Basically, in this chapter we are on a road to the Renaissance. We have just come from the Romanesque period, a time of great pilgrimage that referenced Classical forms in architecture. We have come from the Gothic period, the age of cathedral building meant to house and meet the needs of greater pilgrimage. The Gothic period also brought about a change in art-making, with a noticeable shift to direct observation and natural emotionalism. These periods lead us to this Proto-Renaissance period—one that is continually leaving behind the Italo-Byzantine styles for an even more natural style and emotionalism. Why? What makes this change occur? Art does not exist in a vacuum. It is a reflection of the worldview in which it arises—like literature, politics, religion, the sciences, its forms and styles, its questions and meanings arise in a specific culture. Also, remember that change is a rebellious act; we have to discover what is being rebelled against. This is NOT necessarily a conscious rebellion. Our job is to see why. Why rebel? What’s going on in the age before the Renaissance?Remember that the ideas that gained momentum in the 14th century—humanism, direct observation, greater concern with the solidity of forms, and the interest in illusion—became prominent in the following centuries, during a period known as the Renaissance.
Week3.15th century italian renaissance overview
15TH CENTURY ART INEUROPEThe Early Renaissance1400—1499 CE
Geography of FocusCity-Statesare growingmore stableand more incontact withinternationalcultures, i.e.Arabic cultureRepublicanStates (led bythe ―people‖)are forming—Venice,Florence
Florence, The Center of theRenaissanceA focus fortrade as youhave tointersect it toget W-E andN-S
Guiding Events and Figures These may be political, scientific, literary, philosophical, religious Johan Gutenberg invents the printing press in 1455 Between 1456 and 1500, more books published than had been copied in the previous thousand years ca. 1495, Savonarola takes control of Florence
Reflections of the Age LITERATURE PHILOSOPHY Petrarchan Sonnet Niccolo Machiavelli’s 14lines of sestet and The Prince octet based on Emphasizes the need mathematical to be feared rather proportion and than loved, if one harmony cannot be both Reducibleratios of 4:4 and 3:3 (each 1:1)
Guiding Question…What makes man great? Power (the Medici) Humanism Imitation (the Guilds and Apprentices) Reason and Mathematical Harmony Religious Piety through PortraitureHow people answer this question depends on their social status,profession, political position, and philosophical point of view.
Political PowerWhat makes Civic Dutyman great? One’s responsibility is to give back to the community From everyone who has been given much, much will be required –New American Standard Bible 1995 Much of what is commissioned is propogandic—serves the agenda of the patron first and foremost
Guilds or ArtiSecular corporations that controlled city trade Arte di Calimala (wool) Arte del Cambio (banking) Arte della Seta (silk and bronze)Social networks that provided public services Ospedale Degli InnocentiPolitical engines that run civic government
Or San Michele, Florence, ItalyMany artists of the early Renaissance will be responsible for filling the niches with commissioned works of art.
The Medici FamilyPortraits of Cosimo and Lorenzo by Bronzino and Vasari, respectively
The MediciDe facto rulers of Florence (they are notelected or royal)Bankers to the PapacyCommission architecture, paintings, andsculpture to present an identity of an educated,powerful, and religiously pious family
HumanismWhat makes Emphasis on Reasonman great? Emphasis on his ability to observe the natural world as a manifestationThat he is anindividual. of the DIVINE Emphasis on individual achievements (rather than on the collective) Education key to righteousness Classical Education Greco-Roman arts and texts
Donatello’s David First male nude since ancient history Based on proportion Heroic, idealized figure Biblical character used to personify individual triumph Stance is the contropposto Balanced Natural stance
Alberti’s, Sant’Andrea, Mantua, Italy Façade informed by Greek and Roman Temples Fluted Columns Corinthian Capitals Pediment Rounded arc h Triumphal Arch
Interior based on the Roman Forum where legal proceedings occurred Barrel Vault of the Romans Coffered Ceilings of the Pantheon Rejects the aisled basilica plan of the
ImitationWhat makes Guilds and apprenticeshipman great? What the master teaches, the apprentice should imitate exactly One’s talent lies in how well one masters the technique Little to no self-expression What is observed in nature should be represented in art
Masaccio’s Trinity,at Santa Maria Novella Faithfully represents a 3D chapel on a 2D surface Rules of Linear Perspective codified now Allows the donors to present a pious identity to the community
In subsequent work, you will learnmore about: The often ruthless politics of the Medici, who very much follow Machiavelli’s rules of power The Medici as Humanists Pious Identities of Women in Art This work will prepare you to incorporate the information in the assignments and assessments for the week