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Esp Esp Document Transcript

  • ProjectSubmitted from Muhammad.Asif Regd no. Met 01103008Submitted to Sir Hammad sbDepartment of English language and linguisticsMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 1
  • Task: Visit various corpus websites, select an area and download a list of 50 words related on specific area of ESP. design lesson plan based on the vocabulary. Teach and get feed back from the students.Outline: Abstract Growth of ESP What is ESP The origin of ESP Key notions about ESP Characteristics of ESP Types of ESP How general English is different from ESP Need analysis Principles of need analysis Vocabulary word Lesson plans Conclusion & referenceMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 2
  • Abstract: As English became the accepted international language of technologyand commerce, new learners who knew specifically why they need Englishwere created. The language teaching professions had to develop coursesto fulfill those learners’ needs. Also focus on the learners’ needs becameequally paramount as the methods employed to disseminate linguisticknowledge. Designing specific courses to better meet these individualneeds was a natural extension of this thinking and one of the specificcourses is ESP. Here my aim is to teach the vocabulary words in a specificarea and for these purposes to make the lesson plans and then teachthose words. At the end tries tries focus on the importance of ESP.Growth of ESP: From the early 1960s, English for Specific Purposes (ESP) hasgrown to become one of the most prominent areas of EFL teaching today.Its development is reflected in the increasing number of universities offeringan MA in ESP (e.g. The University of Birmingham, and Aston University inthe UK) and in the number of ESP courses offered to overseas students inEnglish speaking countries. There is now a well-established internationaljournal dedicated to ESP discussion, "English for Specific Purposes: Aninternational journal", and the ESP SIG groups of the IATEFL and TESOLare always active at their national conferences. In Japan too, the ESP movement has shown a slow but definitegrowth over the past few years. In particular, increased interest has beenspurred as a result of the Mombushos decision in 1994 to largely handover control of university curriculums to the universities themselves. Thishas led to a rapid growth in English courses aimed at specific disciplines,e.g. English for Chemists, in place of the more traditional General Englishcourses. The ESP community in Japan has also become more defined,with the JACET ESP SIG set up in 1996 (currently with 28 members) andthe JALT N-SIG to be formed shortly. Finally, on November 8th this yearthe ESP community came together as a whole at the first JapanMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 3
  • Conference on English for Specific Purposes, held on the campus of AizuUniversity, Fukushima Prefecture.What is ESP?As described above, ESP has had a relatively long time to mature and sowe would expect the ESP community to have a clear idea about what ESPmeans. Strangely, however, this does not seem to be the case. At theJapan Conference on ESP also, clear differences in how people interpretedthe meaning of ESP could be seen. Some people described ESP as simplybeing the teaching of English for any purpose that could be specified.Others, however, were more precise, describing it as the teaching ofEnglish used in academic studies or the teaching of English for vocationalor professional purposes. At the conference, guests were honored to have as the main speaker,Tony Dudley-Evans, co-editor of the ESP Journal mentioned above. Veryaware of the current confusion amongst the ESP community in Japan,Dudley-Evans set out in his one hour speech to clarify the meaning of ESP,giving an extended definition of ESP in terms of absolute and variablecharacteristics (see below).Absolute Characteristics1. ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learners2. ESP makes use of underlying methodology and activities of thediscipline it serves3. ESP is centered on the language appropriate to these activities in termsof grammar, lexis, register, study skills, discourse and genre.Variable Characteristics1. ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines2. ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodologyfrom that of General English3. ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary levelinstitution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be forlearners at secondary school level4. ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students.MUHAMMAD ASIF Page 4
  • 5. Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the languagesystems The definition Dudley-Evans offers is clearly influenced by that ofStrevens (1988), although he has improved it substantially by removing theabsolute characteristic that ESP is "in contrast with General English"(Johns et al., 1991: 298), and has included more variable characteristics.The division of ESP into absolute and variable characteristics, in particular,is very helpful in resolving arguments about what is and is not ESP. Fromthe definition, we can see that ESP can but is not necessarily concernedwith a specific discipline, nor does it have to be aimed at a certain agegroup or ability range. ESP should be seen simple as an approach toteaching, or what Dudley-Evans describes as an attitude of mind. This is asimilar conclusion to that made by Hutchinson et al. (1987:19) who state,"ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as tocontent and method are based on the learners reason for learning.The origin of ESP:Certainly, a great deal about the origins of ESP could be written. Notably,there are three reasons common to the emergence of all ESP: thedemands of a Brave New World, a revolution in linguistics, and focus onthe learner (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987).Hutchinson and Waters (1987) note those two key historical periodsbreathed life into ESP. First, the end of the Second World War brought withit an " ... age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific,technical and economic activity on an international scale · for variousreasons, most notably the economic power of the United States in the post-war world, the role [of international language] fell to English" (p. 6). Second,the Oil Crisis of the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledgeflowing into the oil-rich countries. The language of this knowledge becameEnglish.The general effect of all this development was to exert pressure on thelanguage teaching profession to deliver the required goods. WhereasEnglish had previously decided its own destiny, it now became subject tothe wishes, needs and demands of people other than language teachers(Hutchinson & Waters, 1987, p.7).MUHAMMAD ASIF Page 5
  • The second key reason cited as having a tremendous impact on theemergence of ESP was a revolution in linguistics. Whereas traditionallinguists set out to describe the features of language, revolutionarypioneers in linguistics began to focus on the ways in which language isused in real communication. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) point out thatone significant discovery was in the ways that spoken and written Englishvary. In other words, given the particular context in which English is used,the variant of English will change. This idea was taken one step farther. Iflanguage in different situations varies, then tailoring language instruction tomeet the needs of learners in specific contexts is also possible. Hence, inthe late 1960s and the early 1970s there were many attempts to describeEnglish for Science and Technology (EST). Hutchinson and Waters (1987)identify Ewer and Laborer, Swales, Selinker and Trimble as a few of theprominent descriptive EST pioneers.The final reason Hutchinson and Waters (1987) cite as having influencedthe emergence of ESP has less to do with linguistics and everything to dopsychology. Rather than simply focus on the method of language delivery,more attention was given to the ways in which learners acquire languageand the differences in the ways language is acquired. Learners were seento employ different learning strategies, use different skills, enter withdifferent learning schemata, and be motivated by different needs andinterests. Therefore, focus on the learners needs became equallyparamount as the methods employed to disseminate linguistic knowledge.Designing specific courses to better meet these individual needs was anatural extension of this thinking. To this day, the catchword in ESL circlesis learner-centered or learning-centered.Key Notions About ESPIn this discussion, four key notions will be discussed. They are as follows:a) the distinctions between the absolute and variable characteristics ofESP, b) types of ESP, c) characteristics of ESP courses, and d) themeaning of the word special in ESP.Absolute and Variable Characteristics of ESPTen years later, theorists Dudley-Evans and St John (1998) modifiedStrevens original definition of ESP to form their own. Let us begin withStrevens. He defined ESP by identifying its absolute and variableMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 6
  • characteristics. Strevens (1988) definition makes a distinction between fourabsolute and two variable characteristics:I. Absolute characteristics:ESP consists of English language teaching which is:  designed to meet specified needs of the learner;  related in content (i.e. in its themes and topics) to particular disciplines, occupations and activities;  centered on the language appropriate to those activities in syntax, lexis, discourse, semantics, etc., and analysis of this discourse;  In contrast with General English.II. Variable characteristics:ESP may be, but is not necessarily:  restricted as to the language skills to be learned (e.g. reading only);  Not taught according to any pre-ordained methodology (pp.1-2).Anthony (1997) notes that there has been considerable recent debateabout what ESP means despite the fact that it is an approach which hasbeen widely used over the last three decades. At a 1997 Japan Conferenceon ESP, Dudley-Evans offered a modified definition. The revised definitionhe and St. John postulate is as follows:I. Absolute Characteristics  ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learner;  ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves;  ESP is centered on the language (grammar, lexis, and register), skills, discourse and genres appropriate to these activities.II. Variable Characteristics  ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines;  ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of general English;MUHAMMAD ASIF Page 7
  •  ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be for learners at secondary school level;  ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students;  Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system, but it can be used with beginners (1998, pp. 4-5).Dudley-Evans and St. John have removed the absolute characteristic thatESP is in contrast with General English and added more variablecharacteristics. They assert that ESP is not necessarily related to a specificdiscipline. Furthermore, ESP is likely to be used with adult learnersalthough it could be used with young adults in a secondary school setting.As for a broader definition of ESP, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) theorize,"ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as tocontent and method are based on the learners reason for learning" (p. 19).Anthony (1997) notes that, it is not clear where ESP courses end andgeneral English courses begin; numerous non-specialist ESL instructorsuse an ESP approach in that their syllabi are based on analysis of learnerneeds and their own personal specialist knowledge of using English for realcommunication.Types of ESPDavid Carter (1983) identifies three types of ESP: English as a restricted language English for Academic and Occupational Purposes English with specific topics.The language used by air traffic controllers or by waiters are examples ofEnglish as a restricted language. Mackay and Mountford (1978) clearlyillustrate the difference between restricted language and language with thisstatement:... the language of international air-traffic control could be regarded asspecial, in the sense that the repertoire required by the controller is strictlylimited and can be accurately determined situation ally, as might be thelinguistic needs of a dining-room waiter or air-hostess. However, suchrestricted repertoires are not languages, just as a tourist phrase book is notgrammar. Knowing a restricted language would not allow the speaker toMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 8
  • communicate effectively in novel situation, or in contexts outside thevocational environment.The second type of ESP identified by Carter (1983) is English for Academicand Occupational Purposes. In the Tree of ELT (Hutchinson & Waters,1987), ESP is broken down into three branches: a) English for Science andTechnology (EST), b) English for Business and Economics (EBE), and c)English for Social Studies (ESS). Each of these subject areas is furtherdivided into two branches: English for Academic Purposes (EAP) andEnglish for Occupational Purposes (EOP). An example of EOP for the ESTbranch is English for Technicians whereas an example of EAP for the ESTbranch is English for Medical Studies.Hutchinson and Waters (1987) do note that there is not a clear-cutdistinction between EAP and EOP: "· people can work and studysimultaneously; it is also likely that in many cases the language learnt forimmediate use in a study environment will be used later when the studenttakes up, or returns to, a job" (p. 16). Perhaps this explains Cartersrationale for categorizing EAP and EOP under the same type of ESP. Itappears that Carter is implying that the end purpose of both EAP and EOPare one in the same: employment. However, despite the end purpose beingidentical, the means taken to achieve the end is very different indeed. Icontend that EAP and EOP are different in terms of focus on Cummins(1979) notions of cognitive academic proficiency versus basic interpersonalskills. This is examined in further detail below.The third and final type of ESP identified by Carter (1983) is English withspecific topics. Carter notes that it is only here where emphasis shifts frompurpose to topic. This type of ESP is uniquely concerned with anticipatedfuture English needs of, for example, scientists requiring English forpostgraduate reading studies, attending conferences or working in foreigninstitutions. However, I argue that this is not a separate type of ESP.Rather it is an integral component of ESP courses or programs which focuson situational language. This situational language has been determinedbased on the interpretation of results from needs analysis of authenticlanguage used in target workplace settings.Characteristics of ESP CoursesThe characteristics of ESP courses identified by Carter (1983) arediscussed here. He states that there are three features common to ESPMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 9
  • courses: a) authentic material, b) purpose-related orientation, and c) self-direction.If we revisit Dudley-Evans (1997) claim that ESP should be offered at anintermediate or advanced level, use of authentic learning materials isentirely feasible. Closer examination of ESP materials will follow; suffice itto say at this juncture that use of authentic content materials, modified orunmodified in form, are indeed a feature of ESP, particularly in self-directedstudy and research tasks. For Language Preparation for Employment in theHealth Sciences, a large component of the student evaluation was basedon an independent study assignment in which the learners were required toinvestigate and present an area of interest. The students were encouragedto conduct research using a variety of different resources, including theInternet.Purpose-related orientation refers to the simulation of communicative tasksrequired of the target setting. Carter (1983) cites student simulation of aconference, involving the preparation of papers, reading, note taking, andwriting. At Algonquin College, English for business courses have involvedstudents in the design and presentation of a unique business venture,including market research, pamphlets and logo creation. The students havepresented all final products to invited ESL classes during a posterpresentation session. For our health science program, students attended aseminar on improving your listening skills. They practiced listening skills,such as listening with empathy, and then employed their newly acquiredskills during a fieldtrip to a local community centre where they werepartnered up with English-speaking residents.Finally, self-direction is characteristic of ESP courses in that the “... point ofincluding self-direction ... is that ESP is concerned with turning learners intousers" (Carter, 1983, p. 134). In order for self-direction to occur, thelearners must have a certain degree of freedom to decide when, what, andhow they will study. Carter (1983) also adds that there must be asystematic attempt by teachers to teach the learners how to learn byteaching them about learning strategies. Is it necessary, though, to teachhigh-ability learners such as those enrolled in the health science programabout learning strategies? I argue that it is not. Rather, what is essential forthese learners is learning how to access information in a new culture.The Meaning of the Word Special in ESPMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 10
  • One simple clarification will be made here: special language andspecialized aim are two entirely different notions. It was Perren (1974) whonoted that confusion arises over these two notions. If we revisit Mackayand Mountfords restricted repertoire, we can better understand the idea ofa special language. Mackay and Mountford (1978) state:The only practical way in which we can understand the notion of speciallanguage is as a restricted repertoire of words and expressions selectedfrom the whole language because that restricted repertoire covers everyrequirement within a well-defined context, task or vocation (p. 4).On the other hand, a specialized aim refers to the purpose for whichlearners learn a language, not the nature of the language they learn(Mackay & Mountford, 1978). Consequently, the focus of the word specialin ESP ought to be on the purpose for which learners learn and not on thespecific jargon or registers they learn. The present context of globalization has multiple effects on the lives ofpeople across the globe. And for all those countries where English is notthe first language the significance of learning, teaching and using Englishcannot be understated. Linguists, researchers and teachers, textbookwriters, publishers in the context of English Language Teaching (ELT), areall agreed that (i) English is an international language (EIL) and has to be taught as such, (ii) English has many varieties (iii) English is the language for research, trade and commerce, and higher education, and (iv) Within the next decade there will be more non-native speakers of English than the native speakers (that is, those whose mother tongue is English).Consequently, the role/importance of English at the undergraduate level ofeducation in Pakistan cannot be minimized. In addition to that, students,teachers and others need to have greater clarity about the nomenclaturesused in regard to the teaching and learning of English. This article attemptsto present the distinctions in the nomenclatures, and to highlight the roleand importance of English for the undergraduate students in Pakistaniinstitutions.Why is English an international language?MUHAMMAD ASIF Page 11
  • It is an international language because it was considered to be thelanguage of political, economic and military power, until the early 2000 A.D.The Iraq war (2003) was looked upon by many people as an economicopportunity in more ways than one. As mentioned in an article by Hadley in2004, (and by Edge also in 2004), English teachers would be required inIraq to help with the reconstruction work by facilitating the policies that thetanks were sent to impose. Hence, the war itself created a lucrativeopportunity for all those involved in the game of teaching and learningEnglish. In addition, USA being looked upon as a superpower was worthimmolating in terms of its culture and language. A noted Pakistaniresearcher, Dr Tariq Rahman mentioned in one his books (2000) thatEnglish is in demand by students, their parents and aspiring members ofthe salariat because it is the language of the elitist domains of power notonly in Pakistan but also internationally. He presented data from DavidCrystals 1997 book that One-third of the worlds newspapers are publishedin English dominant countries... 80% of the electronically stored informationis in English ... The CNN and BBC are in English ... between 80 85%motion pictures are in English... 180 nations have adopted therecommendations of the Civil Aviation Organization about Englishterminology ... increasing numbers of students take the IELTS and TOEFLexams each year in more than 110 countries ... nearly 90 per cent ofresearch articles (in most subjects) are in English.In many contexts it has been felt that students require adequate Englishlanguage skills in order for them to cope with the academic demands oftheir study programmed. Hence a course of English for Academic Purposes(EAP) is designed and taught to them. Such a course includes the teachingof such skills as critical thinking, critical reading, listening for global andspecific comprehension (e.g. lectures, talks, announcements, etc), writingessays, terms papers, critical analysis, reports, participation in groupdiscussions, making oral presentations, etc.How ESP is different from general English? The most important difference lies in the learners and their purposesfor learning English. One can add to it by saying that ESP concentratesmore on language in context than on teaching grammar and languagestructures. It covers subjects varying from accounting or computer scienceto tourism and business management. In some cases, people withinadequate proficiency in English need to be taught to handle specific jobs.MUHAMMAD ASIF Page 12
  • In such cases English is taught for specific purposes so that the concernedemployees can perform their job requirements efficiently. However, Englishfor Specific Purposes (ESP) has a wide scope and superimposes othernomenclatures such as EOP and EAP. An article on ESP available on theInternet says: ESP (English for Specific Purposes) course aims aredetermined by the needs of a specific group of learners. ESP is oftendivided into EAP (English for Academic Purposes) and EOP (English forOccupational Purposes). Further sub-divisions of EOP are sometimesmade into business English, professional English (e.g. English for doctors,lawyers) and vocational English (e.g. English for tourism, nursing, aviation,and brick-laying). Do you think the requirements for English of a medical, or socialscience or science and technology student would be exactly alike? Orwould someone in the tourism industry have a similar manner of usingEnglish as an air traffic control, or a share market analyst or a technicalwriter? While there will be some similarities in the use of commonvocabulary there will be great dissimilarities in the way they use words,phrases, expressions in writing or speaking to get on with their jobs. Suchdifferences are mainly due to the types of communication they have toachieve which make different demands on their knowledge and skills inEnglish. Thus professionals such as air traffic controllers, or those whowork in laboratories or in the mining / drilling /space stations often requireknowledge of English that is very specific to the kind of work they are doing(English for Occupational Purposes). Learners in the ESP classes are usually adults who are generallyaware of the purposes for which they will need to use English.Needs Analysis: This is the requirements definition part of the problem. We usewhatever it takes to ferret out the needs of you and your users. Interviews,questionnaires, and prototyping are some of the most successful methods.These methods will include object methodology as it applies. During thisphase well also determine the best platform and operating system forsatisfying your needs. A Valuable Tool for Designing and Maintaining Effective ESPCurriculum Surveys are usually in the form of a questionnaire. AMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 13
  • comprehensive survey of the information needs of your institution wouldseek information on the types of information users (physician, nurse,administrator, etc.), the types of information sought (factual, reviews, in-depth, clinical, research, administrative), the frequency of the need (daily,monthly, annually), and where the information is currently found (hospitallibrary, other library, personal library, consultation with colleague, notfound, et c.). Other surveys may be on a more narrow aspect of service. 2. Interviews: Interviews may be formal or informal. Formally, you may visit department chairs, administrators, and/ormanagers annually to ask if the library, for example, is currently meetingtheir needs and how things could be better. Informal interviews are oftendone as you greet people entering the library or check materials out, andask them if they have found what was needed. If you take it a step further,making a note of the conversation and any action taken in response. Thisway, youve already initiated done a needs assessment.3. Analysis of statistics, records Libraries have always been faithful recordkeepers, gathering statistics on every aspect of their operations -circulation, reference, acquisitions, interlibrary loan, etc. Analyze theserecords regularly to see what they tell you about the needs of yourinstitution. You probably already analyze interlibrary loan requests todetermine titles to which you should subscribe.Underlying Principles of Needs AnalysisThe following list gives the principles of Needs Analysis as originallydefined. User’s need based requirements are complex and can conflict User’s need based requirements build a bridge from the business case to the design User’s need based requirements help to identify trade-offs that need to happen in the design process (i.e. where a design cannot resolve the user’s need based requirement conflicts) User’s need based requirements are there to unify the multi- disciplinary design team; enabling them to meet their business case.MUHAMMAD ASIF Page 14
  • Formulate and ask questions to do with the business plan that provide an indication of the human aspects of the system, including the relative merit of functionality. Always express these findings from the user’s perspective. Cross-relate these requirements to each other and to the imp actors on the activity. Allocate sufficient time during the development process to check and validate your user’s need based requirements. Ensure that all users’ need based requirements are derived as low level user requirements before being transposed into system requirements. Word your requirements precisely and ensure that you cover all categories of human-related requirements. Create test statements to validate the user’s need based requirements, the concept and the implementation Prior to freezing your design, validate your user’s need based requirements with users Accept that there still may be contradictory requirements Understand the nuances of the requirements and ensure that these are reflected in the precise wording of the requirements Keep asking your users until you have a true understanding of their requirements Elegant design can only be created from understanding the nuances of the requirements Vocabulary words: I have selected following vocabulary words related to the field of we ecology which is branch of biology which deals with the study of environment, 1. abyssal Relating to ocean depths from 2000 to 5000 meters 2. aerial Existing or living or growing or operating in the airMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 15
  • 3. alliance The state of being allied or confederated 4. alternative energy Energy derived from sources that do not use up natural resources or harm the environment 5. anthropogenic Of or relating to the study of the origins and development of human beings 6. arboreal Of or relating to or formed by trees 7. association A formal organization of people or groups of people 8. bioclimatic Of or concerned with the relations of climate and living organisms 9. biodegradable Capable of being decomposed by e.g. bacteria 10. biodiversity The diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole) 11. biome A major biotic community characterized by the dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing climate 12. bionomicsMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 16
  • 1. the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment 13. climax The highest point of anything conceived of as growing or developing or unfolding 14. colonize Settle as a colony; of countries in the developing world 15. community A group of people living in a particular local area 16. competition A business relation in which two parties compete to gain customers 17. desertification The gradual transformation of habitable land into desert; is usually caused by climate change or by destructive use of the land 18. disforest Remove the trees from 19. dispersion Spreading widely or driving off 20. doe Mature female of mammals of which the male is called `buck 21. dominance Superior development of one side of the body 22. ecologyMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 17
  • The environment as it relates to living organisms 23. ecosystem A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment 24. ecoterrorism violence carried out to further the political or social objectives of the environmentalists 25. ecotourism tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature 26. intertidal of or relating to the littoral area above the low-tide mark 27. intolerant unwilling to tolerate difference of opinion 28. lacustrine of or relating to or living near lakes 29. lentic of or relating to or living in still waters (as lakes or ponds) 30. limnology The scientific study of bodies of fresh water for their biological and physical and geological properties 31. litter the offspring at one birth of a multiparous mammalMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 18
  • 32. littoral of or relating to a coastal or shore region 33. lotic of or relating to or living in actively moving water 34. Nuclear winter A long period of darkness and extreme cold that scientists predict would follow a full-scale nuclear war; a layer of dust and smoke in the atmosphere would cover the earth and block the rays of the sun; most living organisms would perish 35. Opportunistic Taking immediate advantage, often unethically, of any circumstance of possible benefit 36. Ordination The status of being ordained to a sacred office 37. Overturn Turn from an upright or normal position 38. Ozone A colorless gas (O3) soluble in alkalis and cold water; a strong oxidizing agent; can be produced by electric discharge in oxygen or by the action of ultraviolet radiation on oxygen in the stratosphere (where it acts as a screen for ultraviolet radiation) 39. Ozone hole An area of the ozone layer (near the poles) that is seasonally depleted of ozone 40. Ozone layerMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 19
  • A layer in the stratosphere (at approximately 20 miles) that contains a concentration of ozone sufficient to block most ultraviolet radiation from the sun 41. Ozonosphere A layer in the stratosphere 42. Preservationist Someone who advocates the preservation of historical sites or endangered species or natural areas 43. Productivity The quality of being productive or having the power to produce 44. Provincialism A lack of sophistication 45. Pyrogenic Produced by or producing fever 46. Timberline Line marking the upper limit of tree growth in mountains or northern latitudes 47. Tolerance The power or capacity of an organism to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions 48. Tolerant Showing respect for the rights or opinions or practices of others 49. Trophic Of or relating to nutritionMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 20
  • 50. Sublittoral Of or relating to the region of the continental shelf (between the seashore and the edge of the continental shelf) or the marine organisms situated thereLesson Plans: To teach these vocabulary words, I have made two lesson plans.These are,Lesson plan 1:Name The Institution: Vista college of science & commerence Mailsi (Vehari)Number of the students: There were 12 students in the class.Class: Bsc (zoology/ botony/ chemistry)Presentation: 25 vocabulary words related to ecology, their meanings and detailsTime Frame: Total time = 45 minutes i) Time for introduction and explanation of words = 35 minutes ii) Time for class discussion = 10 minutesMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 21
  • Lesson plan 2:Name The Institution: Vista college of science & commerence Mailsi (Vehari)Number of the students: There were 12 students in the class.Class: Bsc (zoology/ botony/ chemistry)Presentation: Next 25 vocabulary words related to ecology, their meanings and detailsTime Frame: Total time = 60 minutes i) Time for introduction and explanation of words = 35 minutes ii) Time for class discussion = 10 minutes iii) Time for activity = 15 minutesProduction: An activity based on short questionsFeed back of the students: To check the feedback of the students I have asked followingquestions from them. 1. Did you enjoy from these activities? 2. Did you like to learn these words? 3. Is there should ESP in Pakistan’s institutions? 4. Did you like my method of teaching?MUHAMMAD ASIF Page 22
  • 5. Is there should ESP as a subject at graduation level in science classes? 6. Can ESP help you to improve your vocabulary related to your subjects?The students have answered the above questions and I have representtheir feedback in following chart, Feed back of the students 120 100 80 percentage 60 yes 40 no 20 0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 QuestionsConclusion: According to my conclusion if one is going to teach courses of English(or any other language for that matter) for specific purposes, oneShould be clear just how the notions English (or language) and purposeAre to be defined, and what exactly it means to be specific. I do not think,on the whole, that these matters have been given the consideration theydeserve. There has been a good deal of attention given to the descriptionof areas of language use and the needs of learners, but much lessattention given to the crucial prior question of what exactly it is that is beingdescribed. There are those who talk of the lack of research in ESP as if thiswere simply a matter of amassing quantities of data about the superficialMUHAMMAD ASIF Page 23
  • features of varieties of language use without enquiring into what the natureof language use might be. There are others who insist on the importanceOf needs analysis without investigating the educational implicationsOf such insistence. References Dudley-Evans, Tony (1998). Developments in English for Specific Purposes: A multi-disciplinary approach. Cambridge University Press. (Forthcoming) Hutchinson, Tom & Waters, Alan (1987). English for Specific Purposes: A learner-centered approach. Cambridge University Press. Johns, Ann M. & Dudley-Evans, Tony (1991). English for Specific Purposes: International in Scope, Specific in Purpose. TESOL Quarterly 25:2, 297-314. Strevens, P. (1988). ESP after twenty years: A re-appraisal. In M. Tickoo (Ed.), ESP: State of the art (1-13). SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. Technical Purposes: Studies in honor of Louis Trimble. London: Newbury House. Strevens, P. (1988). ESP after twenty years: A re-appraisal. In M. Tickoo (Ed.), ESP: State of the Art (pp. 1-13). Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Centre. Stryker, S., & Leaver, B. (Eds.). (1997). Content-based instruction in foreign language education: Models and methods. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. Taylor, C. (1986). Cultivating simultaneous student growth in both multiple creative talents and knowledge. In J.S. Renzulli (Ed.), Systems and models for developing programs for the gifted and talented (pp. 307-351). Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. VanPatten, B., & Lee, J. (1990). Second language acquisition - Foreign language learning. Avon: Multilingual Matters. Yogman, J., & Kaylani, C. (1996). ESP program design for mixed level students.MUHAMMAD ASIF Page 24