Augmented Social Innovation

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Augmented Social Innovation

  1. 1. Augmenting Human Innovation with Social Cognition Ashwin Ram Cognitive Computing Lab
  2. 2. Collaborators RSs / Postdocs Hua Ai Santi Ontañón Marco Antonio Pedro Pablo Juan Santamaría Faculty Mark Riedl Charles Isbell Michael Mateas Startup Preetha Ram Chris Sprague Antonio Salazar Sid Gupta Jon Birdsong PhD students Manish Mehta Saurav Sahay Steve Urban Toni Barella Alex Zook Denis Aleshin Brian Sherwell David Llanso Iulian Radu Neha Sugandh Christina Strong Peng Zang MS students Sanjeet Hajarnis Christina Leber Ken Hartsook Hayley Borck Kane Bonnette Anna-Marie Mansour Jai Rad Rushabh Shah Kinshuk Mishra Manu Sharma Dev Priya Undergrads Paritosh Mohan Gabriel Cebrian Sam Kim Katie Long Tom Amundsen Eric Johnson Alistair Jones Christina Lacey Andrew Trusty Funding DARPA NSF ONR ARL AFRL AFOSR ARDA (IARPA) Disney SAIC Yamaha GM Lockheed GE DEC GRA NSF NIH
  3. 3. My Background Ø BTech EE IIT Delhi 1982 (Valedictorian) Ø MS CS Illinois 1984 Ø PhD AI/CogSci Yale 1989 Ø Professor CS Georgia Tech 1989–99 Ø Professor CS/HCC Georgia Tech 2003– Ø Founder Enkia 1999 (acquired) Ø Founder Ardext 2000 Ø Founder OpenStudy 2007
  4. 4. Cognitive Computing Cognitive Systems Cognitive Science
  5. 5. Scholarship Discovery (Research) Integration Education Application Boyer
  6. 6. Pasteur’s Quadrant 6
  7. 7. Application Areas 7 Monitor power plants Control robots Assist biomedical researchers …and more Play interactive games Help students learn Help information analysts ARDA (IARPA), DEC ONR, NSF, NIH, GRA DARPA, NSF Yamaha, ARL GE
  8. 8. Augmented Social Cognition… 8 … is creating Disruption … in Innovation
  9. 9. Human Innovation 9 Who? Where? Why?
  10. 10. 10 Example: Games ~$11B market
  11. 11. 11 “Games” •  Games are “entering a new era, where technology and creativity will fuse to produce some of the most stunning entertainment of the 21st century.” (Doug Lowenstein) •  “Games are widely used as educational tools, not just for pilots, soldiers and surgeons, but also in schools and businesses.” (The Economist) •  “Serious games” focus on “management and leadership challenges facing the public sector in education, training, health, and public policy.” (www.seriousgames.org) •  “Humane games” include “interactive tools for medical training, educational games, and games that reflect social consciousness or advocate for a cause.” (Scott Leutenneger)
  12. 12. Social Gaming 12 ~$2B market $400M acquisition 60 90 200M users 12M users $100M market cap $1B virtual goods economy ~$1.60 ARPU + 20M + 20M + …
  13. 13. Consumers Want To Innovate 13 $400M acquisition 60 90 200M users 12M users $100M market cap $1B virtual goods economy ~$1.60 ARPU Consumers Participants Creators + 20M + 20M + …
  14. 14. Users as Creators User Created Games Worldwide market • $80 million in 2006 • $1.1 billion in 2007 • ~$13 billion by 2011 KongregateAddicting Games More than $7.3 billion by 2013 Juniper  Research  
  15. 15. User Created Content Habbo Hotel IMVU IMVU: 1.6 million user generated virtual items Easy as Pie Teaching game programming to 3rd graders: Scratch
  16. 16. Human Innovation Is Everywhere 16
  17. 17. Human Innovation Is Everywhere 17
  18. 18. Human Innovation Is Everywhere 18 How do we… understand innovation support innovation foster innovation? Augmented Social Cognition
  19. 19. The Long Tail of Innovation 19 Key question: How to support, nurture, enhance innovation for all people?
  20. 20. Why Innovation Matters 20 Where Have You Gone, Bell Labs? How basic research can repair the broken U.S. business model “legendary institutions such as Bell Labs, RCA Labs, Xerox PARC, IBM, DARPA, NASA”
  21. 21. Innovation: Economic Driver 21 Research turns money into ideas. Innovation turns ideas into money. Discovery (Research) Integration Education Application Bo yer
  22. 22. Innovation: Economic Growth 22
  23. 23. Innovation: Competitive Advantage 23
  24. 24. Innovation: Job Creation 24 without startups, net job creation for the US economy would be negative in all but a handful of years
  25. 25. Innovation Value Chain Creativity Learning Problem Solving 25
  26. 26. Challenge Problems Healthcare Energy Education Entertainment
  27. 27. Help people solve problems Creativity Learning Problem Solving 27 Healthcare with Augmented Social Cognition
  28. 28. How do humans solve problems?
  29. 29. Healthcare Information Copyright (c) 2009 Cobot. Confident ial & Internet is the leading source of health and wellness information.
  30. 30. Health 1.0 à Health 2.0 Copyright (c) 2009 Cobot. Confident ial &
  31. 31. Healthcare Info Access without Search
  32. 32. Cobot: Social Healthcare Agent
  33. 33. Help people solve problems Creativity Learning Problem Solving 33 Energy with Augmented Social Cognition
  34. 34. Complex Systems M&D
  35. 35. Business Context Gas Turbine’s control system protects the unit from possible damage by executing a sudden shutdown (trip) logic. Alarm log files and real-time data are transferred to Atlanta. GE M&D Center troubleshoots each trip and calls customer with recommendations. On-Site Monitor
  36. 36. Critical Success Factors ü  Decision Support §  Keep human in the loop §  Maintain established business workflow ü  Accuracy and Timeliness §  Very high accuracy even with imperfect data §  Provide top recommendation and alternatives §  Explain recommendation and estimate confidence ü  Maintainability §  Extend coverage to new sensors, failures, equipment §  Provide automated optimization and maintenance tools ü  Real deployable system (not a prototype)
  37. 37. Case-Based Reasoning captures community knowledge
  38. 38. Solution Architecture Copyright © 2006 Enkia Corporation All Rights Reserved Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) Case Base Maintenance (CBM) Enkia SentinelTM
  39. 39. Results §  Tested in production environment in 2004-05 §  System output integrated into troubleshooting workflow as recommendation §  Additional failure modes added by GE without any modification to system §  >90% accuracy (exact metrics proprietary)
  40. 40. Help people learn Creativity Learning Problem Solving 40 with Augmented Social Cognition
  41. 41. Help people learn Creativity Learning Problem Solving 41 Education with Augmented Social Cognition
  42. 42. The Long Tail 42 Experts Everyone
  43. 43. The Long Tail of Education 43 Traditional More than one-third of the world’s population is under 20. There are over 30 million people today qualified to enter a university who have no place to go. During the next decade, this 30 million will grow to 100 million. To meet this staggering demand, a major university needs to be created each week. — Sir John Daniel (1996) — John Seely Brown (2008)
  44. 44. The Long Tail of Education 44 Traditional Open Education MIT OCW: 9m users/yr iTunes U: 300m downloads Khan: 30k videos/day
  45. 45. Great video and talented presenters. My only complaint: I’d like to interact with others who are viewing the resources. Creating a one-way flow of information significantly misses the point of interacting online. — George Siemens ( 2007) Online content is only half the answer
  46. 46. 46 US 2009 self paced learning market = $16.7bn New $3bn market 4,000 free courses 30 million learners study help, tutoring, certification, recruiting Availability Growing to 100 million users $3bn market opportunity 30 million users of free online courses Size Of Problem
  47. 47. Home Schoolers OpenStudy: Social Learning Network Traditional Self Learners Community Colleges
  48. 48. OpenStudy is… 48 “a social platform for learners who want to help each other study” “you’re no longer alone—you have the world’s biggest classroom to turn to, any time, anywhere” “a global study group” “global element is important…users will almost always find someone online in the study groups” one of ten most innovative companies in education
  49. 49. 49 OpenStudy.com
  50. 50. Massively Multiplayer Online Learning Gates/Hewlett NSF NIH GRA GT Emory
  51. 51. 51 OpenStudy Demo
  52. 52. OpenStudy Secret Sauce 52 User Experience Design Really Real-Time Collaboration AI Recommendation Engine Social Media Analytics Social Capital Engine
  53. 53. Help people create Creativity Learning Problem Solving 53 with Augmented Social Cognition
  54. 54. Help people create Creativity Learning Problem Solving 54 Entertainment
  55. 55. 55 Games
  56. 56. User Created Games KongregateAddicting Games User Created Content Habbo Hotel IMVU Users as Creators Easy as Pie
  57. 57. But…   Users  can  create  physical  ar/facts   Cannot  create     interes/ng  personali/es   Not a Robot Users  can  create  simple  games   But…   Cannot  create     intelligent  behaviors  
  58. 58. Towards “AI 2.0” • Problem: – User-created content is everywhere: photos, videos, news, blogs, virtual goods, avatars, games… …but not AI • Vision: – Allow end-users to build AIs – Provide a new kind of social gaming experience based around creativity
  59. 59. 59 What is Game AI? •  AI powers the game characters –  “Believable agents” with complex behaviors –  Focused on NPC’s own goals –  Embedded in the game
  60. 60. 60 AI for NPCs Wargus! Tag
 (Unreal)!
  61. 61. 61 What is Game AI? •  AI powers the game characters –  “Believable agents” with complex behaviors –  Focused on NPC’s own goals –  Embedded in the game •  AI powers the game director –  “Drama manager” (DM) with global perspective –  Focused on author’s rhetorical and affective goals –  Watches over the game-player interaction –  Enhances player experience
  62. 62. AI for DM 62 Player! Model! DM! actions! Player! Story! state! History! Physical! state! Game State! Game ! Engine! Player! Modeling! Drama Manager! Player! Trace! Guide the player to a more enjoyable experience" GOAL Anchorhead
 (1998)! That silver locket looks curious!
  63. 63. Why is Game AI hard? •  Huge Decision Space (thousands of possible states and actions) •  Cognitive Modeling (goals, strategies, plans, tactics, behaviors, personalities, teams) •  Non-Deterministic and Real-Time •  Classical approaches don’t work directly Aha et al (ICCBR-05)
  64. 64. 64 Games are AI-complete •  “Games require players to construct hypothesis, solve problems, develop strategies, learn the rules of a new world through trial and error.” •  “Gamers must be able to juggle several different tasks, evaluate risks, and make quick decisions.” (The Economist) Well then, so must Game AI !
  65. 65. 65 Game AI is hard Problem: How will end-users create AIs? …even for experts
  66. 66. 66 User-Generated AI… build a “mind” without programming Users create behaviors visually System fixes “bugs” during behavior execution User “programs” behaviors by demonstration
  67. 67. 67 User-Generated AI… build a “mind” without programming Behavior authoring Behavior adaptation Behavior demonstration
  68. 68. 68 User-Generated AI… build a “mind” without programming Behavior authoring Behavior adaptation Behavior demonstration
  69. 69. 1) Behavior Authoring… 69 Second Mind Updates… Flirting with girl at bar Teach your avatar how will you flirt … Posted By: 2MGuru *** More Join Get coffee spilled on you Show how will you react if coffee … Posted By: 2MGuru *** Fool your boss Imagine how many ways you can … Posted By: 2MGuru *** More Join More Join 2MGuru Login to Virtual World 1 Flirting with girl at bar Teach your avatar how will you flirt … Posted By: 2MGuru *** Fool your boss Imagine how many ways you can … Posted By: 2MGuru *** Acti vate I n v i t e Act iva te In vi te SMPlayer 2MGuru Flirt with Girl Choose a Scene 2 SMPlayer 2MGuru Flirt with Girl at bar Hey!! Wanna play. I am looking for a partner. Sure! Lets find a suitable location… SMPlayer Christina Flirt with Girl at bar Choose a Character 3 Hi H ow ar e thi ng s go in g Role play your sceneGreat! How about you … Hi. How are you doing … Hi How are things going I am doing great Not at all! Sure… Do you mind if I join you? … Play your Scene 5 Save in Shared Library 6 Behaviors Personalities Stories Greet Flirt 00 :0 0   0 0 : 0 0   Impress My  Scene:   Impress  a  Date   Hi! How are you? walks closer I m pr es s b os s Imp res s More  op/ons…   Imp res s girl MY SCENE: Flirt with a girl 00:00 Author your Behaviors 4
  70. 70. Second Mind 70 other minds Goals   Ac8ons   Goal: Greet a customer   00:0 0   00: 00   Sensory info Your goal Other’s goal Question How   much  is   the   vase  for   Answer Pleased This   vase  is   …………   Sensory?
  71. 71. Second Mind 71 other minds Goals   Ac8ons   Goal: Greet a customer   00:0 0   00: 00   Sensory info Your goal Other’s goal Question How   much  is   the   vase  for   Answer Pleased This   vase  is   …………   Sensory?
  72. 72. 72 User-Generated AI… build a “mind” without programming Behavior editing Behavior adaptation Behavior learning
  73. 73. 73 2) Behavior Adaptation Hand-authored character is not quite right Tag
 (Unreal)! How to detect

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