Hr Management

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Hr Management

  1. 1. Human Resource Management Asim Shahzad, MIT, PMP <ul><li>The PMBOK characterizes Human Resource Management as the “processes that organize and manage the project team”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Resource Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire Project Team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Project Team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage Project Team </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Human Resource Management <ul><li>This is the project management area that holds the biggest challenges, </li></ul><ul><li>You can put tools in place that will monitor cost and schedule performance, and ensure scope is delivered </li></ul><ul><li>you can plan for and even quantify many project risks </li></ul>
  3. 3. Human Resource Management <ul><li>… But you can’t always predict with accuracy how humans will interact </li></ul><ul><li>Projects are technical problems, but they have important human dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>And that’s the big challenge… </li></ul><ul><li>How you pull a new group together, get them all to an appropriate stage of development, and get them all pulling in the same direction </li></ul>
  4. 4. Human Resource Management <ul><li>The PMBOK goes on to note that “early involvement of team members ads expertise during the planning process and strengthens commitment to the project” </li></ul><ul><li>This seems like obvious advice, but you’d be surprised how often it’s ignored </li></ul>
  5. 5. Human Resource Management <ul><li>One new boss of mine came in and – despite my six years of experience in negotiating contracts and project dates with the customer, proceeded to negotiate these things unilaterally, without my input </li></ul><ul><li>The result was a new contract with provisions potentially injurious to the company, and unrealistic project target dates </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think my level of buy-in was? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Per the PMBOK, Human Resource Planning determines </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines project roles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines responsibilities and reporting relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates the staffing management plan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Human Resource Management <ul><li>The staffing management plan is a critical step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In most companies, a project is a matrix organization overlaid onto a functional structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce role conflicts, these multiple reporting relationships must be reconciled, often by a project manager who has little authority in a weak matrix or functional organization structure </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Human Resource Management <ul><li>The project structure continuum runs in this sequence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Expeditor-Project Coordinator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projectized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Projectized structures are rare except in outsourcing contracts; project organization is usually a matrix </li></ul>
  9. 9. Human Resource Management <ul><li>In project HR Planning, the existing enterprise context must be considered </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational – How the organizations get along </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical – What types do you need? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal – The Cultural Question </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logistical – Distance between members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political – Private agendas of the mighty </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Human Resource Management <ul><li>HR Planning Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational – Strength of the project will determine strength of the project manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Bargaining Pacts – Can have their effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AT&T & Seminole County Schools examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Conditons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At Convergys, lack of sufficient Travel Budget hampered our efforts in India tremendously </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Human Resource Management <ul><li>HR Planning Assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As PM matures, lessons learned should make planning easier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Templates such as org charts, processes such as escalation procedures or conflict management approaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Checklists such as sequenced training programs, reward ideas, common project roles & responsibilities, etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Human Resource Management <ul><li>HR Planning Tools & Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Org Charts & Position Descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone should be clear regarding who is responsible for what </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Breakdown Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows work by functional department / organizational unit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Breakdown Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows work by type of resource (useful for project cost accounting) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Human Resource Management <ul><li>HR Planning Tools & Techniques (cont) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows project work by individual; clarifies roles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Text Formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position/role descriptions, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never underestimate this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>My adjunct assignments since leaving Convergys have happened due in large part to networking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Human Resource Management <ul><li>The primary HR Planning output is the Staffing Management Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Updated continually during the project to direct team acquisition & development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes sections for staff acquisition, timetable, release criteria, training needs, recognition & rewards, compliance (legal, union contracts, etc) and safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource histogram often produced showing resource requirements over the life of the project </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Acquire Project Team is “the process of obtaining the human resources needed to complete the project” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author comment dead on – if the PM is the smartest team member, the PM has failed in recruiting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If team members aren’t pre-assigned, this may require </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation skill (influence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of Virtual Teams (which in turn will require more focus on Communications) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolving individual schedule conflicts </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Acquire Project Team uses two primary techniques to accomplish his/her objective of achieving project success without increasing time or cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Loading, or allocating resources to the schedule over specific time periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Leveling, or minimizing period-to-period variations in resource loading via shifting tasks on the calendar using critical path analysis (specifically, float/slack analysis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Word of caution: Automated Leveling using PM software often (usually) pushes out completion date </li></ul>
  17. 17. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Develop Project Team is about assuring project performance by improving the members’ competencies & interactions </li></ul><ul><li>These activities yield the greatest benefit when done early in the project life cycle, but should not be ignored during the remainder of that cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Important for PM to recognize and respect the group formation cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Develop Project Team Tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Management Skills (soft skills) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal / On-the-Job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Just-in-Time concept important here </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery methodology should be matched to specific need </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team-Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myers-Briggs, DiSC, Wilson instruments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground Rule Setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-Location (if possible) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition & Reward Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should be team-based to some extent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Human Resource Management <ul><li>A few words about Reward & Recognition Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose is to incentive team to perform in a way that progresses the objectives of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should focus on controllable activities and results to be effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should never be win-lose / limited in reach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should consider cultural differences, especially on international projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on individual performance and mutual accountability </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Manage Project Team “involves tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues and coordinating changes to enhance project performance” </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the dual-reporting relationships inherent in matrix project structures </li></ul>
  21. 21. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Power is the ability to get people to do things they would otherwise not do </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s look at the types of power that can be used by the project manager in driving a project team: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate (formal position) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive (based on fear) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward (positive reinforcement based) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert (the best, but takes time to develop) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent (based on personal charisma, or reference to another) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Thamain and Wilemon’s Influence & Power Bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority (not good choice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment (future assignment influence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money (not good choice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penalty (not good choice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Challenge (one of top two choices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise (one of top two choices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PMs often do not have direct control over project staff, so must use influence carefully </li></ul>
  23. 23. Human Resource Management <ul><li>One commonly used Manage Project Team Tool is Conflict Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project team members should be encouraged to resolve their own conflicts, but the PM is responsible if those conflicts escalate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The primary output is Lessons Learned, to lessen the pain for future projects </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Conflict Management Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Solving/Confrontation (usually best) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoothing (de-emphasizing differences) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal (delaying tactic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forcing (win-lose – last resort) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choice of method should be situational </li></ul>
  25. 25. Human Resource Management <ul><li>We’re going to do a quick spin through some of the Motivational Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because project managers and team members need to know about this stuff to keep the project team members focused on the project objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If author’s GDP/Hour worked stats are correct, the US has lost its productivity edge – only working smarter versus harder/longer will get that edge back </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Motivational Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic (personal enjoyment) versus Extrinsic (reward or penalty based) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic longer-lasting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety / Security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Respect / Self-Esteem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Fulfillment / Self-Actualization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Can anyone explain how the hierarchy works? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Motivational Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herzberg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivators are factors that cause job satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actualization, personal achievement and recognition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility, advancement and growth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hygiene factors are factors that cause job dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary to avoid dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher pay, better benefits, etc </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Motivational Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McClelland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired needs of Achievement, Affiliation and Power learned over time via life experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for achievement is desire to seek attainable but challenging goals and feedback on performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for affiliation is desire to be part of a group with friendly relationships and to have roles that involve human interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for power is desire to make an impact and to be viewed as influential and effective </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Motivational Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theory X (classical systems theory) – Managers must use coercion, threats, etc, because workers want security above all else and are inherently lazy (top-down view of managing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theory Y (human relations theory) – Workers self-motivated, should be given environment to achieve goals through self-direction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ouchi’s Theory Z </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describes how workers perceive management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on Japanese approach to motivating workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes trust, quality, collective decision making and cultural values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Motivational Theories – Expectancy Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People will be motivated when </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They believe that their efforts will lead to a successful outcome which is valued, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They believe they will be rewarded for that successful outcome </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Motivational Theories – Blake Mouton Managerial Grid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers are generally motivated by a concern for people or for production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These concerns both run on a spectrum from 1 to 9, and via an instrument, managers can be placed on a grid </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Motivational Theories – Blake Mouton Managerial Grid examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The (1,1) manager is invisible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The (1,9) manager is very much focused on people, and very little on results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The (9,1) manager is very much focused on results, and very little on people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The (9,9) manager is very focused on both people and results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See where this information could help a project manager working with managers? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Motivational Theories – Covey and Improving Effectiveness (7 Habits) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be Proactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with the End in Mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put First Things First </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think Win/Win </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek First to Understand, Then to be Understood (Empathic Listening – separates good PMs from average ones!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharpen the Saw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Projects operate within an organizational context – challenge is to apply these theories and tools to the many unique teams & individuals you encounter! </li></ul>
  34. 34. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Some tips on managing project teams from your author: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage by Walking Around (feel the pulse) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do project performance appraisals (at least contribute) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand/Proactively Apply conflict mgmt strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge important issues and take action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the problem, not the person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish regular, effective meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow time for the team-building stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for social activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress team identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge individual & group accomplishments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take additional relevant actions for virtual teams </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Human Resource Management <ul><li>Some closing tips on project leadership, from someone who has been there: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share the credit, take the blame – if the project succeeds, there will be plenty of glory to go around; if not, you will be respected for having stood up and taken responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be even-handed in your approach – you can’t be effective in a leadership role if you play favorites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can’t please everyone, so you have to please yourself (Rick Nelson quote) – the PM position, by definition, requires tough decisions that will not make everyone happy; set a course and be consistent in following it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take risks and don’t be afraid to make decisions – that’s what a PM is paid to do, and you can’t be respected as one unless you step up to the whole job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a role model, and live the project’s commitments – nobody will follow someone who isn’t willing to work as hard as they are asking others to work; show you’re willing to make the same time sacrifice, and they will follow you to some pretty strange places </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Human Resource Management <ul><li>A very smart man I knew was fond of the quote “If you believe you can, you will; if you believe you can’t, you won’t” </li></ul><ul><li>There’s a lot of truth in that statement – I’ve seen many tough projects succeed and many easier one fail, all because of the project culture </li></ul><ul><li>And the culture begins with the PM </li></ul>

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