Because the Arabs were worried about the incoming alien race to a land they inhabited for 1 000 years the British were stuck between the oil and strategic interests with the Palestinians and their promise to the Jews.
As a result they put a ceiling on Jewish immigration but many Jews tried to immigrate illegally which caused bitter fighting between the two
The creation of the two states was accepted by the Jews while it was turned down by the Arabs
“ Nationalism, that is a greater force than any which drives us.”-Azzam Pasha Secretary General of the Arab League
During the Voting of the partition to instate the two states the Arab League declared that if it was vote into effect they would go to war against the Jews as soon as the British left. The Partition was accepted
April 1948 Jewish extremists of Irgun and Stern groups massacred the inhabitants of Deir Yassin, a small village near Jerusalem
Even though Ben-Gurion showed his shock of this event on TV and the Chief rabbi of Jerusalem excommunicated those who participated. This event elicited demands for vengeance and become a symbol of the homelessness of hundreds of thousands of Arab refugees
After the carnage of Deir Yassin Golda Meir was sent to the King Abjullah of Transjordan in a last ditch effort at peace
The meeting ended in failure as the King could make no decisions on his own and the Zionists refused to postpone the creation of the Jewish state
May 12: Ben-Gurion called a secret meeting of the National Council to decide what to do with the British mandate on the verge of expiring. By a vote of 6 out of 11 it was decided that the Jewish state would be declared immediately
It seems that largeness of the Zionist movement is definitely the largest cause to causing the war of 1948. It also did not help that the persecution by Russia, Poland, and Germany forced the Jewish immigrants to try and get in illegally which only worsened matters
In a close second is the fact that no one intervened. Since the USSR only wanted to help the Arabs in hope of causing confusion and gaining land there and the US would not allow it to act in fear of Soviet influence in the Middle East. Britain also was unable to act and simply gave up and did not even help enforce the UN’s partition
There is also the limited choices that were left for both sides. As a result of the alliance between the states in the Arab league King Abjullah was unable to do anything and the inability of the Jews to postpone the creation of the Jewish state forced the war to have to happen
All Jewish aviation assets were placed under the control of the Sherut Avir in November 1947 and flying operations began in the following month
By 10 May, when the SA suffered its first combat loss, there were three flying units, an air staff, maintenance facilities and logistics support. At the outbreak of the war on 15 May the SA became the Israeli Air Force, but, during the first few weeks of the war, with its fleet of light planes it was no match for Arab forces flying T-6s, Spitfires, C-47s and Avro Ansons and indeed the main Arab losses were the result of RAF action in response to Egyptian raids on the British air base at Ramat David near Haifa on 22 May during which 5 Egyptian Spitfires were shot down.
“ The heaviest fighting would occur in Jerusalem and on the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv road, between Transjordan's Arab Legion and the Israeli forces. Abdullah ordered Glubb Pasha, the commander of the Transjordanian Arab Legion, to enter Jerusalem on 17 May, and heavy house-to-house fighting occurred between 19 May and 28 May, with the Arab Legion succeeding in expelling Israeli forces from the Arab quarters of Jerusalem as well as the Jewish Quarter of the Old City. All the Jewish inhabitants of the Old City were expelled by the Jordanians. Iraqi troops failed in attacks on Jewish settlements (the most notable battle was on Mishmar HaEmek), and instead took defensive positions around Jenin, Nablus, and Tulkarm.”
“ On May 24, 1948 IDF forces at Latrun-consisting of the 7th Armoured Brigade (Israel) and the Alexandroni Brigade-attacked the Arab Legion forces in Operation "Bin-Nun A" and on June 1, 1948 the same IDF forces again attacked Latrun Arab Legion forces in Operation "Bin-Nun B". Both attacks failed and both Brigades suffered heavy casualties of a total of 139 killed.”
“ In the north, the Syrian army was blocked in the kibbutz Degania, where the settlers managed to stop the Syrian armored forces with only light weapons. One tank that was disabled by a Molotov cocktail is still present at the kibbutz. Later, an artillery bombardment, made by cannons jury-rigged from 19th century museum pieces, led to the withdrawal of the Syrians from the kibbutz.”
“ During the following months, the Syrian army was repelled, and so were the Palestinian irregulars and the ALA. In the south, an Egyptian attack was able to penetrate the defenses of several Israeli kibbutzim, but with heavy cost. This attack was stopped near Ashdod.”
The Israeli military managed not only to maintain their military control of the Jewish territories, but to expand their holdings.
Operation Dani: 11 July 1948 Israel invaded Lydda in which armies attacked from the north and east and bombers bombarded the city. The next day Israel also took over Ramle
15 July- 16 July Israel attempted to take over Latrun but failed. It tried again a second time with vehicles which included two Cromwell tanks but failed again and continued its attacks until 20 July even though there was a second truce on 18 July
Operation Dekel: While Operation Dani proceeded in the centre, Operation Dekel was carried out in the north. Nazareth was captured on 16 July and when the second truce took effect at 19:00 18 July, the whole lower Galilee from Haifa bay to the Sea of Galilee was captured by Israel.
Operation Kedem: originally planned for 8 July but was delayed because there was not much confidence in winning with out support from others. It was later planned to begin on 20:00 16 July a day before the second truce and kept on being delayed until 2:30 but not many succeeded in their missions and a retreat was called at 5:45
19:00 18 July the second truce went into effect as a result of the UN
A second proposition was written up in which Transjordan would annex Negev, al-Ramla, and Lydda. There would be a Jewish state in all of Galilee, internationalization of Jerusalem and compensation for all refugees
Between 15 October and 20 July Israel launched a series of attacks to secure its borders
Operation Hiram: 24 October the IDF tried to take over northern Galilee driving the Arab League Army and Lebanese army back to Lebanon. The operation was a complete success and by the end of the month Israel had advanced 5 miles into Lebanon
Operation Yoav: 15 October the IDF tried to wedge itself between the Egyptian forces along the coast and between the Beersheba-Hebron-Jerusalem road in northern Negev and ultimately conquer all of it. The operation was a huge success as it pushed the Egyptian forces from northern Negev, Beersheba, and Ashdod.
Operation Horev: 22 December the IDF was able to drive out the remaining Egyptian forces from Israel this would seize complete control of Negev and would ensure that the southern Israel communities would be safe and it also forced the Egyptians to cease fire after all of Negev was liberated
After the battle was won the Israeli army was able to raid Nitzana and the Sinai Peninsula which the forced the Egyptian army that encircled the Gaza Strip to retreat and accept a cease fire on January 7 a truce was declared and as a result of international pressure Israel withdrew its forces from Sinai and Gaza
In 1949, Israel signed separate armistices with Egypt on 24 February, Lebanon on 23 March, Transjordan on 3 April, and Syria on 20 July. The new borders of Israel, as set by the agreements, encompassed about 78% of mandatory Palestine as it stood after the independence of Jordan in 1946. This was about 50 percent more than the UN partition proposal allotted it. These cease-fire lines were known afterwards as the "Green Line". The Gaza Strip and the West Bank were occupied by Egypt and Transjordan respectively.
The problem rose for the new Jewish state on what to do with the Arab refugees whether to risk the destruction of the state by allowing 1 000 000 Arab refugees to return to their homes when there were only 700 000 Jews
The Jews took back few and compensated some but most were left in the refugee camps. At the same time large numbers of Jews were driven out of Iraq, Egypt, and Morocco
Early 1950s: Palestinian Arab fedayeen from the refugee population mounted raids on Israeli territory that over time increased in frequency and ferocity. The Israeli forced repelled the attacks and despite the armistice fighting still continued