Integrated pest management in watermelon

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  • 1. Integrated Pest Management in Watermelon
    • Presented by:
    • Muhammad Asif
    • Pu. Pak
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 2. Integrated Pest Management in Watermelon Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 3. Watermelon Pests
    • Insects & Mites
    • Weeds
    • Diseases
    • Nematodes
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 4. Common Insect Pests Cutworms Aphids Rindworms Sweetpotato whitefly Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 5. Aphids & Whiteflies
    • Downward curling & crumpling of leaves (aphids)
    • Honeydew excreted by both insects attracts sooty molds
    • Both are efficient vectors of plant viruses
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 6. Cutworms & Rindworms
    • Cutworms: reduce young watermelon stands
    • May feed on leaves of young seedlings
    • Rindworms: general term for worms that feed on rind (fall armyworms, corn earworm, cutwroms and loopers
    • Foliage & stem damage
    • Eat away irregular patterns of the rind
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 7. Occasional Insect Pests
    • Cucumber beetle
    • Mites
    • Mole crickets
    • Wireworms
    • White-fringed beetle
    • Leafminers
    • Thrips
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 8. Occasional Insect Pests
    • Root maggots
    • Flea beetles & fleahoppers
    • Leafhoppers
    • Plant bugs
    • Grasshoppers
    • Melonworms & pickleworms
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 9. Insect Damage
    • Foliar damage (holes)
    • Stem damage
    • Root damage (wilting, stunting & death of plant)
    • Fruit damage
    • Drying up of leaves (sucking insects)
    • Leaf spots, mottling or discoloration
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 10. Insect & Mite Management
    • Sampling
    • Establish ETL
    • Recognize & identify beneficials
    Important Practices: Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 11. Aphid Control
    • Biocontrol
    • lady beetles, syphrid fly
    • larvae,lacewings & tiny wasps
    • cultural control
    • reflective plastic mulch
    • Stylet oil sprays (interferes
    • with virus transmission)
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 12. Sweetpotato Whitefly Control
    • Monitoring use of traps
    • Cultural control
    • planting location & sanitation
    • Weed control
    • control alternate hosts
    • Chemical control
    • alternate different classes of
    • insecticides
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 13. Cutworm & Rindworm Control
    • Mechanical control (cutworm): thorough soil prep
    • Chemical control (cutworm): broadcast application of approved insecticides before planting
    • Chemical control (rindworm): spray before worms > 1/2 in length, spray all of exposed fruit
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 14. Control of Other Insect Pests
    • Chemical control
    • insecticide sprays for flea
    • beetles, leafminers, mites,
    • mole crickets,wireworms,
    • fleahoppers,leafhoppers,
    • plant bugs,grasshoppers, melon
    • worms and pickleworms
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 15. Control of Other Insect Pests
    • Cultural control
    • avoidance (white-fringed
    • beetles), plowing & deep
    • turning of crop litter before
    • planting (root maggots),
    • overhead irrigation (mites)
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 16. Insect & Mite Management
    • Reflective mulch
    • Planting location/timing
    • Sanitation
    • Weed control
    • Overhead irrigation
    • Plowing & turning in crop debris
    Cultural Practices Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 17. Diseases
    • Reduce crop yield & quality
    • Poor disease control due to delayed accurate diagnosis & delayed implementation of control measures
    • Disease control consists of a sequence of properly timed control measures (cultural, mechanical & chemical)
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 18. Root & Stem Diseases
    • Anthracnose
    • Damping-off
    • Fusarium wilt
    • Gummy stem blight
    • Fusarium rot
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 19. Root & Stem Disease Management
    • Gummy stem blight postharvest plow-down of debris, crop rotation, fungicidal sprays, use fungicide treated seeds
    • Anthracnose resistant varieties, fungicidal sprays, clean seeds,sanitation
    • Fusarium wilt resistant var.,healthy transplants,crop rotation, soil fumigation, delayed thinning
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 20. Foliar Diseases Anthracnose Downy mildew Cercospora leaf spot Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 21. Other Foliar Diseases
    • Alternaria leaf spot
    • Bacterial leaf spot
    • Watermelon mosaic
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 22. Foliar Disease Management
    • Cercospora leaf spot sanitation (removal of crop debris, diseased vines & weed hosts), crop rotation, fungicide sprays
    • Downy mildew fungicide application, resistant var., avoid irrigation, reduce canopy density
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 23. Foliar Disease Management
    • Alternaria leaf spot
    • protectant fungicides
    • Bacterial leaf spot
    • avoid overhead irrigation,
    • sanitation, protective sprays
    • (copper sprays)
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 24. Foliar Disease Management
    • Watermelon mosaic
    • stylet oil application to
    • interfere with virus
    • transmission & insecticides to
    • control aphid (vector)population
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 25. Fruit Diseases Bacterial fruit blotch Anthracnose Bacterial rind necrosis Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 26. Other Fruit Diseases
    • Bacterial leaf spot
    • Blossom-end rot
    • Speckle
    • Watermelon mosaic
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 27. Fruit Disease Management
    • Bacterial fruit blotch
    • plowing infested soil,
    • elimination of inoculum
    • sources, field rotated out for
    • 3 years or more, copper
    • sprays (Kocide DF Kocide 2000),
    • use of high quality transplants
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 28. Fruit Disease Management
    • Anthracnose
    • resistant varieties,
    • fungicides, use clean seeds
    • Bacterial rind necrosis
    • use less susceptible cultivars
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 29. Fruit Disease Management
    • Blossom end-rot
    • soil testing & liming,
    • irrigation during fruit
    • development (preventive),
    • foliar Calcium application
    • (curative)
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 30. Disease Management
    • Sanitation
    • Healthy transplants
    • Resistant varieties
    • Crop rotation
    • Weed/Insect vector control
    • Liming & irrigation
    Cultural Practices Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 31. Disease Management
    • Fungicide sprays
    • Soil fumigation
    • Fungicide seed treatment
    Chemical Control Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 32. Weeds
    • Compete with the crop for nutrients, sunlight, water and space
    • Serve as alternate hosts of nematodes, viruses and insect pests
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 33. Weed Management
    • Polyethylene mulch
    • Cultivation
    • Soil fumigant
    • Hoeing & disking
    • Herbicides
    Cultural, Mechanical & Chemical Control Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 34. Economically Important Nematodes
    • Root-knot nematodes ( Meloidogyne spp.)
    • Sting nematode ( Belonolaimus longicaudatus )
    • Reniform nematode ( Rotylenchus sp.)
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 35. Nematode Damage
    • Root galls interfere with normal water & nutrient uptake
    • Reduced size of root system limits availability of water & nutrients
    • Aboveground damage: stunting, wilting & chlorosis
    • Roots attacked by nematodes are predisposed to secondary invasion by root rotting plant pathogens
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 36. Nematode Management
    • Planting location
    • Resistant varieties
    • Crop rotation
    • Land preparation
    • Use of clean & healthy transplants
    Cultural Practices Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 37. Nematode Management
    • Fumigants
    • Non-fumigants
    • Chemigation
    Chemical Control Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 38. A Grower’s Pest Management Tactics:
    • Insect control : chemical insecticides
    • Weed control : mechanical control (cultivation)
    • Disease control : resistant varieties & chemical fungicides, removal & destruction of diseased seedlings
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 39. What Growers Do in the Field…
    • Scout for presence of insects and diseases (major pest problem)
    • Watch the weather and spray accordingly (follow recommendations)
    • Some spray protective fungicides even when weather is dry (for insurance)
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 40. What Growers Do in the Field..
    • May spray 1 or 2x a season for aphid control, some never spray because insect problem is minor
    • Follow recommendations for tillage & crop rotation
    • Plant in soils without RKN problems
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 41. What Growers do in the Field
    • Fusarium Wilt control : crop rotation, use of resistant varieties, scouting for diseased transplants and removal of infected transplants
    • Gummy stem blight & Downy mildew control : fungicide sprays based on weather(likelihood of disease occurrence) or presence of spots
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 42. References
    • Zitter, A.T., D.L. Hopkins, and C.E. Thomas (eds.). 1996. Compendium of Cucurbits Diseases. APS Press.
    • Maynard, D. N. (ed.). 1992. Watermelon Production Guide for Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service & IFAS
    • Mr. Melvin Poole (Gainesville watermelon grower)
    • Mr. Gerry Brinen (County Extension Office)
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan