Introduction to Website Development

            ASIM SHAHZAD
Introduction

•   What   is   the World Wide Web?
•   What   is   the Internet?
•   What   is   a website?
•   What   is  ...
Computer programming languages
Generations of computer programming
                  languages
• Pre-computer age
   – Babbage, Ada Lovelace
   – http://...
Contemporary programming Languages

•   Traditional procedural (Third generation languages—3GL)
     – Basic, C, COBOL, Fo...
The program translation process
1.   Source code
   –    Human-readable instructions using programming language
2.   Compi...
The Internet
Internet Milestones
                             http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/
                          ...
Internet services

•   WWW
•   E-mail
•   FTP
•   Others
     – Instant Messaging
     – Internet telephony
     – Usenet
...
Open source software

• Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation
   – The free software revolution
• GNU and the ...
The World Wide Web
Background of the World Wide Web

• 1989: Tim Berners-Lee invented HTML and the WWW
• 1994: World Wide Web Consortium (W3C...
How the WWW Works




               (Dennis, 2004 Figure 2-8)
Example of an HTTP Request from a
                        Web browser

 Command                URL                      HT...
HTTP response from a Web server


HTTP version   Status code   Reason
HTTP/1.1      200       OK ]- Response Status
Date: ...
History of web browsers
• Initial, and text-only
• NCSA Mosaic
   – First GUI browser, with images—gave a face to the Inte...
A grammatical note
•   “Web” or “web”, “Internet” or “internet”?
•   In English, you normally capitalize any noun that is ...
Standards
Why Standards?

• Standards provide a fixed way for hardware and/or
  software systems to communicate
• For example, since...
Types of Standards


1.   Formal: a standard developed by an industry or
     government standards-making body
        e.g...
The Standardization Processes:
                              Three Steps

1.   Specification: developing the nomenclature ...
Some Major Standards Making Bodies


• ISO: International Organization for Standardization
  (www.iso.ch)
• ITU-T: Interna...
Components of website development
Components of website development

•   Content
•   Structure
•   Format and design
•   Dynamics and interactivity
     – F...
Content

•   Purpose, goal and objectives of the site
•   Audience
•   Structure of content
•   Format and design of conte...
Structure

• HTML vs. XHTML
   – HTML: Anything goes
   – XHTML: Strict conformation to standards
• Internal file structur...
Format and design

• Graphics and aesthetics
• Functionality, usability, and accessibility
Dynamics and interactivity

• Forms
• Client-side programming
   – JavaScript, VBScript
• Server-side programming
   – Per...
Summary

• Computer programming languages of various generations
  and complexities are used for various purposes
• The In...
Thank you
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Web Introduction

  1. 1. Introduction to Website Development ASIM SHAHZAD
  2. 2. Introduction • What is the World Wide Web? • What is the Internet? • What is a website? • What is website development?
  3. 3. Computer programming languages
  4. 4. Generations of computer programming languages • Pre-computer age – Babbage, Ada Lovelace – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_engine • 1st generation (1950s): Machine language – 0s and 1s • 2nd generation (1960s): Assembly language • 3rd generation (late 1960s): High-level programming – COBOL, Fortran, BASIC, Pascal, C, C++, Visual Basic, Java, C# • Scripting: 3.5th generation – JavaScript, Perl, PHP, ASP, CFML • 4th generation: Meta languages – SQL, HTML, XML • 5th generation: Intelligent languages
  5. 5. Contemporary programming Languages • Traditional procedural (Third generation languages—3GL) – Basic, C, COBOL, Fortran • Script languages (3GL) – Perl, JavaScript, PHP, ASP, CFML • Object-oriented (3GL) – C++, Java • Visual and component-oriented (3GL) – Visual Basic, Visual C++, Delphi • Markup and modeling (Fourth generation languages—4GL) – HTML, XML, VRML • Data querying (4GL) – SQL • Web services (4GL) – Microsoft .NET, Java Web Services – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_service
  6. 6. The program translation process 1. Source code – Human-readable instructions using programming language 2. Compilation/Interpretation – Compilation: All at once, in advance • Most 3rd generation languages and below – Interpretation: Line-by-line, real-time • All 4th generation languages and above (including all scripting languages); also some 3rd generation languages 3. Machine language – Computer-readable ones and zeros – Sometimes intermediary object code
  7. 7. The Internet
  8. 8. Internet Milestones http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Internet • 1969: Originally called ARPANET, the Internet began as a US military-academic network (originally 4 nodes) • 1974: TCP/IP developed; later becomes lingua franca of the Internet • 1983: Milnet (for military) split off. After, Internet used for academic, education and research only • 1986: NSFNet created as US Internet backbone • Around 1991: commercial access to the Internet begins. • 1993: NCSA Mosaic Web browser • As of 2004, the Internet had over 280 million servers and 934 million users. Growth in the use of the Internet continues at a rapid rate. (see http://www.clickz.com/stats/)
  9. 9. Internet services • WWW • E-mail • FTP • Others – Instant Messaging – Internet telephony – Usenet – Telnet
  10. 10. Open source software • Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation – The free software revolution • GNU and the General Public License – Copyleft • Linus Torvalds and Linux – Legitimization of the free software methodology • Eric Raymond and the Open Source Initiative – Free software becomes “open source” – Commercial legitimization of free software • Netscape and Mozilla – First major traditional enterprise to go open source – Mozilla Project successfully competes in consumer market
  11. 11. The World Wide Web
  12. 12. Background of the World Wide Web • 1989: Tim Berners-Lee invented HTML and the WWW • 1994: World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) established to guide Web standards – HTML: Standard WWW markup – XML: Customizable, data-oriented markup – XHTML: Extensible, well-formed HTML – CSS: Formatting
  13. 13. How the WWW Works (Dennis, 2004 Figure 2-8)
  14. 14. Example of an HTTP Request from a Web browser Command URL HTTP version GET http://www.kelley.indiana.edu/ardennis/home.htm HTTP/1.1 ]- Request Date: Mon 06 Aug 2001 17:35:46 GMT Line User-Agent: Mozilla/6.0 ]- Web browser (this is Netscape) Referer: http://www.indiana.edu/~aisdept/faculty.htm Request Header URL that contained the link to the requested URL (Dennis, 2004 Figure 2-9)
  15. 15. HTTP response from a Web server HTTP version Status code Reason HTTP/1.1 200 OK ]- Response Status Date: Mon 06 Aug 2001 17:35:46 GMT ]- Date Response Server: NCSA/1.3 ]- Web server Header Location: http:// www.kelley.indiana.edu/adennis/home.htm ]- URL Content-type: text/html ]- Type of file <html> <head> <title>Allen R. Dennis</title> </head> <body> Response <H2> Allen R. Dennis </H2> Body <P>Welcome to the home page of Allen R. Dennis</P> </body> </html> (Dennis, 2004 Figure 2-10)
  16. 16. History of web browsers • Initial, and text-only • NCSA Mosaic – First GUI browser, with images—gave a face to the Internet • Netscape Navigator – First commercial browser • Microsoft Internet Explorer – Today’s #1 browser in market share • Mozilla Firefox – The best browser (in my own biased opinion) • Other browsers – Apple Safari, Opera, Konqueror
  17. 17. A grammatical note • “Web” or “web”, “Internet” or “internet”? • In English, you normally capitalize any noun that is unique in its entire domain, except when it is very commonly used – “The prime minister of India”—a description – But “the Prime Minister of India”—a title – “the Prime Minister”—unique, referring to the PM of Canada – “the Milky Way Galaxy”, but “the sun” and “the solar system” • Thus, it all depends on how unique and common you feel the Web and Internet are • My personal preferences: • I always capitalize “the Internet”, even as an adjective, as in, “Internet resources”. On the rare occasion that I refer to “the Net”, I also capitalize it. • The Web is more complicated: – The “World Wide Web” is always all capitalized – When referring directly to the WWW, I always capitalize “the Web” – When using the term as an adjective, I usually use small letters, as in “web resources”. – I spell “websites” and “webpages” as single words
  18. 18. Standards
  19. 19. Why Standards? • Standards provide a fixed way for hardware and/or software systems to communicate • For example, since XHTML is a standard, – Any web developer can create XHTML pages – that can be reliably served by any HTTP server – and that can be correctly viewed on any Web browser – at least, that’s the idea • By allowing hardware and software from different companies to interconnect, standards help promote competition
  20. 20. Types of Standards 1. Formal: a standard developed by an industry or government standards-making body e.g. USB, 802.11g, XML, CSS 2. De facto: standards that emerge in the marketplace and are widely used, but lack official backing by a standards-making body Intel 4x86 processor, Microsoft Windows, Macromedia Flash, Adobe PDF
  21. 21. The Standardization Processes: Three Steps 1. Specification: developing the nomenclature and identifying the problems to be addressed. 2. Identification of choices: identify solutions to the problems and choose the “optimum” solution. 3. Acceptance: defining the solution, getting it recognized by industry so that a uniform solution is accepted.
  22. 22. Some Major Standards Making Bodies • ISO: International Organization for Standardization (www.iso.ch) • ITU-T: International Telecommunications Union –Telecom Group (www.itu.int) • ANSI: American National Standards Institute (www.ansi.org) • IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (see standards.ieee.org) • IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force (www.ietf.org) • W3C: World Wide Web Consortium (www.org)
  23. 23. Components of website development
  24. 24. Components of website development • Content • Structure • Format and design • Dynamics and interactivity – Forms – Client-side programming – Server-side programming – Databases
  25. 25. Content • Purpose, goal and objectives of the site • Audience • Structure of content • Format and design of content • Interactivity and enhancement of content presentation
  26. 26. Structure • HTML vs. XHTML – HTML: Anything goes – XHTML: Strict conformation to standards • Internal file structure – Page sections – Templates • Site structure – Folder hierarchy – Content vs. resources – Maintaining file links
  27. 27. Format and design • Graphics and aesthetics • Functionality, usability, and accessibility
  28. 28. Dynamics and interactivity • Forms • Client-side programming – JavaScript, VBScript • Server-side programming – Perl, PHP, ASP, ASP.NET, ColdFusion, Python, JSP • Databases – MySQL, Access, Oracle, SQL Server
  29. 29. Summary • Computer programming languages of various generations and complexities are used for various purposes • The Internet connects computers worldwide to provide various information resources • The World Wide Web is the richest and most flexible Internet service • Standards are necessary to ensure a prolific and competitive atmosphere for web development • Components of website development: – Content – Structure – Format and Design – Dynamics and Interactivity
  30. 30. Thank you

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