Introduction Is population explosion a boon or a curse? For the European developed countries like Spain and Italy, where the population is decreasing, this might be considered as a boon. However, for the developing countries like India, population explosion is a curse and is damaging to the development of the country and it’s society.
Meaning The literal meaning of population is “the whole number of people or inhabitants in a country or region”. The literal meaning of population explosion is “a pyramiding of numbers of a biological population”. In simple words, it could be defined as increase in birth rates and decrease in death rates.
Formula Population change = (Births + Immigration) – (Deaths + Emigration). Migration is the number of people moving in (immigration) or out (emigration) of a country, place or locality.
Population growth in India According to 2001 census Indias total population has crossed 1,027,015,247, out of which 531,277,078 are males and females are 495,738,169. Of this number, 157,863,145 are children up to the age of six years out of which 81,911,041 are males and 75,952,104 are females. As per census 2001 the sex-ratio has gone up from 927 in 1991 to 933 in 2001.
Table Males 531,277,078. Females 495,738,169. 157,863,145 Children(upto the (81,911,041 are age of 6yrs) males and 75,952,104 are females)
Reasons for the population The increase in birth rates due to medical improvements The decrease in death rates due to better medical facilities and advancements in the field of medicine. Immigration to better developed countries due to several reasons like better job opportunities, war, and natural causes like hurricanes, earthquakes, and so on.
REASONS FOR INCREASE IN POPULATION IN INDIABirth rate1. Poverty2. Religious beliefs, Traditions and Cultural Norms.Death rates1. Advanced medical treatments.Migration Migration plays an important role in the population increase. However, in countries like India, migration plays a big role in the population change.
Environment and human health consequences:Environmental and ecological consequences : Severe pressure on the forests due to both the rate of resource use and the nature of use. Tropical deforestation and destruction of mangroves for commercial needs and fuel wood.The country’s mangrove areas have reduced from 7,00,000 ha to 4,53,000 ha in the last 50 years. Intense grazing by domestic livestock illegal harvesting of wildlife Over fishing in water bodies and introduction of weeds and exotic species.
Urbanization The proportion of people in developing countries who live in cities has almost doubled since 1960 (from less than 22% to more than 40%), while in more developed regions the urban share has grown from 61% to 76%.Rural population and their development: Over 70% of India’s population still lives in rural areas. There are substantial differences between the states in the proportion of rural and urban population (varying from almost 90% in Assam and Bihar to 61% in Maharashtra 54%).
EFFECTS OF POPULATION EXPLOSION:The current rate of population growth in India is 1.58% and the total fertility rate is 3.111. AIR POLLUTION: The technological development of India has lead not only to medical advancements, but also to an increase in the number of factories. That has lead to air and water pollution. According to an article published in the Times of India on March 25th, 2000, “…increasing air pollution level in the year 1999, caused 3,650 untimely deaths and about 1,545,000 persons had been reportedly suffering with air (polluted) borne diseases.”
2. Water Pollution: Nowadays water pollution is also one of the increasing problems due to the population explosion.Major Pollutants are: Petroleum products Pesticides and herbicides Hazardous wastes Excessive organic matters like fertilizers. Thermal pollution caused by deforestation.
3. Unemployment and Illiteracy: Unemployment, or underemployment, further leads to poverty. This again starts the vicious cycle of poverty and population explosion discussed above. Poverty leads to an increase in the population, because poverty leads people to produce more children to increase the earning members of the family. This increases the population size of India, which further increases the unemployment rate and lack of educational facilities leading to poverty that started this whole cycle.
Food Resources Resources are always limited. And in a developing and highly populous country like India, resources are even scarcer. Population explosion results in the shortage of even the most basic resources like food. According to an article by World Bank Group, “…more than half of all children under the age of four are malnourished, 30 percent of newborns are significantly underweight, and 60 percent of women are anemic.”
AVAILABLE MEASURES TO CONTROLPOPULATION Family planning and welfare methods:1. Vasectomy2. Tubectomy3. Conventional contraceptives(that is condoms, diaphragms, jelly/cream tubes, foam tables) and oral pills.Success of the family planning program in India depends on several factors like literacy, religion and the region where the couple live.
Meaning Expanded as Human Immune Deficiency Virus / Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an infectious disease caused by the Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
Historical background In Africa between 1884 and 1924 HIV probably enters Haiti around 1966. First identified in USA in 1981. Second it was found in Tanzania, and then over 25 people were infected thereafter.
Impacts of HIV Estimates RangePeople living with 33.3 million 31.4-35.3 millioHIV/AIDS in 2009Adults living with 30.8 million 29.2-32.6 millionHIV/AIDS in 2009Women living with 15.9 million 14.8-17.2 millionHIV/AIDS in 2009Children living with 2.5 million 1.6-3.4 millionHIV/AIDS in 2009People newly infected with 2.6 million 2.3-2.8 millionHIV in 2009Adults newly infected with 2.2 million 2.0-2.4 millioHIV in 2009AIDS deaths in 2009 1.8 million 1.6-2.1 millionOrphans (0-17) due to 16.6 million 14.4-18.8 millionAIDS in 2009
Symptoms It comes in three stages: Acute infection, chronic infection, and AIDS.Other symptoms are: A blotchy red rash, usually on the upper torso, that does not itch. Headache Aching muscles Sore throat Swollen lymph glands Diarrhea Nausea Vomiting
CausesA person can be infected when he comes into contact with the following: Blood transfusion Child birth Needle-sharing Percutaneous needle stick Receptive anal intercourse Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse The majority of HIV infections are acquired through unprotected sexual relations. It takes 8-11 years in the diagnosis of this virus.
Control/prevention AIDS and sex education Gay men awareness programs Needle exchange programs Relevant tests relating blood before transfusion Use of condoms (male and female) Circumcision.
Treatment & Care Antiretrovirals ARVs ANTI-HIV or ANTI-AIDS drugs Combination therapy.Although there are drugs present nowadays but There is currently no publicly available vaccine or cure for HIV or AIDS.
Conclusion Human population explosion is a problem which India is facing nowadays, which leads to several others problems like illiteracy, pollutions- air and water. Several measures and programs are run by governmental and Non-governmental organizations to stop or to control this problem. Human population is in itself a problem but it can lead to deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS.