  7. 7. Occasional Insect Pests <ul><li>Cucumber beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Mites </li></ul><ul><li>Mole crickets </li></ul><ul><li>Wireworms </li></ul><ul><li>White-fringed beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Leafminers </li></ul><ul><li>Thrips </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  8. 8. Occasional Insect Pests <ul><li>Root maggots </li></ul><ul><li>Flea beetles & fleahoppers </li></ul><ul><li>Leafhoppers </li></ul><ul><li>Plant bugs </li></ul><ul><li>Grasshoppers </li></ul><ul><li>Melonworms & pickleworms </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  9. 9. Insect Damage <ul><li>Foliar damage (holes) </li></ul><ul><li>Stem damage </li></ul><ul><li>Root damage (wilting, stunting & death of plant) </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit damage </li></ul><ul><li>Drying up of leaves (sucking insects) </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf spots, mottling or discoloration </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  10. 10. Insect & Mite Management <ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Establish ETL </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize & identify beneficials </li></ul>Important Practices: Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  11. 11. Aphid Control <ul><li>Biocontrol </li></ul><ul><li>lady beetles, syphrid fly </li></ul><ul><li>larvae,lacewings & tiny wasps </li></ul><ul><li>cultural control </li></ul><ul><li>reflective plastic mulch </li></ul><ul><li>Stylet oil sprays (interferes </li></ul><ul><li>with virus transmission) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  12. 12. Sweetpotato Whitefly Control <ul><li>Monitoring use of traps </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural control </li></ul><ul><li>planting location & sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Weed control </li></ul><ul><li>control alternate hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical control </li></ul><ul><li>alternate different classes of </li></ul><ul><li>insecticides </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  13. 13. Cutworm & Rindworm Control <ul><li>Mechanical control (cutworm): thorough soil prep </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical control (cutworm): broadcast application of approved insecticides before planting </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical control (rindworm): spray before worms > 1/2 in length, spray all of exposed fruit </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  14. 14. Control of Other Insect Pests <ul><li>Chemical control </li></ul><ul><li>insecticide sprays for flea </li></ul><ul><li>beetles, leafminers, mites, </li></ul><ul><li>mole crickets,wireworms, </li></ul><ul><li>fleahoppers,leafhoppers, </li></ul><ul><li>plant bugs,grasshoppers, melon </li></ul><ul><li>worms and pickleworms </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  15. 15. Control of Other Insect Pests <ul><li>Cultural control </li></ul><ul><li>avoidance (white-fringed </li></ul><ul><li>beetles), plowing & deep </li></ul><ul><li>turning of crop litter before </li></ul><ul><li>planting (root maggots), </li></ul><ul><li>overhead irrigation (mites) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  16. 16. Insect & Mite Management <ul><li>Reflective mulch </li></ul><ul><li>Planting location/timing </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Weed control </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Plowing & turning in crop debris </li></ul>Cultural Practices Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  17. 17. Diseases <ul><li>Reduce crop yield & quality </li></ul><ul><li>Poor disease control due to delayed accurate diagnosis & delayed implementation of control measures </li></ul><ul><li>Disease control consists of a sequence of properly timed control measures (cultural, mechanical & chemical) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  18. 18. Root & Stem Diseases <ul><li>Anthracnose </li></ul><ul><li>Damping-off </li></ul><ul><li>Fusarium wilt </li></ul><ul><li>Gummy stem blight </li></ul><ul><li>Fusarium rot </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  19. 19. Root & Stem Disease Management <ul><li>Gummy stem blight postharvest plow-down of debris, crop rotation, fungicidal sprays, use fungicide treated seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Anthracnose resistant varieties, fungicidal sprays, clean seeds,sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Fusarium wilt resistant var.,healthy transplants,crop rotation, soil fumigation, delayed thinning </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  20. 20. Foliar Diseases Anthracnose Downy mildew Cercospora leaf spot Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  21. 21. Other Foliar Diseases <ul><li>Alternaria leaf spot </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial leaf spot </li></ul><ul><li>Watermelon mosaic </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  22. 22. Foliar Disease Management <ul><li>Cercospora leaf spot sanitation (removal of crop debris, diseased vines & weed hosts), crop rotation, fungicide sprays </li></ul><ul><li>Downy mildew fungicide application, resistant var., avoid irrigation, reduce canopy density </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  23. 23. Foliar Disease Management <ul><li>Alternaria leaf spot </li></ul><ul><li>protectant fungicides </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial leaf spot </li></ul><ul><li>avoid overhead irrigation, </li></ul><ul><li>sanitation, protective sprays </li></ul><ul><li>(copper sprays) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  24. 24. Foliar Disease Management <ul><li>Watermelon mosaic </li></ul><ul><li>stylet oil application to </li></ul><ul><li>interfere with virus </li></ul><ul><li>transmission & insecticides to </li></ul><ul><li>control aphid (vector)population </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  25. 25. Fruit Diseases Bacterial fruit blotch Anthracnose Bacterial rind necrosis Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  26. 26. Other Fruit Diseases <ul><li>Bacterial leaf spot </li></ul><ul><li>Blossom-end rot </li></ul><ul><li>Speckle </li></ul><ul><li>Watermelon mosaic </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  27. 27. Fruit Disease Management <ul><li>Bacterial fruit blotch </li></ul><ul><li>plowing infested soil, </li></ul><ul><li>elimination of inoculum </li></ul><ul><li>sources, field rotated out for </li></ul><ul><li>3 years or more, copper </li></ul><ul><li>sprays (Kocide DF Kocide 2000), </li></ul><ul><li>use of high quality transplants </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  28. 28. Fruit Disease Management <ul><li>Anthracnose </li></ul><ul><li>resistant varieties, </li></ul><ul><li>fungicides, use clean seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial rind necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>use less susceptible cultivars </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  29. 29. Fruit Disease Management <ul><li>Blossom end-rot </li></ul><ul><li>soil testing & liming, </li></ul><ul><li>irrigation during fruit </li></ul><ul><li>development (preventive), </li></ul><ul><li>foliar Calcium application </li></ul><ul><li>(curative) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  30. 30. Disease Management <ul><li>Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy transplants </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Crop rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Weed/Insect vector control </li></ul><ul><li>Liming & irrigation </li></ul>Cultural Practices Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  31. 31. Disease Management <ul><li>Fungicide sprays </li></ul><ul><li>Soil fumigation </li></ul><ul><li>Fungicide seed treatment </li></ul>Chemical Control Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  32. 32. Weeds <ul><li>Compete with the crop for nutrients, sunlight, water and space </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as alternate hosts of nematodes, viruses and insect pests </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  33. 33. Weed Management <ul><li>Polyethylene mulch </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Soil fumigant </li></ul><ul><li>Hoeing & disking </li></ul><ul><li>Herbicides </li></ul>Cultural, Mechanical & Chemical Control Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  34. 34. Economically Important Nematodes <ul><li>Root-knot nematodes ( Meloidogyne spp.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sting nematode ( Belonolaimus longicaudatus ) </li></ul><ul><li>Reniform nematode ( Rotylenchus sp.) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  35. 35. Nematode Damage <ul><li>Root galls interfere with normal water & nutrient uptake </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced size of root system limits availability of water & nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Aboveground damage: stunting, wilting & chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Roots attacked by nematodes are predisposed to secondary invasion by root rotting plant pathogens </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  36. 36. Nematode Management <ul><li>Planting location </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Crop rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Land preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Use of clean & healthy transplants </li></ul>Cultural Practices Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  37. 37. Nematode Management <ul><li>Fumigants </li></ul><ul><li>Non-fumigants </li></ul><ul><li>Chemigation </li></ul>Chemical Control Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  38. 38. A Grower’s Pest Management Tactics: <ul><li>Insect control : chemical insecticides </li></ul><ul><li>Weed control : mechanical control (cultivation) </li></ul><ul><li>Disease control : resistant varieties & chemical fungicides, removal & destruction of diseased seedlings </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  39. 39. What Growers Do in the Field… <ul><li>Scout for presence of insects and diseases (major pest problem) </li></ul><ul><li>Watch the weather and spray accordingly (follow recommendations) </li></ul><ul><li>Some spray protective fungicides even when weather is dry (for insurance) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  40. 40. What Growers Do in the Field.. <ul><li>May spray 1 or 2x a season for aphid control, some never spray because insect problem is minor </li></ul><ul><li>Follow recommendations for tillage & crop rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Plant in soils without RKN problems </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  41. 41. What Growers do in the Field <ul><li>Fusarium Wilt control : crop rotation, use of resistant varieties, scouting for diseased transplants and removal of infected transplants </li></ul><ul><li>Gummy stem blight & Downy mildew control : fungicide sprays based on weather(likelihood of disease occurrence) or presence of spots </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  42. 42. References <ul><li>Zitter, A.T., D.L. Hopkins, and C.E. Thomas (eds.). 1996. Compendium of Cucurbits Diseases. APS Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Maynard, D. N. (ed.). 1992. Watermelon Production Guide for Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service & IFAS </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Melvin Poole (Gainesville watermelon grower) </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Gerry Brinen (County Extension Office) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
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