Genatic engeneering
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  • 1. Genetics and Genetic Engineering By: Muhammad Asif Pu pak Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 2. terms
    • agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 3. centrifuge
    • device for separating substances on the basis of density
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  • 4. clones
    • organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source
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  • 5. complementary
    • containing structures that match or bond with related structures
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  • 6. electrophoresis
    • technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field
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  • 7. Excise
    • to remove a part by a process similar to cutting
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  • 8. Expression
    • the appearance of a trait directed by a gene
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  • 9. Genetic code
    • a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction
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  • 10. Genetic Engineering
    • technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  • 11. Genetics
    • science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another
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  • 12. Host
    • a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source
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  • 13. Hybrid
    • offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup
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  • 14. Ligase
    • enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA
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  • 15. Molecular weight
    • sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule
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  • 16. Mutation
    • a heritable change in genetic makeup
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  • 17. Nucleotides
    • building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base
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  • 18. Plasmid
    • a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA
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  • 19. Polymerase
    • an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid
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  • 20. Recombinant DNA
    • DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering
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  • 21. Restriction enzyme
    • restriction endonuclease
    • enzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites
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  • 22. sequence
    • order of nucleotides or amino acids
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  • 23. template
    • a pattern used for developing a complementary structure
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  • 24. trait
    • a characteristic resulting from gene expression
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  • 25. transform
    • to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA
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  • 26. vector
    • an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell
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  • 27. Living material
    • Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction
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  • 28. Complex Organism
    • higher organism
    • an organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit
    • ex. Plants, animals, humans
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  • 29. Organ
    • arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism
    • leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps.
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  • 30. Tissue
    • arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ
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  • 31. Cell
    • smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes
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  • 32. Basic Cell structures
    • cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact
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  • 33. cell membrane
    • delicate structure that surrounds the cell
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  • 34. chloroplasts
    • site of photosynthesis in plant cells
    • contain some DNA
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  • 35. Cytoplasm
    • cell fluid containing all cell structures
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  • 36. Nucleus
    • control center of a cell
    • contains most of the DNA
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  • 37. Chromosomes
    • structures that are physical carriers of genes
    • made p of DNA
    • are located in cell nucleus
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  • 38. Mitochondria
    • energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasm
    • contain some DNA
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  • 39. Plasmid
    • extra chromosomal piece of DNA
    • located in the cell cytoplasm
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  • 40. Ribosome
    • site where new proteins are produced
    • result of genetic expression
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  • 41. Cell reproduction
    • mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cells
    • increases by simple division
    • chromosomes remain paired during cell division
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  • 42. meiosis
    • occurs in reproductive cells (gametes)
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  • 43. meiosis
    • increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual
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  • 44. meiosis
    • one chromosome from each parent forms the new pair
    • each organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes
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  • 45. Genetic engineering
    • technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule
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  • 46. Genetic engineering
    • movement of a gene from one organism to another
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  • 47. Other names
    • recombinant DNA technology
    • recombinant DNA science
    • gene transfer
    • gene splicing gene cloning
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  • 48. Naturally occurring
    • alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment
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  • 49. Naturally occurring
    • some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell
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  • 50. Naturally occurring
    • natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation
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  • 51. Scientific Gen eng.
    • Scientists have developed the ability to transfer genetic material from one organism to another
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  • 52. Scientific Gen eng.
    • Plasmids found in some organisms can be engineered to accept DNA from other sources
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  • 53. Scientific Gen eng.
    • Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific sites
    • cut ends of plasmid rings can accept pieces of DNA from other organisms
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  • 54. Scientific Gen eng.
    • The ability to cut and splice DNA segments is providing many opportunities for changing the function of organisms
    Muhammad Asif Pakistan