ATMs
for lower income &
Semi-literate group
Objective
                                          To understand:
                                          1. The diffic...
The security guard outside the ATM didn’t let us do the contextual inquiry as not more than one
      person was allowed t...
Affinity diagram
  Created bottom-up hierarchy of notes to find out:
  •    Key observations
  •    User statements
  •   ...
Findings : Top Insights



  1.   Users are reluctant to use any new technology, as they are not provided with proper assi...
Findings : Banking habits



  Why people use ATM :
   To check balance amount
   Withdraw money
   Social influence


...
Findings : Opportunities & Constraints:



  Opportunities
   To be able to increase the number of users from the lower-l...
Personas: Primary User

                                     Mr. Baburao
                                     Age: 34 year...
Personas: Secondary User

                                      Mr. Hemant Kale
                                      Age:...
Findings : Key design ideassolutions:



  Problem: Fear of security of ATM card and can not remember PIN
   Users fear l...
Findings : Key design ideassolutions:



  Problem: Textual information and instructions
   ATMs textual instructions and...
Findings : Key design ideassolutions:



  Problem: Untrained or no prior experience in operating ATM
   Users feel embar...
Findings : Interaction flow


                                                                      Key Information regist...
Findings : Interaction flow


                                         User opens a new                                   ...
Scenarios

  User 1 – Mr. Baburao :
  Smita, his 15 year old daughter has been reminding Baburao of her last day to pay th...
Additional design solutions

  Drag and drop activity:
  The system in this case should be intelligent to show upfront the...
Asim Shaikh
  Thank you!                                            mails4asim@gmail.com
                                 ...
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HCI - ATMs for lower income and semi literate people

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This project was done for HCI workshop held in IDC, IIT, Mumbai. The objective of this project was to understand:
1. The difficulties and problems faced by the lower income & Semi literate user group in using the automated teller machine (ATM ) and
2. To provide appropriate design solutions. In this project we practiced the process and the techniques for user studies, interaction design and usability evaluation.

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HCI - ATMs for lower income and semi literate people

  1. 1. ATMs for lower income & Semi-literate group
  2. 2. Objective To understand: 1. The difficulties and problems faced by the lower income & Semi literate user group in using the automated teller machine (ATM ) and 2. To provide appropriate design solutions Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi literate people | 2008
  3. 3. The security guard outside the ATM didn’t let us do the contextual inquiry as not more than one person was allowed to enter inside the ATM as per rule. So we had to settle for user interviews instead. One researcher asked questions, in the language preferred by the interviewee, the others observed and asked any impromptu questions arising. Users interviewed: • Two taxi driver, • Shopkeeper, • Tempo driver, • Two old men(customers) in the bank and • SBI bank manager. Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi literate people | 2008
  4. 4. Affinity diagram Created bottom-up hierarchy of notes to find out: • Key observations • User statements • Insights & Design ideas • Questions and ambiguities Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi literate people | 2008
  5. 5. Findings : Top Insights 1. Users are reluctant to use any new technology, as they are not provided with proper assistance from the bank 2. Users prefer to approach their union or familyfriends instead of the bank for financial help 3. Communication gap between the user and the bank 4. Fear of security of ATM card and password 5. Users need assistance in ATM booth to use the facilities provided by the bank 6. Users want instructions to be given in their own language Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi literate people | 2008 http://www.flickr.com/photos/piccolomondo/2575794327/
  6. 6. Findings : Banking habits Why people use ATM :  To check balance amount  Withdraw money  Social influence Why people don’t use ATM :  Novice users (not aware of the usage)  Security reasons /misuse  Difficulty in use (not aware of technical terms)  Need a demo before use  Don’t have a job so can not afford  Its for new generation  Trust face to face interaction Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi literate people | 2008 http://www.flickr.com/photos/86806832@N00/421057208/
  7. 7. Findings : Opportunities & Constraints: Opportunities  To be able to increase the number of users from the lower-literate part of the society  Reaching out to remote areas to provide accessibility of ATM Constraints  Literacy  Awareness  Assurance of security Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi literate people | 2008 http://www.flickr.com/photos/joaomoura/2661761961/
  8. 8. Personas: Primary User Mr. Baburao Age: 34 years Education: 10th pass Family: Wife and 2 children Profession: Milkman Mr. Baburao Baburao has been a milkman by profession for some years now. He lives with his family in jogeshwari for the last 15 years. His two children Smita and Amit go to a school nearby their house. Smita wants to be a teacher and Amit a software engineering when they grow up. Baburao’s day begins early in the morning at 5 and continues till about 9pm in the evening. He has all his cattle in a shed nearby and he distributes milk to maximum number of families in Andheri East. His wife helps him with his work sometimes and keeps herself busy with other household chores. Baburao wants to increase his area of selling in the near future and wants to earn/save more money for his children and their future. He has SBI bank account for the last 12 years now. Primarily he has been using the bank only for depositing cash once a month and withdraw money when necessary for his children's fees and family expenditures. Though he wants to use the ATM, which is hardly 1km away from his house, he is still inhibited and a bit hesitant in doing the same and is happy with his conventional ways of the using the bank. He is a novice user where bank and its facilities are concerned. Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi-literate people | 2008
  9. 9. Personas: Secondary User Mr. Hemant Kale Age: 59 years Education: B.Com Family: Wife and 2 daughter and 1 son Profession: Retired Clerk Mr. Hemant Kale Mr. Kale has been a Senior Clerk for the last 30 years in the L&T, Nasik office. He retired as a senior clerk a year back. He has two daughters who are married and settled in Nagpur. His only son, Ravi has finished his high school and is looking to get admission is a engineering college in Bombay soon. Ravi has already got some good offers from reputed colleges. Mr. Kale keeps himself busy with some activities in the society he lives in and is aware that soon it will be he and his wife in the house, after Ravi moves out to do his engineering. He gets enough pension to suffice him with his expenditure. His office had opened a SBI account for him many years back and he has been using the account for his monthly transactions since then. He had tried using the ATM once, many years back when it was newly launched, but was not very comfortable and never went back in using the same and preferred to using the old method of going to the bank instead. The technology then did not support any multi-lingual language support and he found it difficult to understand the process of actions and Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi-literate people | 2008
  10. 10. Findings : Key design ideassolutions: Problem: Fear of security of ATM card and can not remember PIN  Users fear losing their ATM cards and hence chances of its misuse  Can not remember PIN. Many users write their PIN somewhere which is not secure  Don’t know how to use it Solution: Biometric Scan  Multiple recognition(scan) system – Finger, face and retina (at least 2 being mandatory)  This eliminates the need to use a ATM card and PIN numbers, which is a big concern for semi-literate users  It will increase their confidence in using the ATM  Provides strong authentication  Hidden costs of ATM card management like card personalisation, delivery, management, re-issuance, PIN generation, help-desk, and re-issuance can be avoided  Ideal for Indian rural masses  It is accurate Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi literate people | 2008 http://www.istockphoto.com
  11. 11. Findings : Key design ideassolutions: Problem: Textual information and instructions  ATMs textual instructions and jargons are not easily understood by semi-literate people Solution: Use of appropriate icons along with audio and textual instructions  Relevant icons will facilitate Recognition rather than recall  Simple (in plain language) instruction in the form of text and audio will help users understand the tasks to be performed. Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi literate people | 2008 http://www.istockphoto.com
  12. 12. Findings : Key design ideassolutions: Problem: Untrained or no prior experience in operating ATM  Users feel embarrassed to ask for assistance  Many users were confident that they can operate ATM if demonstrated once Solution: Split screen demo at the ATM and free demo at the bank branch  For Semi-literate users, it is difficult to remember the entire process hence a demo (based on the task selected by the users) will help them know how to go about performing a task without depending on any other person for assistance, which otherwise they find embarrassing or risky as found during the interviews  The user has the freedom to choose and toggle between the split screen (with step by step demo) or single screen (without the demo) anytime during the process flow by pressing “Exit demo” when in split screen mode or “Split screen” button when in single screen mode  Encourage existing semi-literate to visit their bank branches for a demonstration by advertising through TV or radio promotions to evoke trust Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi literate people | 2008 http://www.istockphoto.com
  13. 13. Findings : Interaction flow Key Information registered: ↘Preferred Language for future interaction User opens a new bank ac at a ↘Biometric Scan information branch ↘Other information required for opening a bank a/c: Address, DOB, Pan card number, etc. ↘ATM demo and simulation given to the user to increase confidence and resolve any difficulty faced. Encourage existing Semi-Literate Users to visit bank for ATM Interaction Demo and Simulation sessions through Radio or Television promotions. ATM visit (Continued on next slide) Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi-literate people | 2008
  14. 14. Findings : Interaction flow User opens a new ↘Video is played in loop showing steps needed to perform ATM visit for biometric scan until a user tries and access it bank ac Biometric Scan to ↘Multiple recognition (scan) system – Finger, No access the ATM face and retina (at least 2 being mandatory) (Max 3 Attempts Allowed) ↘No ATM or PIN required After 3 attempts the user is directed to a customer care person live Scan through webcam who then interacts with the user to resolve the issue successful? Yes Either yes or no, this preference will be saved. However the user can choose to need split ↘The user is welcomed in Single screen display No go for split screen with a demo even in without a demo demo hisher preferred language: the single screen option. Demo split screen? Audio msg +Visual msg screen would be available at all stages of interaction. This will help enhance User control and freedom Yes With split screen option the user can see the demo related to the selected task on the left side and then perform the relevant task Split screen display on the right side of the screen. The user can switch to the single with demo is seen screen option by pressing “exit demo” button at any time. This will help enhance User control and freedom • Withdraw Based on the task the user selects, she • Deposit will see a demo (related to that task) on the left side of the screen • Mini statement No Need print? Yes Prints statement Yes Perform another Exit task? No
  15. 15. Scenarios User 1 – Mr. Baburao : Smita, his 15 year old daughter has been reminding Baburao of her last day to pay the school fees. It completely slipped his mind and tomorrow is the last day for it. Its already Wednesday, 7pm in the evening and too late to go to the bank and withdraw the money. He heard the ATM promo advertisement on a local radio channel and had been to the bank branch to go through the demo and gave necessary information required to operate it. He now has gained some confidence to go to the ATM and remove his inhibitions and withdraw amount from the ATM. He is new to the technology and hopes to get some assistance from the bank so as not to let his daughter down. User 2 – Mr. Kale : Mr. Kale had seen the ATM TV ad and was keen to know how people can use the ATM without using the ATM card and PIN. So he visits the bank branch where his necessary information was collected by the bank and the ATM usage was demonstrated. Ravi left for Mumbai to confirm his admission in Xaviers College of computer engineering. Mr. Kale is in a society meeting and gets a call from Ravi saying that he needs 10k more cash and he can send it through a friend of his who is leaving for Mumbai today. Mr. Kale remembered the split screen demo feature which would help him perform the withdrawal task even though he has never used it before. The demo at the bank branch and split screen solution helped Mr. Kale to perform his task in the time of need. Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi-literate people | 2008
  16. 16. Additional design solutions Drag and drop activity: The system in this case should be intelligent to show upfront the total available balance and how many notes the user can withdraw in what denominations. Microsoft Surface like technology could be used to match the system and the users real world. The drag and drop activity is more visual which gives the user a preference for selecting notes instead of amounts Available Balance: 500 Rs Withdraw amount: 200 Rs 100 100 100 Or 500 1000 Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs 100 100 [3 notes] Rs [1 note] Rs CANCEL DONE Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi-literate people | 2008
  17. 17. Asim Shaikh Thank you! mails4asim@gmail.com http://in.linkedin.com/in/shaikhasim Asim Shaikh | ATMs for lower income and semi literate people | 2008

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