Motivation from Concepts to Application by Iqbal


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Explains how to motivate employees on job by using various pay methods and other types of motivational tools.

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Motivation from Concepts to Application by Iqbal

  1. 1. OB<br />MotivationFrom Concepts to Applications<br />
  2. 2. #1<br />Job Characteristics Model <br />And<br />The Way it Motivates by Changing<br /> Work Environment<br />
  3. 3. Job Design Theory<br />Job Characteristics Model<br />A Model that Identifies five job characteristics and their relationship to personal and work outcomes.<br />Characteristics<br />Skill variety<br />Task identity<br />Task significance<br />Autonomy<br />Feedback<br />
  4. 4. Job Design Theory<br />Job Characteristics Model<br />Jobs with skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and for which feedback of results is given, directly affect three psychological states of employees:<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of results
  5. 5. Meaningfulness of work
  6. 6. Personal feelings of responsibility for results</li></ul>Increases in these psychological states result in increased motivation, performance, and job satisfaction.<br />
  7. 7. Job Design Theory<br />Skill Variety<br />The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities (how may different skills are used in a given day, week, month?)<br />Task Identity<br />The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work (from beginning to end) <br />Task Significance<br />The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people<br />
  8. 8. Job Design Theory<br />Autonomy<br />The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out<br />Feedback<br />The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance<br />
  9. 9. #2<br />Ways of<br />Redesigning The Job<br />
  10. 10. Job Design Theory<br />Job Rotation<br />The periodic shifting of a worker from one task to another<br />Job Enlargement<br />The horizontal expansion of jobs<br />Job Enrichment<br />The vertical expansion of jobs<br />
  11. 11. #3<br />Work Arrangements<br />&<br />How they Motivate<br />
  12. 12. Alternative Work Arrangements<br />Beyond redesigning the nature of work itself and involving employees in decisions, another approach to making the work environment more motivating is to alter work arrangements. There are three alternative work arrangements:<br /><ul><li> Flextime
  13. 13. Job sharing
  14. 14. telecommuting</li></li></ul><li>Alternative Work Arrangements<br />Flextime<br />Employees work during a common core time period each day but have discretion in forming their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core.<br />The work timings are generally so designed and decided such that there are maximum possible employees available when they are needed the most. Earlier Flextime was regarding as a good way of managing the employees, but now the companies around the world are widely practicing it.<br />
  15. 15. Alternative Work Arrangements<br />Flextime Benefits<br />The obvious benefit to an employer is the ability to accommodate employees who have trouble balancing their jobs and their families. In order to retain those employees it would be in the company's best interests to allow their staff to have a flexible schedule. You'll gain increased productivity and worker satisfaction, along with decreased absenteeism and turnover--all great money-savers for your company<br />
  16. 16. Alternative Work Arrangements<br />Job Sharing<br /><ul><li>The practice of having two or more people split a 40-hour-a-week job.
  17. 17. Job sharing is an employment arrangement where typically two people are retained on a part-time or reduced-time basis to perform a job normally fulfilled by one person working full-time
  18. 18. Job sharing allows an organization to draw on the talents of more than one individual in a given job it increases flexibility. It can increase motivation and satisfaction for those to whom a 40 hour a week job is just not practical</li></li></ul><li>Job Sharing<br />Advantages<br />For employees seeking more free time for themselves, job sharing may be a way to take back more control of their personal lives. Employees who job share frequently attribute their decision to "quality of life" issues. Studies have shown that net productivity increases when two people share the same 40-hour job. <br />Disadvantages<br />conflicting decisions due to poor communication between the job sharers<br />There may be confusion from clients who have to deal with two separate people<br />
  19. 19. Alternative Work Arrangements<br />Telecommuting<br /> Employees do their work at home on a computer that is linked to their office<br />Categories of Telecommuting Jobs<br />Routine information-handling tasks<br />Mobile activities<br />Professional and other knowledge-related tasks<br />
  20. 20. Alternative Work Arrangements<br />Telecommuting<br />Employees do their work at home at least two days a week on a computer that is linked to their office.<br />The Virtual Office<br />Employees work out of their home on a relatively permanent basis.<br />Typical Telecommuting Jobs<br />Professional and other knowledge-related tasks<br />Routine information-handling tasks<br />Mobile activities<br />
  21. 21. Telecommuting<br />Advantages<br /><ul><li>Higher Productivity
  22. 22. Less Turnover</li></ul>Disadvantages<br /> For people for have high social need, telecommunicating can increase feelings of isolation<br />
  23. 23. Performance = f(A x M x O)<br />
  24. 24. #4<br />Give Examples of employee involvement measures and show how they can motivate employees?<br />
  25. 25. Employee Involvement Program<br />A participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success<br />
  26. 26. Examples of Employee Involvement<br />Participative Management<br />Subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors<br />Representative Participation<br />Workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees.<br />Works Councils<br />Groups of nominated employees who must be consulted when management makes decisions about personnel<br />Board Representative<br />A form of representative participation; employees sit on a company’s board of directors and represent the interests of the firm’s employees.<br />
  27. 27. Examples of Employee Involvement<br />Quality Circle<br />A work group of employees who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions, and take corrective actions<br />
  28. 28. EI Programs and Motivation Theories<br />Employee Involvement Programs<br />Theory Y(Believing Employees Want to Be Involved)<br />Two-Factor Theory(Intrinsic Motivation)<br />ERG Theory(EmployeeNeeds)<br />
  29. 29. #6<br />Show how Flexible Benefits <br />turn benefits into motivators?<br />
  30. 30. Flexible Benefits<br />Employees tailor their benefit program to meet their personal need by picking and choosing from a menu of benefit options.<br />
  31. 31. Flexible Benefits<br />Modular Plans <br />Predesigned benefits packages for specific groups of employees<br />Core-Plus Plans<br />A core of essential benefits and a menu-like selection of other benefit options<br />Flexible Spending Plans <br />Allow employees to use their tax-free benefit dollars to purchase benefits and pay service premiums<br />
  32. 32. #5<br />How different Variable-pay<br />Programs can increase employee motivation?<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Rewarding Employees: 4 Aspects<br /><ul><li>What to Pay (Internal vs. external equity)
  35. 35. How to Pay (e.g., Piece rate, merit based, bonuses, profit sharing, gain sharing, ESOPs, skill-based pay)
  36. 36. What Benefits to Offer (e.g., Flexible benefits)
  37. 37. How to Recognize Employees</li></li></ul><li>Rewarding Employees<br />Variable Pay Programs<br />A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual and/or organization measure of performance.<br /><ul><li> Piece rate pay plans
  38. 38. Profit sharing plans
  39. 39. Gain sharing plans</li></li></ul><li>Variable Pay Programs<br />Piece Rate Pay Plans<br />Workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed.<br />Profit Sharing Plans<br />Organization-wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability<br />Gain Sharing<br />An incentive plan in which improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated.<br />
  40. 40. Rewarding Employees<br />Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)<br />Company-established benefit plans in which employees acquire stock as part of their benefits.<br />
  41. 41. Rewarding Employees<br />Skill-based Pay Plans<br />Pay levels are based on how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do.<br />Benefits of Skill-based Pay Plans:<br />Provides staffing flexibility<br />Facilitates communication across the organization<br />Lessens “protection of territory” behaviors<br />Meets the needs of employees for advancement (without promotion)<br />Leads to performance improvements<br />
  42. 42. Rewarding Employees<br />Drawbacks of Skill-based Pay Plans:<br />Lack of additional learning opportunities that will increase employee pay<br />Continuing to pay employees for skills that have become obsolete<br />Paying for skills that are of no immediate use to the organization<br />Paying for a skill, not for the level of employee performance for the particular skill<br />
  43. 43. #7<br />Intrinsic Rewards<br />And<br />Their Motivational Benefits<br />
  44. 44. Employee Recognition Programs<br />Intrinsic rewards: Stimulate Intrinsic Motivation <br />Personal attention given to employee<br />Approval and appreciation for a job well done<br />Growing in popularity and usage<br />Benefits of Programs<br />Fulfill employees’ desire for recognition<br />Inexpensive to implement <br />Encourages repetition of desired behaviors<br />Drawbacks of Programs<br />Susceptible to manipulation by management <br />
  45. 45. E X H I B I T 7–2<br />From the Wall Street Journal, October 21, 1997. Reprinted by permission of Cartoon Features Syndicate.<br />
  46. 46. Implication for Managers<br />In Order to Motivate Employees<br /><ul><li>Recognize individual differences
  47. 47. Use goals and feedback
  48. 48. Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them
  49. 49. Link rewards to performance
  50. 50. Check the system for equity</li></li></ul><li>Thank you !<br />