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Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
Genatic engeneering
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Genatic engeneering

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  • 1. Genetics and Genetic Engineering By: Muhammad Asif Pu pak Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 2. terms <ul><li>agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 3. centrifuge <ul><li>device for separating substances on the basis of density </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 4. clones <ul><li>organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 5. complementary <ul><li>containing structures that match or bond with related structures </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 6. electrophoresis <ul><li>technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 7. Excise <ul><li>to remove a part by a process similar to cutting </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 8. Expression <ul><li>the appearance of a trait directed by a gene </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 9. Genetic code <ul><li>a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 10. Genetic Engineering <ul><li>technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 11. Genetics <ul><li>science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 12. Host <ul><li>a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 13. Hybrid <ul><li>offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 14. Ligase <ul><li>enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 15. Molecular weight <ul><li>sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 16. Mutation <ul><li>a heritable change in genetic makeup </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 17. Nucleotides <ul><li>building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 18. Plasmid <ul><li>a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 19. Polymerase <ul><li>an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 20. Recombinant DNA <ul><li>DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 21. Restriction enzyme <ul><li>restriction endonuclease </li></ul><ul><li>enzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 22. sequence <ul><li>order of nucleotides or amino acids </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 23. template <ul><li>a pattern used for developing a complementary structure </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 24. trait <ul><li>a characteristic resulting from gene expression </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 25. transform <ul><li>to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 26. vector <ul><li>an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 27. Living material <ul><li>Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 28. Complex Organism <ul><li>higher organism </li></ul><ul><li>an organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Plants, animals, humans </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 29. Organ <ul><li>arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism </li></ul><ul><li>leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps. </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 30. Tissue <ul><li>arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 31. Cell <ul><li>smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 32. Basic Cell structures <ul><li>cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 33. cell membrane <ul><li>delicate structure that surrounds the cell </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 34. chloroplasts <ul><li>site of photosynthesis in plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>contain some DNA </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 35. Cytoplasm <ul><li>cell fluid containing all cell structures </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 36. Nucleus <ul><li>control center of a cell </li></ul><ul><li>contains most of the DNA </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 37. Chromosomes <ul><li>structures that are physical carriers of genes </li></ul><ul><li>made p of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>are located in cell nucleus </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 38. Mitochondria <ul><li>energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>contain some DNA </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 39. Plasmid <ul><li>extra chromosomal piece of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>located in the cell cytoplasm </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 40. Ribosome <ul><li>site where new proteins are produced </li></ul><ul><li>result of genetic expression </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 41. Cell reproduction <ul><li>mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cells </li></ul><ul><li>increases by simple division </li></ul><ul><li>chromosomes remain paired during cell division </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 42. meiosis <ul><li>occurs in reproductive cells (gametes) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 43. meiosis <ul><li>increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 44. meiosis <ul><li>one chromosome from each parent forms the new pair </li></ul><ul><li>each organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 45. Genetic engineering <ul><li>technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 46. Genetic engineering <ul><li>movement of a gene from one organism to another </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 47. Other names <ul><li>recombinant DNA technology </li></ul><ul><li>recombinant DNA science </li></ul><ul><li>gene transfer </li></ul><ul><li>gene splicing gene cloning </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 48. Naturally occurring <ul><li>alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 49. Naturally occurring <ul><li>some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 50. Naturally occurring <ul><li>natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 51. Scientific Gen eng. <ul><li>Scientists have developed the ability to transfer genetic material from one organism to another </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 52. Scientific Gen eng. <ul><li>Plasmids found in some organisms can be engineered to accept DNA from other sources </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 53. Scientific Gen eng. <ul><li>Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific sites </li></ul><ul><li>cut ends of plasmid rings can accept pieces of DNA from other organisms </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 54. Scientific Gen eng. <ul><li>The ability to cut and splice DNA segments is providing many opportunities for changing the function of organisms </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan

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