DISCLAIMERThis presentation is an overview of the material in your text. It is notcomprehensive, nor is it meant to be. This presentation allows you to introduceyourself to concepts and images in the respective chapter. Best practice says toview this presentation with your book open, as many of the images in thispresentation are small or incomplete.
Guiding Questions• In the ancient Near East, we saw how art was used to effectively conquer competing cultures.• Now the Romans have conquered. How will Roman politicians use the arts to propagate their political agendas and create a unified ROMAN identity across regions? Flavian Woman, EARLY EMPIRE
The Romans believed they were the successors in the lineage of Aphrodite and Aeneas. They also believed they were the descendants of Remus and Romulus, who were suckled by a she-wolf near the Tiber river. But, in fact, the Romans came from the Etruscans, a vivacious people known for their joy of life. Etruscan CountryWhere in the world are we?
Etruscan Temple--made of wood,Etruscan Influences porched, and single-entranced, Tumulus in Cerveteri, Italy Dancers of tomb mural, Cerveteri, ItalySelf Study: The Etruscans were contemporaries of the Greeks, and were known for theirdistinct regional style in architecture, sculpture, and painting. They buried their dead inneighborhoods of tumuli, worshipped in porched temples, and enjoyed a dynamic liveliness insculpture that the Greeks will not know until much later in their development. The Greeks andthe Etruscans are living in essentially the same geographic setting, so what do you think causeseach culture to be so different from the other? What other factors are at play?
Guiding HistoricalPeriods and Events• Etruscans are defeated in 509 BCE• Monarchy and Republican Period--753-27 BCE• Early Empire--27 BCE-96 CE (We have crossed the BCE | CE divide and can begin counting up!)• High Empire--96-192 CE• Late Empire --192-337 CE• Age of Constantine begins in 312 CE Aule Metele, Cortona, Italy, ETRUSCAN
The Republic• Marked by leadership of Senators in a constitutional government Denarius with Portrait of Julius Caesar• Republican style is veristic in which age is considered a sign of wisdom and prestige• Influenced by Etruscan and Greek cultures (temples, muralism) LEFT: Patrician Carrying Portrait Busts of Ancestors, RIGHT: Head of an Old Man, Osimo, Italy
EarlyEmpire• Marked by leadership of single Emperors• Style fluctuates between an Augustan idealism and a Republican verism• Arts used to convey political agenda of Emperor CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT: Augustus as General, Primaporta, Italy; Ara Pacis, Rome, Italy; Arch of Titus, Rome Italy
High Empire• Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent• A golden age in Roman arts CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT: Trajan’s Column, Rome, Italy; Pantheon Interior, Rome, Italy; Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, Rome Italy
Late Empire• Roman Empire is in decline• The arts become CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT: Portrait Bust of less Trajan Decius; Portrait Bust of Caracala; Portrait Bust of Philip the Arab Classical and reveal the emotional turmoil of the age
Age of Constantine• Constantine mandates the Edict of Milan, which grants CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT: Colossal religious Statue of Constantine, Rome, Italy; Triumphal Arch of Constantine, Rome, freedom to all Italy; Aula Palatine, Trier, Germany religious Jewish, Pagan, and Christian• Returns to an Augustan idealism in his artistic campaign
In subsequent presentations, you will explore: • Public Urban Design and Private Space Decoration • Architectural Innovations in Conquering • Roman Influences on Modern Day