Status of-women-in-islam

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Status of-women-in-islam

  1. 1. BASED ON THE BOOK“WOMAN BETWEEN ISLAM AND WESTERN SOCIETY” BY MAULANA WAHIDUDDIN KHAN
  2. 2. PART ONESTATUS OF WOMEN BEFOREISLAM
  3. 3. Darkness
  4. 4. BIG FISH EATS LITTLE FISH
  5. 5. ESTABLISHED BIOLOGICAL FACTS MAN WOMAN(BIOLOGICALLY STRONGER) (BIOLOGICALLY WEAKER)*physically bigger *physically smaller* stronger *weaker*↑ BMR *↓BMR *↑Hemoglobin *↓Hemoglobin *physically fit throughout youth *frequently incapacitated during Youth -Menstruation -Pregnancy -Lactation -Rearing children -House work*emotionally stronger *emotionally weakerEMOTIONAL & PHYSICAL STRENGTH FEMININE QUALITIES OFCARE & GENTLENESSRESPONSIBILITY OUTSIDE THE HOME ESSENTIAL TO MAKE A HOME PRINCIPLE OF DIVISION OF LABOR
  6. 6. WOMEN IN ANCIENT SOCIETY THE DOWNGRADING OF WOMEN HUMAN NATURE TO EXALT THE SUPPOSEDLY GREAT ANDDEPRECATE THE SUPPOSEDLY INFERIOR
  7. 7. THE LAW NO SHARE IN THE FAMILY PROPERTY LITTLE DISTINCTION BETWEEN FEMALE AND SLAVE FEMALE INFANTICIDE HUMILIATION TO BE THE FATHER OF A FEMALE CHILD SUBJUGATION OF FEMALES BY MALES
  8. 8. THE BELIEFS (A) CULTURED SOCIETIES•GREEK MYTHOLOGY:WHICH SPREAD TO ALL OVER EUROPEThe first woman PANDORA was sent down into the world with abox containing all kinds of misery and evil. The moment the boxwas opened the world has been plagued with wickedness andsorrow.•EVE THE TEMPTRESS:Eve tempted Adam to eat from the forbidden tree and was thereason for their expulsion from a life of comfort and happiness.This is the burden of the Original Sin which has to be shared bythe entire human race. (Encyclopedia Britannica.1984;19:909)
  9. 9. THE BELIEFS CULTURED SOCIETIES continued …•CELIBACY AS THE CRITERION OF PIETY:The fundamental reason was the concept of the inferior status ofwomen. In some countries, women were considered subhumanand a source of sin. Those who associated with them wereconsidered inferior. Sanctity was achieved through celibacy.•ROMAN TEACHERS:The ideal teacher was the one who never married.•JAIN COMMUNITY:“Woman to a monk is like a cat to a chicken”
  10. 10. THE BELIEFS CULTURED SOCIETIES continued …•ATHENS:“The status of women had degenerated to that of slaves. Wiveswere secluded in their homes, had no education and few rightsand were considered by their husbands no better than cattle. Inancient Rome a woman’s legal position was of completesubordination, first to the power of her father or brother and laterto her husband who had paternal power over his wife. In theeyes of the law females were regarded as imbeciles. (Encyclopedia Britannica.1984;vol 19:pg909)•ARISTOTLE:He maintained that women have fewer teeth than men althoughhe was twice married. It never occurred to him to verify hisstatement by examining his wives’ mouths. (Bertrand Russell .The impact of science on society.1976:pg 17)
  11. 11. (B) PRIMITIVE TRIBAL SOCIETIESTHE ARABS• DAUGHTERS BURIED ALIVE:A grave was dug next to a woman in labor so that if the babywas a girl she could be buried instantly without the mother evenseeing her.• INNUMERABLE MARRIAGES AND DIVORCES: *One woman could be married to many men *Man could keep on divorcing her and reclaiming her as often as he wanted to torture her
  12. 12. (B) PRIMITIVE TRIBAL SOCIETIES continued…•WIDOWS:*Became the property of the heirs.*Stepson could marry his widowed stepmotherTHE HINDUS•WOMAN COULD NOT INHERIT:At time of marriage dowry(jahez) was given to the groom tothank him for accepting the inferior creature•SATEE:Widow did not have a right to live after her husband died. shehad to jump into the funeral pyre with him
  13. 13. PART TWOGUIDANCE OF ALLAH
  14. 14. THE DAWN OF ISLAM
  15. 15. THE LIGHT OF ISLAMTHE INTELLECTUAL REVOLUTION MONDAY, 22nd APRIL 571 AD:- In this darkness, AllahSWT sends His Messenger SAW. The light of Islam, the Quran, is first revealed to Rasool Allah SAW at the age of 40 in the cave of Hira
  16. 16. THE GUIDANCE OF AL-QURANREGARDING WOMEN SURAH AN NISA: 19 “O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will; and you should not treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the Mahr you have given them unless they commit open indecency; and live with them honourably. If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and Allah brings through it a great deal of good”. SURAH E BAQARAH:228 “…And women have rights over their husbands similar to those of their husbands over them, to what is reasonable, but men have a degree(of responsibility) over them and Allah is all mighty, all wise”.
  17. 17. THE GUIDANCE OF AL-QURAN contd… SURAH AN NISA:7 “There is a share for men and a share for women from what is left by parents and those nearest related, whether the property be small or large , a legal share” SURAH AR RUM:21 “And among his signs is this, that he created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find comfort in them, and he has put between you love and mercy. Verily in that are indeed signs for a people who reflect”.
  18. 18. THE GUIDANCE OF AL-QURAN contd… SURAH AN NAHL:97 “Whoever works righteously, whether male or female, while he is a believer, verily, to him we will give a good life and we shall reward them in proportion to the best of what they used to do”. SURAH AT TAUBAH:71 “The believers, men and women, are the supporters of one another; they enjoin the good and forbid the evil: they perform AsSalat and give the Zakat and obey Allah and his messenger. Allah will have his mercy on them. Surely Allah is all-mighty, all- wise”. SURAH AL IMRAN:195 “Their lord answers them saying ‘Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female. You are one of another…”
  19. 19. TEACHINGS OF RASOOL ALLAHSAW REGARDING WOMEN “Take my advice with regard to women. Act kindly towards them”. (Saheeh Bukhari And Muslim) “The best among you is he who is the best to his family and for my family I am the best of all of you” (Ibn e Majah) “No man should hate a believing woman for if there is any habit of hers that displeases him there will be some other habit of hers which pleases him”
  20. 20. TEACHINGS OF RASOOL ALLAHSAW REGARDING WOMEN contd… “The world is a fleeting enjoyment and the best enjoyment is a righteous woman” (Saheeh Muslim) “The most perfect man of religion is one who excels in character. The best among you is he who gives the best treatment to his womenfolk” (At Tirmidhi) “Shall I not tell you what the best form of wealth is? It is a pious woman who is a delight to her husband’s eyes and who obeys when asked to do anything and who looks after his interests when he is away”
  21. 21. TEACHINGS OF RASOOL ALLAHSAW REGARDING WOMEN contd… “Women are the complementary part of men” (Abu Dawud) “Fear Allah in respect of women” (Ibn Majah) “Heaven lies at the feet of the mother” (Jami As Sagheer) “The one who brings up three daughters, teaches them good manners and morals, arranges their marriages and treats them with fairness, deserves to be ushered into paradise”
  22. 22. TEACHINGS OF RASOOL ALLAHSAW REGARDING WOMEN contd… “Shall I not tell you what the best object of charity is? It is your own daughter who has returned to you as a widow or divorcee and who has no one to earn for her except you” (Ibn Majah)
  23. 23. RIGHTS THAT ISLAM GIVES TO WOMEN AN INTELLECTUAL REVOLUTION
  24. 24. EQUALITY BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN IS IN STATUS, NOT IN THE WORKPLACE Human equality does not mean that every man should be engaged in the same work as every one else Men and women were created different to serve separate purposes (FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION) When put in their respective fields they will be equally successful although in different wayse.g. What will happen if Einstein is put in a boxing ring? What will happen if Mohammad Ali is put in a scientific conference?
  25. 25. RESPECT FOR WOMEN Rasool Allah SAW was the first historical personality to break the false myths which subjugated women in which sanctity was based on celibacy. He showed that spirituality meant adhering to the limits set by Allah while remaining in the midst of family. Woman was shown to be a source of goodness rather than evil.
  26. 26. WOMAN’S HONOR WAS  SACROSANCT will be cursed “Whoever slanders a chaste innocent woman in this world and in the hereafter and for them is a mighty punishment” (Surah e Noor:23) “… 80 lashes for slandering a chaste woman” (Surah e Noor:4) “… 100 lashes for rape” (Surah e Noor:2) “If the rapist is a married man, stone him to death”. (Abu Dawud)
  27. 27.  “The blood, property and honor of every Muslim (male or female) is sacrosanct for the others” (Saheeh Muslim) “A woman went out to pray the night prayer and a man raped her on the way. Hearing her screams people caught the rapist. Rasool Allah SAW ordered him to be stoned to death and let the woman go.” (Tirmidhi & Abu Dawud) “A boy had illicit relations with his employer’s wife. His father gave 100 goats and a female slave to the woman’s husband to get the crime forgiven. When the case came to Rasool Allah saw he ordered the return of the gifts and ordered the Hadd punishment on the adulterer and the adulteress.” (Saheeh Bukhari) (There is NO recompense or forgiveness acceptable for this crime)
  28. 28. SANCTITY OF A WOMAN’S LIFE In the Jahilia period a woman’s life had no worth *Allah SWT says “When the girl who was buried alive will be asked for what crime she was killed” (Surah Takweer:8-9) * “A Jew killed a girl in Rasool Allah’s SAW time. He ordered the Jew to be killed” (Saheeh Bukhari)
  29. 29. REWARD FOR GOOD DEEDSIn Islam the reward for doing good is same for males and females* “Whoever does righteous deeds, man or woman, provided he is a believer, will enter Jannah where they will be given abundant provision” (Surah Ghafir:40)* “The noblest of you, with Allah, is the one who is most pious” (Surah e Hujurat:13)
  30. 30. RIGHT TO EDUCATION “It is compulsory on every Muslim to get education” (Tabarani) “Rasool Allah had fixed a separate day of the week to teach SAW the Muslim women when he would advise them and teach them the commands of the Shariah” (Saheeh Bukhari)
  31. 31. RIGHT TO OWN PROPERTY In Europe this was not achieved till the 19th century. In India this was enacted in 1956 In Islam ,1400 years ago, a Muslim woman had a right to own property(a) Inheritance(b) Meher (Father/brother had no right to it)(c) Husband had to provide for the family (even if the woman was wealthy) Women did not need to work outside the house to support the family.(d) Daughter is supported by her father Sister by her brother Wife by her husband Mother by her son
  32. 32. RIGHT TO MARRYMarriage is invalid without her consent. Butguardian’s consent is additional to this toprotect her from mistakes due to her youthand inexperience.
  33. 33. RIGHT TO DIVORCE“A woman complained to Rasool Allah SAWabout her husband. He asked her if shewould return the orchard he gave her asMeher. When she said she would RasoolAllahSAW called her husband and asked him totake back the orchard and he then dissolvedthe marriage.” (Saheeh Bukhari)
  34. 34. RIGHTS AS A WIFE The husband has to provide for her needs. “And live with them with kindness” (Surah An Nisa:19) “You have rights over your wives and they have rights over you. Your right is that they shall not permit anyone you dislike to enter your home and their right is that you should treat them well in the matter of food and clothing” (Tirmidhi) “The believers who show the most perfect faith are those who have the best behaviour and the best of you are those who are the best to their wives” (Tirmidhi) “Whatever you spend seeking thereby the pleasure of Allah will have its reward even the morsel which you put in the mouth of
  35. 35. RIGHTS AS A DAUGHTER “Whenever FatimaRA visited her father, he would get up from his seat, kiss her forehead, hold her hand and make her sit in his seat. Whenever he visited her, she did the same.” (Abu Dawood) “Whoever supports two daughters till they attain maturity, he and I will come on the day of resurrection like this…” Rasool Allah SAW then joined his first two fingers.” (Saheeh Muslim) “O Allah I declare inviolable the rights of two weak ones, the orphans and women.”
  36. 36. AishaRA “A woman came to me with her two daughters asking for charity. She found nothing with me except one date fruit which I gave to her. She accepted it and divided it between her two daughters and she ate nothing out of it. She then got up and left. When Rasool AllahSAW came I narrated the story to him .He said “whoever is involved( in the responsibility) of (bringing up) daughters and is kind towards them, then they would become protection for him against hell fire”                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Bukhari & Muslim)
  37. 37. RIGHTS AS A MOTHER “We have enjoined man concerning his parents, his mother carried him in her womb while suffering weakness upon weakness and then weans him in two years. Give thanks to me and to your parents and towards me is your final destination. If they argue with you to commit shirk of which you have no knowledge, then do not obey them, yet treat them kindly in this world” (Surah e Luqman:14-15) “Asma bint e Abu Bakr asked Rasool AllahSAW “My mother who is a polytheist and ill dispossessed towards Islam has come to visit me. Shall I maintain relations with her?” He replied “Yes, maintain relations with your mother” (Bukhari & Muslim)
  38. 38. RIGHTS AS A MOTHER“A man asked Rasool AllahSAW “Who among thepeople deserves the best treatment from me?” Rasool AllahSAW said “Your mother!” The man asked“Then who?” He said “Your mother!” He again asked“Then who?” He again said “Your mother!” He againasked “Then who?” He said “Then your father!” (Bukhari & Muslim)
  39. 39. RIGHTS AS A MOTHERe.g. British pop singer Cat Stevens (of the 70s) who embraced Islam and is known as Yusuf Islam , was asked by a Jewish woman how he intended to deal with Islam’s ‘degradation’ of women. He said he hadn’t actually studied women’s status in Islam but for his own part, since his conversion he has asked his mother to come and live with him and he loved looking after her. His relations with his wife have also considerably improved!
  40. 40. STATUS OF WOMEN IN ISLAM Islam sees man and woman as naturally different and thus advocates the principle of division of labor rather than equality of labor! The strength of a building lies in the quality of its individual bricks. Home is the basic unit of society. It is the training ground for future generations. Woman’s work is of prime importance and can never be considered inferior! Islam raised the status of women without sacrificing their femininity or traditional values!
  41. 41. PART THREETHE SECOND DARKNESS
  42. 42. THE SECOND DARKNESS
  43. 43. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (Late 18th century)
  44. 44. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (Late 18th century) Great Britain becomes the workshop of the world. The Revolution then spreads to the rest of the world. More workers are needed Jobs are created which can be done by women too No concept of segregation of the genders, in the West
  45. 45.  Women share the responsibility of becoming bread winners Economic independence Break out of the shackles of domesticity
  46. 46. MODERN THINKING:1) Giving equal status to women meant standing women face to face with men in all facets of life without any regard to practical and moral problems2) Any role other than the masculine role is inferior
  47. 47. WOMEN’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT
  48. 48. WOMEN’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT (Late 1960s) Now (National Organization for Women) established Civil rights body for women demanding equal pay, access to education, politics and economic power. 1972-London- Mary Wollstonecraft “a vindication of the rights of women”
  49. 49.  19th century – Industrial Revolution reaches USA Women’s Lib reaches its zenith in the 20th century.
  50. 50.  CA N”  MAN H A T  A TH ING T  DO  ANY AN OM AN C“A W “THE DIF FE WOMAN RENCE BETWEEN  IS DUE T AND NO O SOCIA  A MAN AND  A  T DUE TO L CONDI  INHERE TIONING NT NATU   RE” “A WOMAN SHOULD WORK SHOULDER TO SHOULDER WITH A MAN”
  51. 51.  1920- USA: Women get the right to vote 1930- USA: Women enter colleges expecting to enter professions 1972-“By all means the American woman of today should be the happiest .She’s healthier, better dressed, more comfortable and pampered by gadgets. But there’s a worm in the apple. She’s restless and no longer content to be a homemaker, wife and mother” (Bonnie Angelo.Time Magazine.)
  52. 52. (1) EQUALITY ?
  53. 53. ECONOMIC EQUALITY? 200 years later women still lag behind. “In the economic sphere, women who work outside the home are heavily concentrated in the lowest paying work and that having the lowest status. Women earn less than men in the same kind of job. USA – Women earn 60% that of men JAPAN – Women earn 55% that of men” (Encyclopedia Britannica;1982)
  54. 54. “The central fact is that women and men aredifferent from each other from the gene to thethought to the action. These differences flowfrom the biological nature of men andwomen. Does this mean that men are betterthan women? No, not better but different” - Prof. Steven Goldberg. New York. ”The Inevitability Of Patriarchy”
  55. 55. “The feminist cannot have it both ways. If shewishes to sacrifice her femininity all she’ll getin return is the right to meet men on maleterms. She’ll lose” - Daily Express, London, 1977
  56. 56. “Women should develop their aptitudes inaccordance with their own nature, withouttrying to imitate men. Their part in theprogress of civilization is higher than that ofmen. They should not abandon their specificfunction” -Nobel Laureate Dr Alexis Carrel. Man The Unknown. New York;1949:91
  57. 57. (2) HARASSMENT IN THE WORK PLACE
  58. 58.  It is endemic 50% us women have suffered from colleagues and superiors Difficult for a rape victim to prove, how much more difficult for a victim of less dramatic violence ! (e.g. Saga of the IMF Chief: Strauss-Kahn)
  59. 59.  Woman is helpless! She has already left her parents and husband and needs to work for a living. If she leaves the office, she has nowhere to go! Can a law prevent a bull trampling on a bird if we hold that they are equal to fight a duel ?
  60. 60. (3)BREAKDOWN OF THE MARRIAGE BOND
  61. 61.  Unlimited freedom → Breakdown of the traditional institution of marriage Marriage considered superfluous → Unmarried couples can live together and change partners freely
  62. 62. (4) DIVORCE RATE CLIMBS
  63. 63.  FRANCE – 50% marriages end in divorce CANADA – 40% USA – Divorce rate = Marriage rate 10% Women have gone through divorce - Plain Truth;1987
  64. 64. (5) JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
  65. 65.  Broken homes Illegitimate children 1985 – UK – 1 in 5 children are illegitimate 1 in 3 conceived by unmarried parents - Encyclopedia Britannica.1984;vol 5:pg273 Psychological problems in children→ Crime (e.g. Charles Sobhraj) Women encouraged to abandon children and homes and enter illicit relations → Children deprived of the blessing of parents.
  66. 66. (6) UNWANTED PREGNANCIES
  67. 67. 1 in 10 girls, in USA, between 15 and 19get pregnant - Plain Truth, Sept 1986
  68. 68. (7) THE NEW FEMINISM (1970s)
  69. 69.  Young women encouraged to stay single ↑ Use of contraception “Pill = Freedom” Abortion legalised (mid 1960s ) “51% males think that US society exploits women as much as blacks” - “Psychology Today” survey ↑ Female suicide rate : L.A. ,1960, 35% suicides are by females 1970,45%
  70. 70. (8) DECLINING POPULATION
  71. 71.  ↑ Average age for marriage 1960 – 1988 – Birth rate dropped by 50% Voluntary childlessness is acceptable “One and Done” 25% of young women of the 1970s will never have children 1990 – 4 in 10 US families have children
  72. 72. CONCLUSION The rot in western society is the result of putting into practice the principles in which they believe Colonization, industrial revolution, occupation of countries and the media have spread this ideology to the rest of the world
  73. 73.  The rot in Muslim society is the result of deviation from Islam, a gap between principle and practice The cure is to return to Islamic principles
  74. 74.  IN THIS LIESTHE SECRET OF WOMEN’SEMANCIPATION! “ISLAM”
  75. 75. REFERENCES The Noble Quran Riyad-us-Saliheen Woman between Islam and Western Society by Maulana Wahiduddin Khan The Book of Marriage by Iqbal Kailani The Prophet of Revolution by Maulana Wahiduddin Khan

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