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Enzymes By  Muhammad Asif Pu Pak Muhammad Asif Pu
What Are Enzymes? <ul><li>Most enzymes are  Proteins  ( tertiary and quaternary structures) </li></ul><ul><li>Act as  Cata...
Enzymes <ul><li>Are specific  for what they will  catalyze </li></ul><ul><li>Are   Reusable </li></ul><ul><li>End in – ase...
How do enzymes Work? <ul><li>Enzymes work by  weakening bonds  which  lowers activation energy </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
Enzymes Muhammad Asif Pu Free Energy Progress of the reaction Reactants Products Free energy of activation Without Enzyme ...
Muhammad Asif Pu
Enzyme-Substrate Complex <ul><li>The  substance  (reactant) an  enzyme  acts on is the  substrate </li></ul>Substrate Join...
Active Site <ul><li>A  restricted region   of an  enzyme  molecule which  binds  to the  substrate . </li></ul>Substrate A...
Induced Fit <ul><li>A change in the  shape  of an enzyme’s active site </li></ul><ul><li>Induced  by the substrate </li></...
Induced Fit <ul><li>A  change  in the  configuration  of an  enzyme’s active  site  (H+ and ionic bonds are involved). </l...
What Affects Enzyme Activity? <ul><li>Three factors: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Environmental Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Co...
1. Environmental Conditions <ul><li>1. Extreme  Temperature  are the most dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>-  high temps   may ...
2. Cofactors and Coenzymes <ul><li>Inorganic substances  (zinc, iron)   and   vitamins  (respectively) are sometimes need ...
Two examples of Enzyme Inhibitors <ul><li>a.  Competitive inhibitors :   are chemicals that  resemble  an  enzyme’s normal...
Inhibitors <ul><li>b. Noncompetitive inhibitors : </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibitors that  do not enter the   active site ,  but...
Muhammad Asif Pu
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  1. 1. Enzymes By Muhammad Asif Pu Pak Muhammad Asif Pu
  2. 2. What Are Enzymes? <ul><li>Most enzymes are Proteins ( tertiary and quaternary structures) </li></ul><ul><li>Act as Catalyst to accelerates a reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Not permanently changed in the process </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  3. 3. Enzymes <ul><li>Are specific for what they will catalyze </li></ul><ul><li>Are Reusable </li></ul><ul><li>End in – ase </li></ul><ul><li>-Sucrase </li></ul><ul><li>-Lactase </li></ul><ul><li>-Maltase </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  4. 4. How do enzymes Work? <ul><li>Enzymes work by weakening bonds which lowers activation energy </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  5. 5. Enzymes Muhammad Asif Pu Free Energy Progress of the reaction Reactants Products Free energy of activation Without Enzyme With Enzyme
  6. 6. Muhammad Asif Pu
  7. 7. Enzyme-Substrate Complex <ul><li>The substance (reactant) an enzyme acts on is the substrate </li></ul>Substrate Joins Muhammad Asif Pu Enzyme
  8. 8. Active Site <ul><li>A restricted region of an enzyme molecule which binds to the substrate . </li></ul>Substrate Active Site Muhammad Asif Pu Enzyme
  9. 9. Induced Fit <ul><li>A change in the shape of an enzyme’s active site </li></ul><ul><li>Induced by the substrate </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  10. 10. Induced Fit <ul><li>A change in the configuration of an enzyme’s active site (H+ and ionic bonds are involved). </li></ul><ul><li>Induced by the substrate . </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu Enzyme Active Site substrate induced fit
  11. 11. What Affects Enzyme Activity? <ul><li>Three factors: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Environmental Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cofactors and Coenzymes </li></ul><ul><li>3. Enzyme Inhibitors </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  12. 12. 1. Environmental Conditions <ul><li>1. Extreme Temperature are the most dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>- high temps may denature (unfold) the enzyme. </li></ul><ul><li>2. pH (most like 6 - 8 pH near neutral) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ionic concentration (salt ions) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  13. 13. 2. Cofactors and Coenzymes <ul><li>Inorganic substances (zinc, iron) and vitamins (respectively) are sometimes need for proper enzymatic activity . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron must be present in the quaternary structure - hemoglobin in order for it to pick up oxygen. </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif Pu
  14. 14. Two examples of Enzyme Inhibitors <ul><li>a. Competitive inhibitors : are chemicals that resemble an enzyme’s normal substrate and compete with it for the active site . </li></ul>Substrate Muhammad Asif Pu Enzyme Competitive inhibitor
  15. 15. Inhibitors <ul><li>b. Noncompetitive inhibitors : </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibitors that do not enter the active site , but bind to another part of the enzyme causing the enzyme to change its shape , which in turn alters the active site . </li></ul>Substrate Muhammad Asif Pu Enzyme active site altered Noncompetitive Inhibitor
  16. 16. Muhammad Asif Pu
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