Teachers’ Competences to Meet Teaching Learning Quality

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This presentation talks about what teachers should have to achieve quality teaching and learning process.

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Teachers’ Competences to Meet Teaching Learning Quality

  1. 1. teachers’ competences to meet teaching learning quality asih nurakhir post graduate program semarang state university
  2. 2. Indonesian teachers in past and present times In Indonesia, teachers are classified both as educators and civil servants. As civil servants, Indonesian teachers have traditionally answered to the government, not students, parents, or local school boards (Bjork, 2006) MEANWHILE The Indonesian government is depending on classroom teachers to take leading role in the process of educational decentralization (Bjork, 2006)
  3. 3. Next… UNFORTUNATELLY  The meager compensation teachers receive for their work can also weaken their commitment to the schools (Bjork, 2006)  Teachers were rarely observed in class, and their instructional abilities were not evaluated (Bjork, 2006) EVENTHOUGH a) Teachers often endure unpleasant work conditions, low pay, and feelings of isolation in exchange for the physical rewards they derive from their interactions with children (Lortie, 1975 in Bjork 2006) b) A primary motivation for most teachers is the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of children (Bjork, 2006)
  4. 4. Next.. AS RESULTS  Teaching is not perceived not as a full time responsibility but as a part time occupation often secondary to farming, business or home keeping. (World Bank 1989, in Bjork 2006) Besides, dealing with teachers’ recruitment:  The pegawai negeri test has failed to recruit properly qualified teachers because their testing neglects the prerequisite for a good teacher, that is pedagogical ability (Zulfikar, 2009)
  5. 5. FINALLY, WHAT HAPPENS?  Despite the significant roles of teachers in the classrooms, many Indonesian teachers have been found to lack of teaching competence (Azra, 2002 in Zulfikar 2009)  Lack of teaching competences results in poor academic achievement (Zulfikar, 2009) SO, WHAT TO DO? • Education system reform. • Teachers’ competence should be highlighted. What competences?
  6. 6. A wise word… no poor students but uncreative teachers instead
  7. 7. Teachers’ main competencies  Teachers’ competences play significant roles for the success of education. Thus first significant attempts to change is what should teachers have to teach. 1) Content area knowledge  To teach successfully, teachers should acquire in-depth knowledge of the subject matter or the content of the subjects (Zulfikar, 2009)  Teaching necessarily begins with a teacher’s understanding of what to be learned and how it is to be taught (Shulman, 1987)
  8. 8. Teachers’ main competencies 2) Pedagogical knowledge  The formulation of teaching requires basic skills, content knowledge, and general pedagogical knowledge (Shulman, 1987)  To teach effectively and successfully, teachers need sufficient pedagogical knowledge. This means that teachers should be able to build an effective learning environment which nurtures students’ intelligence (Bransford et al, 1999; Donovan and Bransford, 2005 in Zulfikar, 2009)
  9. 9. Teachers’ main competences 3) Pedagogical content knowledge  To succeed in teaching, teachers should need to understand pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). PCK is an in-depth understanding of the content knowledge of the subject and the methods of teaching that content knowledge. (Zulfikar, 2009)  Pedagogical content knowledge represents the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and presented for instruction. (Shulman, 1987)
  10. 10. Teachers’ main competences 4) Communication skills  Not only should teachers exhibit the skills necessary for communicating ideas clearly to students, but they must also communicate with parents, other teachers, their administrators and their communities. They must be open, approachable and diplomatic in conveying information (Kjerston, 2010)  Communication deals with the means of technology, thus teachers should also be technology literate 5) Professionalism  Teachers’ excellence is reflected in a professional's efforts toward continual improvement in their field. Professional teachers are marked by their personal presentation, reflection, collaboration, the desire to advance and adaptability (Kjerston, 2010)
  11. 11. References  Bjork, C. (2006). Transferring authority to local communities in Indonesia: Ambitious planes, mixed results. In C. Bjork (Ed.), Educational decentralization : Asian experiences and conceptual contributions (pp.129-148). NY: Springer  Zulfikar, T. (2009). The making of Indonesian education: An overview of empowering Indonesian teachers. Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities, (2), pp.13-39.  Kjersten MacKensie (2010). Characteristics of teacher competences, retrieved on July 11 at 19.00 from http://www.ehow.com/list_6060196_characteristics-teacher-competencies

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